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WOBLD 


THE  NEW 
INTERNATIONAL 
ENC Y  C  LO  P^DI  A 


EDITORS 
BANI£L   COIT    OILMAN,   LL.  D. 

PEISIDBNT  OF  /OHMS  H0PKIR8  UNITBB8ITT  (1870-1901) 
AfTBRWARDS  PBB8IDBNT  OF  TBI  CABNBOIB  Iir8TITirnOir  OF  WASBIHGTOir 

HARRY  THURSTON  PECK,  Ph.  D.,  L.  H.  D 

PROFBSflOR  IN  COLUMBIA  VNIYBB8ITT 

FRANK   MOORE   COLBY,  M.  A.  ' 

LATB  PBOFBflSOB  OF  BOOKOMICS 
Dl  NBW  TOBX  VKITBBBRT 


VOLUME  I 


NEW  YORK 
DODD,  MEAD  AND  COMPANY 

1906 


■  ■ 


Copyright,  190t,  190^,  1S06, 1906 

Bt  Dodd,  Mrad  and  CoMPAinr 


AU  rights  reterved 

2 -J'*'-* 


X 


i 


pKSRewOKK  BT  ThB  UmVBXSmr  PRin,  CAMBUnXSB,  U.  S.  A. 

-BiHouiG  BY  JtosTOH  BiXMCBiNotifa  Co.,  Cammuogc*  U.S. a.. 


I 


7    )  ■)  O 


I 


PREFACE. 

I 

THE  work  whkh  1b  now  gff^en  to  the  public  after  years  of  diligent  preparation  la  not  a  new 
edition  or  reyision  of  the  Ititemational  Cyclopcsdia.  It  is  not  based  upon  that  or  upon  an^ 
other  publication*  The  oomparatiyely  small  portion  of  text  which  has  been  retained  unaltered  from 
the  Iniernaiional  Cyclopedia  and  incorporated  in  these  volumes  has  been  so  retained  because  it  has 
successfully  stood  the  test  of  searching  criticism,  and  because  the  Editors  regard  it  as  satisfying  the 
most  exacting  requirements.  This,  howeyer,  is  the  full  extent  of  the  new  Encyolop8Bdia*s  obligation 
to  the  old.  The  present  work  has  been  planned  and  executed  as  a  wholly  independent  and  original 
undertaking.  It  represents  the  practical  knowledge  gained  from  an  editorial  experience  of  many 
years.  It  embodies  the  results  derived  from  a  critical  study  of  all  the  most  famous  works  ^of  refer* 
ence  which  have  at  any  time  appeared  in  Europe  or  in  the  United  State& 

Every  encyclopaedia  which  has  secured  a  lasting  hold  upon  the  confidence  of  the  reading  public 
has  necessarily  been  distinguished  by  some  especial  merit  of  its  own ;  yet  in  the  case  of  each  existing 
publication*  this  peculiar  merit  has  invariably  been  ofbet  to  a  greater  or  less  extent  by  some  couxi- 
teibalandng  defect.  Hence,  there  has  always  been  discernible  a  decided  difference  of  opinion,  both 
among  critics  and  among  readers,  as  to  which  one  of  the  standard  encyclopaedias  best  fulfills  the 
proper  function  of  such  a  work.  The  ideal  encydopiBdia  is  one  that  combines  four  attributes :  first, 
accuracy  of  statement;  second,  comprehensiveness  of  scope;  third,  lucidity  and  attractiveness  of 
presentation ;  and  fpurth,  convenience  of  arrangement.  Any  compilation  of  this  character,  which 
conspicuously  fails  to  embody  all  of  these  essential  qualities,  falls  short  to  that  extent  of  the  ideal; 
and  it  must  be  said  that  no  one  of  the  great  encydopssdias  which  are  abready  in  existence  can  fully 
stand  this  test.  In  the  course  of  time  there  have  gradually  been  developAd  three  distinct  and  well- 
known  types  of  enoydopsedic  publications,  each  one  of  whush  may  be  regarded  as  the  concrete  exr 
pression  of  a  single  predominating  purpose.  Thus  the  Eneyehpadia  Britannica  represents,  in  most 
of  its  departments,  accuracy  combined  with  fullness  of  detail,  and  in  its  own  especial  sphere,  which  i^ 
that  of  sdence,  it  long  remaioed  without  a  rival.  It  is,  indeed,  as  every  one  is  well  aware,  far  less  a 
true  eneydopfledia  than  a  collection  of  elaborate  monographs,  so  scholarly  and  so  dtSose  that  many 
of  these  soHsalled  articles  have  actually  been  published  separately  as  treatises  on  their  respective  sub^ 
jects.  Nevertheless,  the  Encydopadia  Britannica,  though  its  authority  has  been  very  great,  has 
never  proved  to  be  a  wholly  adequate  and  satisfactory  work  of  reference.  In  the  first  place,  through 
the  massing  of  its  information  under  a  comparatively  few  titles,  it  is  ill  adapted  for  popular  use,  even 
with  the  aid  of  the  ponderous  index  which  its  publishers  appended  to  it  in  a  final  volume.  In  the 
second  place,  it  omits  so  many  topics  of  general  interest  as  to  oblige  its  purchasers  to  supplement  it 
by  some  more  popular  if  less  monumental  work.  Finally,  the  treatment  of  its  most  important 
topics  is  extremely  technical  and  therefore  to  the  great  majority  of  readers  almost  unintelligible. 
Hence,  the  Eneydcpadia  Britannica,  while  generally  accurate  and  authoritative,  is  neither  truly 
comprehensive  in  its  scope  nor  lucid  in  its  method  of  presentation,  while  it  is  deddedly  incon* 
wnient  for  purposes  of  ready  reference. 

The  great  French  enoyclopsBdia  of  Larousse  is  found  in  every  important  library  throughout  the 
world,  and  it  is  in  some  respects  a  model  work.  In  it,  the  different  departments  are  judicioudy 
divided,  and  they  axe  treated  in  detail  under  the  separate  titles  most  appropriate  to  these  divisions. 
The  work,  moreover,  is  unusually  complete,  and  the  literary  treatment  of  the  different  topics  in- 
dnded  in  its  text  is  dear  and  at  times  vivadous  and  entertaining.    There  exists,  however« 

164881 


Tl 

tiuroaghoat  its  pages  a  lack  of  acooracj  which  frequently  misleads  the  reader,  while  the  number  of 
the  Yoiomes  and  their  excessive  bulk  render  the  enoyclopffidia  both  inoonyenient  in  use  and  almost 
prohibitory  in  cost. 

The  famous  ConvenaitarU'Lexikofif  completed  and  first  published  by  Friedrich  Arnold  Brock- 
haus  in  1812,  and  continued  by  him  and  his  successors  through  many  subsequent  editions  down  to 
the  present  time,  is  an  approximation  to  the  ideal  encyclopasdia.  Its  accuracy  has  become  prover- 
biaL  Its  selection  of  topics  and  its  careful  division  and  sub-division  of  them  for  treatment  in 
detail  have  secured  both  comprehensiveness  of  scope  and  convenience  of  arrangement.  Where  it 
falls  short  of  approaching  something  like  perfection  is  in  the  dryness  of  its  narration  and  its 
thoroughly  German  neglect  of  literary  form.  Nevertheless,  on  the  Continent  of  Europe  it  has  long 
been  accepted  as  the  standard  encyclopssdic  work  of  reference,  and  it  has  been  translated  and 
imitated  in  almost  every  country,  notably  in  the  valuable  and  popular  encyclopssdia  of  Chambers,  of 
which  the  edition  that  appeared  at  Edinburgh  in  1860  was  not  only  based  upon  the  ConversatUm*- 
Lexikan,  but  was  confessedly  in  part  translated  from  it. 

These  three  types  of  encyclopedia  represent,  as  it  were,  the  survival  of  the  fittest,  and  each  of 
them  owes  something  to  the  others.  Historically,  all  three  have  been  developed  out  of  the  ponder- 
ous compilations  of  the  eighteenth  century,  among  which  Zedler*s  JJniversaULexikon^  in  sixty-four 
volumes  (1750),  d*Alembert  and  Diderot's  famous  EncyclopAiie  in  twenty-eight  (1772),  and  Ersch 
and  6ruber*s  Allgemeine  EneydopddU  in  more  than  one  hundred  and  sixty  volumes  remain 
the  most  remarkable  examples.  The  gradual  evolution  of  the  modem  encyclopedia  forms, 
indeed,  an  interesting  study.  The  older  works  originally  grouped  their  articles  under  related 
departments  rather  than  in  alphabetical  order;  and  it  was  only  after  many  years  that  the  alpha- 
betical arrangement  came  into  general  use  as  being  infinitely  more  convenient  for  the  reader,  even 
though  theoretically  less  scientific.  The  elaborate  system  of  cross-references,  which  is  now  a 
subject  of  especial  study  on  the  part  of  all  encyclopedic  editors,  was  first  developed  by  Ephraim 
Chambers  in  the  early  part  of  the  nineteenth  century.  The  elucidation  of  the  text  by  means  of 
diagrams,  maps,  portraits,  colored  plates,  and  other  illustrations,  was  at  first  quite  sparingly 
employed ;  but  it  was  an  interesting  feature  of  the  Encydopcsdia  BrUannica,  and  was  finally  adopted 
on  a  very  lavish  scale  by  Brockhaus  and  by  Meyer  in  Germany. 

All  modem  encyclopedias  have  incorporated  these  three  features  as  being  absolutely  essential. 
Such  fundamental  differences  as  are  perceptible  between  them  will  be  found  to  exist  partly  in  the 
scope  and  purpose  of  each  separate  publication,  and  partly  in  the  method  by  which  the  original 
design  has  been  carried  out  by  those  to  whom  the  task  has  been  committed  It  therefore  seems 
desirable  that,  in  writing  these  words  of  introduction,  the  Editors  of  the  Nbw  International 
ENCYOLOPiBDiA  should  sct  forth  as  briefly,  yet  as  clearly  as  is  possible,  the  manner  in  which  they 
have  endeavored  to  insure  at  least  a  close  approximation  to  what,  in  their  best  judgment,  an  ideal 
encyclopedia  should  be. 

Since  accuracy  is  very  properly  regarded  as  the  most  essential  of  all  the  attributes  of  such  a 
publication,  the  Editors  have  been  at  especial  pains  to  make  this  work  in  its  several  departments 
fitly  representative  of  modem  scientific  scholarship.  There  has  long  prevailed  in  certain  quarters 
a  definite  yet  quite  untenable  belief  that  this  result  can  be  most  satisfactorily  attained  by  assigning 
sets  of  articles  to  separate  contributors  of  eminence,  for  them  to  write  what  pleases  them  and  then 
to  sign  what  they  have  written.  The  signed  article,  it  has  been  claimed,  is  the  best  possible 
guarantee  of  accuracy,  since  it  carries  with  it  the  weight  and  the  authority  of  its  author's  name. 
This  theory,  however,  will  not  bear  a  close  examination.  For  it  is  evident  that  no  single  specialist, 
however  eminent,  can  be  so  thoroughly  equipped  at  every  point  as  to  leave  in  what  he  writes  no 
room  for  criticism.  He  has  his  individual  preferences  strongly  marked,  and  necessarily  also  his 
individual  bias.  In  treating  matters  of  scientific  doctrine,  therefore,  he  will  quite  unconsdonsly 
give  to  his  statements  the  coloring  of  his  own  personal  beliefs.  In  discussing  controversial 
topics,  he  will  with  the  same  unconsciousness  lay  more  stress  upon  the  theories  which  he  holds  him- 
self than  upon  those  which  are  accepted  and  maintained  by  other  men  of  equal  eminence.  Moreover, 
he  is  apt  to  assume  upon  the  reader's  part  too  great  a  familiarity  with  the  subject,  and  hence  to 


f 


•  •• 

vm 


mologioal  work  has  been  done  with  oarefol  regard  to  the  conolosions  of  the  newest  scltool  of  philo- 
logical research,  and  the  facts  are  set  forth  as  simply  and  as  dearly  as  is  possible.    For  the  oonrenience 
of  the  general  reader,  all  the  words  and  stem-forms  belonging  to  the  Greek  or  to  the  Oriental  lan- 
guages have  been  transliterated.    Care  has  been  taken  to  supply  every  important  article  with  a 
well-selected  bibliography  for  the  guidance  of  those  who  may  wish  to  pursue  the  subject  in  all  its 
ramifications ;  and  the  bibliographical  material  will  be  found  to  comprise  not  only  the  standard 
works,  but  also  special  monographs,  pamphlets,  and  papers  published  by  the  various  learned 
societies.    The  Encydopsedia  as  a  whole,  then,  is  in  reality  a  library  whase  books  are  so  divided 
and  arranged  as  to  make  the  information  which  they  afford  immediately  and  conveniently  accessible 
to  the  reader.    It  is  this  completeness  which  justifies  the  title  '<*  International  **  in  its  application 
to  this  work.    The  word  is  one  which  possesses  a  new  significance  to  Americans  at  the  present 
time,  when  our  country  has  shaken  off  its  former  isolation,  and  has  developed  so  many  'points  of 
contact,  political  and  commercial,  with  the  other  nations  of  the  earth.    Yet  while  the  work  is  inter- 
national, it  is  international  from  an  American  point  of  view,  and  it  very  naturally  gives  the  fullest 
treatment  to  those  topics  which  are  of  immediate  and  vital  interest  to  Americans. 

With  regard  to  the  third  essential  —  lucidity  and  attractiveness  of  presentation  —  the  recogni* 
tion  of  its  value  which  has  been  expressed  above,  will  afford,  perhaps,  a  clue  to  what  the  Editors 
have  endeavored   to  accomplish.      There  exists  a  kind  of  writing  which  has  become  so  stereo- 
typed as  to  be  well  known  to  every  one,  and  which  might  be  fittingly  described  as  the  encyolo- 
psBdic  style.    It  is  in  literature  what  a  monotone  is  in  music  — utterly  devoid  of  individuality, 
of  variety,  and  of  interest.    It  sets  forth  every  possible  subject  in  the  same  dull  way  and  robs  the 
most  living  themes  of  their  vitality.    This  style  has  even  acquired,  by  the  influence  of  tradition, 
a  pseudo-sanctity,  until  many  persons  have  become  convinced  that  an  encydopsBdic  article  must 
inherently  and  inevitably  be  a  synonym  for  dullness.    This  view  the  editors  are  very  far  from 
entertaining,  or  from  desiring  to  perpetuate;  and  so  the  principal  contributors  have  been  selected 
not  only  for  their  special  knowledge,  but  also  for  their  possession  of  a  clear,  attractive  style ;  and 
in  those  articles  of  which  the  subjects  lend  themsdves  to  a  distinctly  literary  treatment,  the  authors 
have  been  expected  to  write  with  the  same  freedom  and  with  the  same  personal  touch  as  would  char- 
acterize their  contributions  to  any  literary  publication  of  a  higb  class.     As  the  £ncydop»dia  is 
intended  first  of  all  for  the  general  reader,  it  has  been  written  from  the  general  reader's  point  of 
view,  and  in  such  a  way  as  to  be  free  from  all  vexatious  technicalities.    Begard,  moreover,  has  been 
had  to  form,  and  to  a  logical  order  of  presentation.    In  every  detail,  the  endeavor   has  been  made 
to  compact  really  valuable  information  instead  of  loosdy  assorted  and  often  unrelated  facts.    Even 
the  statistics,  which  in  many  works  of  this  character  are  thrown  together  in  a  mass,  have  been 
used  in  such  a  way  as  to  exhibit  comparisons  which  are  significant  and  which  possess  an  interest  of 
their  own  for  every  person  of  intelligence.    In  short,  the  aim  has  been  consistently  to  present  each 
subject  not  only  so  as  to  inform,  but  likewise  so  as  to  attract  and  entertain. 

The  fourth  essential  of  a  useful  enoyclopasdia  is  found  in  the  practical  convenience  with  which  it 
may  be  consulted.  This  practical  convenience  has  been  studied  very  carefully  both  by  the  Editors 
and  by  the  contributors  with  the  object  of  enabling  a  reader  to  find,  with  the  least  possible  expenditure 
of  time  and  patience,  the  information  of  which  he  is  in  need.  This  end  has  been  attained,  first,  by 
giving  a  conspectus  of  each  topic  as  a  whole;  second,  by  treating  the  same  topic  more  in  detail 
under  all  the  natural  divisions  into  which  it  falls ;  and  finally,  by  working  out  a  system  of  cross, 
references  which  may  serve  as  guides  from  each  topic  to  the  others  which  supplement  it  and  pro- 
vide the  collateral  information  necessary  to  its  fullest  understanding. 

It  is  thought  that  the  illustrations  of  every  kind  will  be  found  superior  to  anything  hitherto 
attempted  in  any  encyclopaedia.  These  illustrations  have  not  been  gathered  together  in  a  haphazard 
fashion  and  merely  for  the  purpose  of  providing  the  volumes  with  a  certain  number  of  attractive 
pictures ;  but  they  were  suggested  and  selected  by  the  various  contributors,  or  prepared  with  tbeir 
cooperation.  In  many  cases  much  assistance  was  derived  from  the  Governmental  Departments  in 
Washington,  where  all  the  plates  relating  to  Natural  Histoiy  were  examined  and  verified  by  experts 
In  the  Government's  employ. 


IX 

The  Editors  are  thoroughly  aware  of  the  formidable  character  of  their  undertaking.    No  one,  in 

fact,  who  has  not  been  intimately  associated  with  the  making  of  a  great  encyclopaedia  can  fully 

understand  the  difficulties  which  are  inherent  in  such  a  task,  involving  as  it  does  the  cooperation  of  a 

large  body  of  highly  trained  and  scientifically  qualified  experts,  and  demanding  so  many  and  such  varied 

forms  of  effort— organisation,  selection,  knowledge,  literary  skill,  critical  judgment,  and  a  true  sense  of 

«>ropoTtion.    Nor  has  It  been  forgotten  that  such  a  work  as  this  should  be  something  more  than  a 

convenient  book  of  reference.    Encyclopedias  have  in  the  past  performed,  and  they  are  still  perform- 

ing,  a  remarkable   educational   function  in  disseminating   exact  knowledge  upon  an  immense 

variety  of  subjects.    It  would  be  difficult  to  overestimate  the  influence  which  has  been  exercised  by 

such  famous  works  as  those  which  have  been  mentioned  in  the  preceding  pages;  for  they  have  been 

really  libraries,  and  to  thousands  upon  thousands  of  families  they  have  been  the  only  libraries  available. 

To  prepare  a  book  which  shall  professedly  discharge  a  function  so  important  is  no  light  undertaking; 

to  obtain  even  a  fair  measure  of  success  is  a  memorable  achievement.    It  is  the  hope  of  the 

Editors  of  this  Encyclopaedia  that  the  test  of  time  will  show  them  to  have  profited  alike  by  the 

merits  and  by  the  defects  of  the  works  which  have  preceded  it ;  and  that  the  result  may  be  approved 

as  embodying  the  experience  of  the  past  with  an  intelligent  conception  of  the  requirements  of 

the  present. 

DANIEL  COrr  OILMAN. 

HARRY  THURSTON  PECK. 

FRANK  MOORE  COLBY. 
Kaw  YoBK,  June  5,  IML 


ILLUSTRATIONS  IN  VOLUME  L 

COLORED  PLATES 

FAoim  Pa«b 

AmcA  —  DarkBaoes 178 

Amartlubaceae 420 

Antblopbs .• 598 

Apples 670 

Aquatic  Plants 682 

Abchitecturb,  Egyptian — Temple  of  Earnak  (from  the  restored  model)  •    •     •     .  748 

Abchitfx^ure,  Greek  —  The  Parthenon  (from  the  restored  model) 750 

MAPS 

The  World Frontispiece 

Afghanistan 168 

Africa,  Physical  Map 172 

Africa 180 

Alabama •••••••••••••••  250 

Alaska  and  the  Klondike  Region 262 

America,  North,  Physical  Map 436 

America,  South,  Physical  Map     •     •     •     , 436 

America,  North 442 

America,  South 442 

Antarctic  Regions 594 

Antilles 614 

Arctic  Regions 760 

Argentine  Repubuo • 774 

ENGRAVINGS 

Abalone 4 

Abu-Sixbel  (Stone  Reliefs  at  Entrance  of  Rock  Temple) 48 

Abutilon 50 

Acacia 54 

Acanthus 58 

Addison,  Joseph • 112 

Air  Ships  and  Flying  Machines 148 

Ant  Compressors ' 236 

Ant  Pumps 238 

Albany — the  Capitol 272 

Alexander  the  Great » 312 

Alhambra  —  Court  of  Lions 344 

Alma-Tadexa,  Laurence  (At  the  Shrine  of  Yenos) 384 

Alphabets 392 

Alpine  Scenery  ••••.••••••• 398 


•  • 


Facxh»  pAoa 

Alpine  YsoBTATZOir      ••••••••••••••• 400 

AxiBNS  Cathedral       ••• ••••• 464 

Anemone •••••• 550 

Angelico,  Fra  (Madonna  of  the  Star) 554 

Anglers  and  Batfibh 560 

Ant 592 

Ant-Eaters  and  Aricadillos 596 

Antelopes 598 

Apes,  Anthropoid 642 

Apollo  Belvedere • 654 

Araucaria ••• 710 

Arches  •••••• 720 

Archjcologt,  Mycenaean  and  Early  Greek • 724 

,  Mycensean  and  Early  Greek 726 

,  American 734 

Architecture,    ^^ Elevator"  (Saint  Paul's  Church,  New  York,  and  Surrounding 

Buildings) «...  754 

,  Mexican  (Temple  of  Palenque ;  Restoration) 756 


DANIEL    COrr     OILMAN,    LL.D. 

PBBSIDBNT  OF  JOHNS  HOPKINS  UNIYEBSITT  (I87A-1901) 
PRESIDENT  OF  OiLBNEOIB  INSTITUTION 

HARRY  THURSTON  PECK,  Ph.  D.,  L.H.D. 

PBOFESSOB  IN  COLUUBIA.  UNIVEB8ITY 

FRANK  MOORE  COLBY,  M.A. 

FORIfERLT  PBOFESSOB  IN  NEW  TOBK  DNIVER8ITT 

tW^ant  jManagins  ^<tot 
ALBERT    WHITE    VORSE 

A  PARTIAL  LIST  OF  CONTRIBUTORS  AND  OFFICE  EDITORS. 

CLEVELAND  ABBE,  A.M.,  LL.D.,  F.  STURGE8  ALLEN,  LL.B., 

Professor  of  Meteorology  in  the  United  Chief  Editor  .(under  Dr.  William  T.  Har- 

States  Weather  Bureau.  ris)  of  Webster^a  International  Dictionary. 

DePABTMSNT  of  MeIBOBOLOGT.  DePABTMEZVT  of   PBONUNOUTIOir. 

BERWICK  WYLIE  ABBOTT,  JOSEPH  SWEETMAN  AMES,  Ph.D., 

ABSistant  to  the  Managing  Editor.  Professor  of  Physics  and  Director  of  the 

WILBUR  C.  ABBOTT,  B.  LITT.,  Physical    Laboratory   in   Johns   Hopkins 

Professor   of    European    History   in  the               University. 

Unirersity  of  Kansas.  DEPAKnawT  of  Phtsios. 

FOBEIOIV    UiriYEBSITIES.       -mrrrrrr  a -r^r-      a  xt  a /N-wT/%a 

MICHAEL  ANA6N0S, 
CYRUS  C.  ADAMS,  Superintendent  of  the  Perkins  Institution 

Topics  m  Oeogsapht.  for  the  Blind. 

Eduoatioit  of  thb  Bldxd, 
THOMAS  SEWALL  ADAMS,  Ph.D., 

Assistant  Professor  of  Economics  and  Sta-    WALTER  TALLMADGE  ARNDT,  A.M., 
tisties  in  the  University  of  Wisconsin.  Biogbafht. 

Topics  in  Poutigal  Economt. 

WASHINGTON  IRVING  LINCOLN  ADAMS  ^""^^Zr^^^F^lS'ofiFtia  and  Greek  in 

iTHorooRAPHT.  Teachers  College,  Columbia  University. 

CYRUS  ADLER,  A.M.,  Ph.D.,  Depabtment  of  Reaoeb's  HAin>B0OK  awd  Ameb- 
Instructor  and  Associate  in  Semitic  Lan-  ic^w  Colleges. 

guages,  Johns  Hopkins    University;    Li-  ^^  .  ^^^,,>„  ^ . ^^„^  ..rp«^«. 

Srariim  Smithsonian  Institution.  BLANCHE  PARKER  AVERY, 

Javes  Siothsoh.  Bibijogbapht. 

SAMUEL  G.  AYRES, 
H.  B.  ALEXANDER,  Ph.D.,  Htmnologt. 

Office  Edtfob,  Phu^osopey. 

FREDERICK  R.  BAILEY,  M.D., 

MANSFIELD  ALLAN,*  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  New 

Colleges  aih)  Socibties.  York. 

CHARLES  DEXTER  ALLEN,  '^^^'^"  "^  Bactebioixwy,  and  Pathoixwt. 

Book  Plates. 

FRANK  BAKER,  Ph.D., 

E.  W.  ALLEN,  Pr.D.,  Professor  of  Anatomv  in  Georgetown  Uni- 

United  States  Department  of  Agriculture.  versity;   Superintendent  of    the  National 

AuBicuLTUBAi.    Chexisibt;    Animai.    Pboduo-  Zo()logical  Park.  « 

TioN;  Daibting;  and  Otheb  AjmCLES.  Anatoict. 


XIV 


MOSES  NELSON  BAKER,  C.E., 

Aflsociate  Editor  of  the  Engineering  New$, 
Depabtmbnts    of    Engineebikg    Ain>    Kuru- 

FACTUBB8. 

CHARLES  REID  BARNES,  Ph.  D., 

Professor  of  Plant  Physiology  in  the  Uni- 
versity of  Chicago. 

Topics  m  BoiAirr. 

GEORGE  JAMES  BAYLES,  Ph.D., 


WILLDLM  KEITH  BROOKS,  LLJ>., 

Professor  of  Zoology  in  Johns  Hoplons 
University. 

BXOIXMST. 

W.  B.  BRYAN, 

Washington,  D.  C. 

FRANCIS  M.  BURDICK,  LL.D., 

Dwiffht  Professor  of  Law  in  Columbia  Uni- 
versity. 

Topics  in  Law. 


Lecturer  in  Ecclesiology  in  Columbia  Uni-    ^ILLDLM  VINCENT  BYARS,  A.M., 


versity. 


Topics  in  Chxtbch  Govebnmxnt. 


WALTER  HENRY  BEAL,  M.E., 

United  Stbtes  Department  of  Agriculture. 
Topics  m  Agbicultubal  Phtsics. 

MARCUS  BENJAMIN,  Ph.D., 

Editor  to  the  United  States  National  Mu- 
seum; formerly  of  the  Editorial  Staff  of 
the  Standard  Dictionary. 

Depabtment  of  Inobganic  Chemistbt. 

FREDERICK  MAYER  BIRD, 

William  Llotd  Gabbison. 

CARL  HENRY  ANDREW  BJERREGAARD, 

Librarian  Astor  Branch,  New  York  Public 
Library. 

Satanism;  SuFnsM. 

FRANK  R.  BLAKE,  Ph.D., 

Instructor  in  Oriental  Languages,  Johns 
Hopkins  University. 

Philippine  Languages. 

W ILLIAM  J.  A.  BUSS,  Ph.D., 

Collegiate  Professor  of  Physics,  Johns 
Hoplons  University. 

Constants  of  Natube. 

MAURICE  BLOOMFIELD,  Ph.D.. 

Professor   of    Sanskrit   and    Comparative 
Philology  in  Johns  Hopkins  University. 
Topics  in  Obiental  Litebatube. 

PERCIVAL  R.  BOLTON,  M.D., 

Instructor  in  Surgery  in  Cornell  Uni- 
versity. 

SUBGEBT. 

MRS.  ELLA  A.  BOOLE,  Ph.D., 

President  New  York  State  W.  C.  T.  V. 
Woman's      Chbistian     Tempebance     Union; 

Young  Woman's  Chbistian  Tempebance 

irNioN ;  and  Otheb  Abticles. 


Saint  Louis. 

THOMAS  J.  CAMPBELL,  S.J., 

Formerly  President  of  Saint  John's  Col- 
lege, Fordham,  N.Y. 

Casuistby;  Mass. 

GEORGE  CRAWFORD  CAPEN, 

President  Scott  Stamp  and  Coin  Company. 

Postage  Stamps. 

HENRY  SMITH  CARHART,  LL.D., 

Professor  of  Physics  in  the  University  of 
Michigan. 

Voltaic  Cell. 

WILLIAM  HENRY  CARPENTER,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  Germanic  Philology  in   Co- 
lumbia University. 
NoBWEGiAN  Litebatube;  Icelandic  Lanouaoe. 

PAUL  CARUS,  Ph.D., 

Taoism. 

JOHN  WHITE  CHADWICK,  A.M., 

Theodobb  Pabkeb. 

ALEXANDER  F.  CHAMBERLAIN,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  Anthropology  in  Clark  Uni- 
versity. 

Topics  in  Anthbopoloot. 

CHARLES  J.  CHAMBERLAIN,  Ph.D., 

Instructor  in  Morphology  and  Cytology  in 
the  University  of  Chicago. 

Topics  in  Botany. 

COLBY  M.  CHESTER, 

Rear-Admiral  U.  S.  Navy,  Superintendent 
Naval  Observatory. 

Naval  Obsebvatobt. 

EDWARD  POTTS  CHEYNEY,  A.M., 

Professor  of  European  History  in  the  Uni- 
versity of  Pennsylvania. 

Coats  of  Abmb. 

RUSSELL  HENRY  CHITTENDEN,  Ph.D., 

Director  of  the  Sheffield  Scientific  School, 
Yale  University. 

Physiological  Chemistbt. 


EDWARD  GAYLORD  BOURNE,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  History  in  Yale  University. 

Philippines  (Histoby).    ARCHIBALD  CHURCH,  M.D.. 

Professor  of  Nervous  and  Mental  Diseases 


DAVID  JOSIAH  BREWER,  LL.D.. 

Associate   Justice   of    the   United    States 
Supreme  Court. 

United  States  Supbeme  Coubt. 

ALBERT  PERRY  BRIGHAM,  A.M., 

Professor  of  Geology  in  Colgate  University. 

Topics  in  Geology. 

CHARLES  A.  BRINLEY.  Ph.D., 

President  of  the  American  Society  for  the 
Extension  of  University  Teaching. 

Univebsity  Extension. 


and  of  Medical  Jurisprudence  in  the 
Northwestern  University  Medical  School. 

Neubologt. 

HUBERT  LYMAN  CLARK,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  Biology  in  Olivet  College. 

Topics  in  Zo^loot. 

LOUIS  WELLS  CLARKE, 

Formerly  Instructor  in  Textile  Designfaig 
and  Manufacturing  in  the  MassachuBetts 
Institute  of  Technology. 

Topics  in  Textile  Mandfaotubirg. 


J.  J.  CLEAVY,  CHARLES  B.  DAVENPORT,  Ph.D., 

Tbenton.  Associate    Professor    of    Zo01og7    in    the 

University  of   Chicago;    Director   of   the 

ADOLPHE  COHN,  Ph.D.,  Biological  Laboratory  at  Cold  Spring  Har- 

Profesaor  ol  Romance  Languages  and  Lit-  ^^t  ^'  ^' 

eratures  in  Columbia  University.  T0FIO8  m  ZoOloot. 

ROUSSBA.U;  Yoltaibe;  ZOLiL.  „^^^„  .    ^**„„«    «^     «    •. 

HENRY  A.  DAVIES,  B.D.,  Ph.D., 

A.  L  DU  P.  COLEMAN,  Sin;  Soul;  Theism. 

Instructor  in  English  in  the  College  of  the  ,„^„.^,   ,,    ^...^^    , 

aty  of  New  Yo^.  MICHAEL  M.  DAVIS,  JiL, 

OmcB  Editob,  Chttboh  Histost.  Topics  m  Egonomics. 

Rt.  Bit.  LEIGHTON  COLEMAN,  S.T.D.,  LL.D.,  OZORA  S.  DAVIS,  Ph.D., 

Bishop  of  Delaware.  Pastor    of    the    Central    Congregational 

Chubch  op  ENGLiLND.  Church,  Newtonville,  Mass. 

Topics  in  New  Testament  Histobt. 
THOMAS  LUTHER  COLEY.  M.D., 

Associate     Editor     0/    the     Therapeutic  HUGHES  DAYTON,  M.D., 

Monthly,  Clinical  Assistant  in  Medicine  in  the  Col- 

Thebafbutics.  ^^ge   o^    Physicians    and    Surgeons,   New 

York. 

A.  FREDERICK  COLLINS,  Topics  in  Ophthalmoloot  and  Matebia  Medica. 

WlBELESS   TELEOBAFHT.  _  __ 

ISIDORE  DELSON, 

VARNUM  LANSING  COLLINS,  MA.,  Zionist  Movement. 

Reference  Librarian,  Princeton  University    ..      —  .. 

Library.  THEODORE  LOW  DE  VINNE,  A.M., 

MEIBB.  PBINTINa. 

HERMANN  COLLITZ,  Ph.D.,  I>AVIS  RICH  DEWEY,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  Comparative  Philology  and  Professor  of  Economics  and  Statistics  in 

German  in  Bryn  Mawr  College.  *^e  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technolo£;y. 

Gebman  Language.  Unemployment. 

FREDERIC  TABER  COOPER,  Ph.D.,  MELVIL  M:WEY,  I-.H.D., 

Pormerly^  Professor  of  Sanskrit  in  New  ^'^'"  ^^  *^«   State  Libraiy.   Albany, 

1^h«»^w''h^nI2SS;  Spanish,  Itaiian,  and  '    Topics  in  Libbabt  Administbation. 

PoBTCOtJESE  LiraBATUBES.  SAMUEL  WARREN  DIKE,  LL.D., 

^. Secretary,  National  League  for  the  Protec- 

EDWARD  TANJORE  CORWIN,  D.D.,  tion  of  the  Family. 

Editor  of  the  Manual  of  the  Reformed  Divoboe. 

Church  in  America, 

Dutch  Repobmed  Chubch.  d^njbjl  K  DODGE  Ph  D 

JOHN  M^  CO^THl.  PH.D               .  U^tZeVti^^L^Ttli:^. 

Depabtment  of  Botant.  CHARLES  A.  DOWNER,  Ph.D., 

^  Assistant  Professor  of  the   French   Lan- 

HENRY  CHANDLER  COWLES,  Ph.D.,  guage  and  Literature  in  the  College  of 

Instructor  in  Ecology  in  the  University  of  tHe  City  of  New  York. 

^^<S*8<>>  FtUBBIQE,   MiSTBAL,   AND   OtHEB   AbTICLBS. 

Topics  in  Botant. 

nfMT  WILLIAM  A.  DOWNES,  M.D., 

ISAAC  J.  COX,        Assistant  Surgeon  to  Saint  Mary's  and  the 

Mexico  (Cttt)  ;  Topics  in  Gaeetteeb.  General  Memorial  Hospitel. 

.r^ «««««.<,   A*«>»^»  r^.-^^^^^-.^  Topics  in  Anatomy  and  Subgebt. 
CHARLES  ALBERT  CRAMPTON, 

Chief  Chemist  of  Internal  Revenue  Bureau.  GEORGE  MATTHEW  DUTCHER, 

Whisky.  Assistant  Professor  of  Histoiy  in  Wesleyan 

__^    __^        University. 

WILBTO  LUCIUS  CROSS,  Ph.D^  Topics  in  Fbench  Histobt. 
Professor  of  English  in  the  Sheffield  Scien- 

tiUcSchool,  Yale  University.  HENRY  OTIS  DWIGHT,  LL.D., 

Depabtment  of  English  Litkbatubb.  Editorial    Secretary    of   the   Ecumenical 

Conference  on  Foreign  Missions  in  1900, 

HARRY  A.  GUSHING,  LL.B.,  Ph.D.,  and  editor  of  the  Encyclopedia  of   Mia- 

Lecturer   in   History   and   Constitutional  aione. 

Law  in  Columbia  University.  Cheistian  Fobeign  Missions;   Tubeish 

Topics  or  Uniikd  States  Histoby.  Language. 


XVI 

MORTIMER  LAMSON  EARLE,  Ph.])./  JOHN  ROSE  FICKLEN,  B.L., 

Professor  of  Classical  Philology  in  Bar-  Professor  of  History  and  Political  S(sieki< 

nard  College.  in  Tulane  University. 

Text  Gbitigisx.  New  Obubaic s. 

R.  EDDY,  D.D.,  HENRY  T.  FINCK. 

President  of  the  Universalist  Historical  Musical  Critic  of  the  New  York  Evenittfy 

Society.  Post, 

UyiYEBRALTRM.  F0LK-MX78ZOL 

JAMES  C.  EGBERT,  Jb.,  Ph.D.,  J.  D.  M.  FORD,  Ph.D., 

Professor    of    Roman    Archieology    and  Assistant    Professor    of    Romance    Iaii- 

Epigraphy  in  Columbia  University.  guages  in  Harvard  University. 

DicnoiTABT,     Gaul,     Taoitus,     aitd     Othxb  Tones  in  Romance  Pbiix>u>ot. 

ALFRED  EDMOND  FORSTALL, 
SAMUEL  ATKINS  ELIOT,  D.D.,  Gas. 
President  of  the  American  Unitarian  As- 
sociation. FRANK  HUGH  FOSTER,  Ph.D.,  D.D., 

Unttasianism.  Formerly   Professor   of   Theology   in    the 

Pacific  Theological  Seminary. 
RICHARD  T.  ELY,  Ph.D.,  LL.D.,  Depabtmbnt  of  Ststbhatio  Theoixwt. 
Professor  of    Political  Economy  and  Di- 
rector of  the  School  of  Economics  in  the  FRANK  FOWLER,  NJk., 
University  of  Wisconsin.  Topics  in  Painting  and  Soulptube, 

PoUnCAI.      ECONOUT       AND      OtHEB      ECONOMIC  T/^T^^T  v^-v    Tk  t> 

^'^^^^'  Correapondi'ng  Secretary  of  the  American 

EPHRAIM  EMERTON,  Ph.D.,  ^*^^«  Society.                                     

Professor  of  Ecclesiastical  History  in  Har-  '^™*  Socranro. 

vard  University.  J.  E.  FRAME, 

J£BASMT7S;  I'APACT.  TOPICS  IN  NeW  TESTAMENT  HiSTOBT. 

EDWARD  LATHROP  ENGLE,  HOLLIS  BURKE  FRISSELL,  D.D., 

Office  Eoitob,  Litebatubb.  Principal  of  Hampton  Institute. 

Negbo  Education. 
WALTER  HARRISON  EVANS,  Ph.D., 

United  States  Department  of  Agriculture.  ^  '^  FROTHINGHAM,  Jb.,  Ph.D., 

Economic  Botany;  Plant  Diseases.  Professor  of  Anci^it  History^  and  Arch- 
eology in  Princeton  University. 

FREDERICK  JOHN  FALDING,  A.M.,  Depabtment  of  Abchitbctubb,  and  Topics  in 

SuLPHUBic  AdD.  Abchjb;ologt. 

■ 

ROLAND  P.  FALKNER,  Ph.D.,  HENRYGANNETT 

Chief  of  the  Division  of  Documents  in  the  Geographer  of  the  Umted  States  Geolog- 

Library  of  Congress.  >^*  Survey. 

Topics  in  Political  Economy.  ^^"^  ^  Geoobapht. 

LIVINGSTON  FARRAND,  M.p.,      .     ^  ,      ^.  Lecturer   in   History   in   ci>lumbia   Uni- 

Professor   of   Anthropology  m   Columbia  versitv 

University.                          ',  Topics  in  United  States  Histobt  and  Poutt- 

Topics  in  Anthbopoi/)oy.  cal  Science. 

JOHN  ALFRED  FAULK1^R,'d.D  G.  H.  GEROULD, 

Professor  of  Historical  Theology  m  Drew  Topics  in  Bioqbaphy. 

Theological  Semmaiy. 

Methodism;  Topics  in  Methodist  Bioqbaphy.  FRANKLIN  H.  GIDDINGS,  Ph.D., 

».-.«^w,^  ^  ^^-^^^    .  ,,    ^^  Professor  of  Sociology  in  Columbia  Uni- 

SAMUEL  D.  FAUST,  A.M.,  D.D.,  versity. 

Professor  of  Church  History  in  the  Union  Sociology  and  Topics  in  Soctal  Science. 

Biblical  Seminary. 

United  Bbetbben  in  Chbist.  GEORGE  GLADDEN, 

Office  Editob,  Biogbaphy. 

CHARLES  ERNEST  FAY,  A.M.,  ^ 

Professor  of  Modem  Languages  in  Tufts  HENRY  HERBERT  GODDARD,  Ph.D., 

College.  Professor  of  Psychology  and  Education  in 

Mountain  CiJMBiNa.  the  Westchester  State  Normal  School. 

Faith  Cube. 
ALBERT  WARREN  FERRIS,  A.M.,  M.D., 

Assistant  in  Neurology  in  the  College  of  JAMES  I.  GOOD,  D.D., 

Physicians  and  Surgeons,  New  York,  and  Professor    of    Dogmatics    and    Pastoral 

in  Medicine  in  the  University  and  Belle-  Theology    and    Dean    of    the    School  of 

▼ue  Hospital  Medical  College.  Theology  in  Ursinus  College. 

Depabticbnt  of  Medicine  and  Alued  Topics.  Revobhed  Gkbkan  Chuboh* 
*  Deceased. 


zvu 

J.  PAUL  GOODE,  PhJD^  S.  J.  J.  HABGER^ 

Anittant  Professor  of  Geography  bi  the 
University  of  Chicago. 

Tones  IN  Uhhsd  States  Gazeetxis.    E.  W.  HA8SLER» 

PiTTSBUBO  (Section  on  History). 
FRANK  J.  GOODNOW,  Ph.D.,  LL3., 

Professor  of  Administrative  Law  in  C6-    PAUL  LELAND  HAWORTH,  AM., 

Tones  IN  Unitkd  States  HisTOBT* 


lumbia  University. 


ADMZlflSTBATIVB  LAW. 


RICHARD  J.  H.  GOTTHEIL,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  the  Semitic  Languages  in  Co- 
lumbia University;  Head  of  the  Oriental 
Department  of  the  New  York  Public  Li- 
brary. 

Jkws,  and  Topies  nr  AsAue  Hibtcst  akd  Lnv 


LOUIS  H.  GRAY,  Ph.D., 

Associate    Editor    of     the    OrientaUaohe 
BibUographie, 

DBPABIlfKZTTS  OF  ETTICQIXMT  AKD  MODfeBN  HlS- 
TOST  OF  Iin>IA. 


GEORGE  HENRY  HAYNES,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  History  in  the  Worcester 
Polytechnic  Institute. 

RXFUBLieAN  PaSTT. 

RODNEY  MULFORD  HEGGIE,  AM., 

AuvtaoAv  Crnxs. 

ANGELO  HEILPRIN, 

Formerly  Professor  of  Geology  in  the 
Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  Philadel- 
phia; President  of  the  Greographical  So- 
ciety, Philadelphia. 

VOLOANO,     MABTINIQUB,     ICBBBBO,     AKD     OtHKB 

AsTieuEs. 


A.  W.  GREELY,  Ph.D., 

Brigadier-General,    Chief    Signal    Officer,    ERNEST  NORTON  HENDERSON,  A.M., 


United  States  Army. 

POtAB  RXSBABeH. 

JULIUS  N.  GREENSTONE,  RABBI, 

Yiddish. 

WILLIAM  ELLIOT  GRIPPIS,  D.D.,  L.H.D., 

Formerly  Professor  of  Physics  in  the  Im- 
perial University,  Tokio,  Japan. 

Tones  ik  Chikksb  akd  Japaksse  LrESRATUBni. 


Formerly  Instructor  in  Psycholoffv  and 
History  of  Education  in  the  Caufomia 
State  Normal  School. 

Systems  of  Natiokal  EnueAiioK. 


WILLIAM  JAMES  HENDERSON,  AM., 


STUART  HENRY,  A.M., 


SiKGIKG. 


Tones  ik  Gazetieeb. 


EDUARD  R.  GUDEHUS, 


W.  B.  GUITTEAU, 


Philadelphia. 


Topies  IK  Social  SeiXKeB. 

WILLIAM  BUCK  GUTHRIE, 

iLunHTDCAer. 

JAMES  £.  HAGERTY, 

Assistant    Professor    of    Economics    and 
Sociology  in  the  Ohio  State  University. 

PBOflTT-SHASIKO  AKD  OtHEB  ASTieLES. 

ROBERT  WILLIAM  HALL,  AM., 

Professor  of  Analytical  Chemistry  in  New 
York  University. 

CnxxieAL  Akaltsis. 


WILLIAM  HALLOCK,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  Physics   in   Golumhia   Uni- 
versity. 

Tones  ik  PHTsies. 


DANIEL  WEBSTER  HERING,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  Physics  and  Applied  Me- 
chanics in  New  York  Universi^. 

EKSBGBTieS. 

WALTER  LOWRIE  HERVEY,  Ph.D., 

Formerly  President  of  Teachers  College, 
Columbia  University;  Examiner  for  the 
Board  of  Education,  New  York. 

Pedagogy. 

CHARLES  SHATTUCK  HILL,  C.E., 

Associate  Editor  of  the  Engineering  Newe. 
Depaiethskts  of  Ekgikeebikg  akd  Makufao- 

TUBES. 

JOHN  HITZ, 

Superintendent  of  the  Volta  Bureau. 

Visible  Speech. 


J.  TAYLOR  HAMILTON,  D.D., 


WILLIAM  HERBERT  HOBBS,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  Mineralogy  and  Petrology  in 
the   Universitv   of    W^consin;    Assistant 
Geologist  of  the  United  States  G^logical 
,  ^  Survey. 

Resident  Professor  in  the  Moravian  Col-    Depabtmekts  or  Dtkamic  Geology  akd  Petbog. 
lege    and    Theological    Seminary,    Beth-  rafht. 

lenem.  Pa. 

MoBAviAKS.    JACOB  H.  HOLLANDER,  Ph.D., 

Associate  Professor  of  Political  Economy 
in  Johns  Hopkins  University. 

Baltdcobb. 


A.  D.  P.  HA3ILIN,  A.M., 

Adjunct  Professor  of  Architecture  in  Co- 
lumbia University.  

ToFies  IK  Abt  akd  ABOBirBOTUBK.    CHARLES  ARTHUR  HOLLICK,  Ph.D., 


HAK8  OLAF  HANSON, 


Topies  nr  Gazetiebb. 


Curator  of  the  Department  of  Fossil  Bot- 
any at  the  New  York  Botanical  Gardens. 

Palbobotakt. 


xvm 


ia)WARD  W.  HOPKINS,  Ph.D.,  I-L.D.>  A.  V.  W.  JACKSON,  L.H.D.,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of   Sanskrit  and   Comparative  Professor  of  Indo-Iranian  Languages    in 

Philology  in  Yale  University.  Columbia  University. 

Topics  in  Compabativs  Rsuoioir  and  Philoloot.  Depabtmbnt  of  Indo-Ibanian  Lukbatubk. 


WILLIAM  TSMPLE  HORNADAY, 

Director  of  the  New  York  Zo5logical  Park. 

ZodLOQIOAL  QaBDENS. 

WALTER  HOUGH,  Ph.D., 

Assistant  Curator  of  Anthropology  in  the 
United  States  National  Museum. 

Topics  in  Anthbopologt. 

QE0R6E  ELUOT  HOWARD.  PhJ). 


J.  JACKSON, 


WonOEBTKSU 


LAMBERT  L.  JACKSON.  A.M., 

Head  of  the  Mathematical  Department  in 
the  State  Normal  School,  Brockport,  N.  Y. 

Topics  in  Mathsmatics. 

S.  M.  JACKSON,  D.D.,  LL.D., 

Professor  of  Church  History  in  New  York 
University. 


Formerly  Head  of  the  Historical  Depart-    Ediiob^  Pbotkstant  Thboloqt;  Reugious  Bioo- 
ment  in  Leland  Stanford,  Jr.,  University. 


Dbpabtment  of  Modebn  Engush  Histobt  and 

BiOGBAPHT.  MELANCHTHON  W.  JACOBUS,  D.D., 

Assisted  by  Hosmer    Professor    of    New    Testament 

Qeobgb  Willis  Botbtobd,  Ph.D.;   Geobgb  Exegesis  and  Criticism  in  the  Hartford 

Kbiehn,  Ph.D.;  Guebnset  Jonxs,  PhJ).;  Theological  Seminary, 

and  Pbof.  Howabd  W.  Caldwkll.  Depabtmbnt  of  New  Testament  Histoby  and 

Exegesis. 
LELAND  OSSIAN  HOWARD,  Ph.D., 

Chief,    Division    of    Entomology,    U.    S.  HAROLD  JACOBY,  Ph.D., 
Department   of   Agriculture.  Professor  of  Astronomy  in  Columbia  Uni- 

Topics  IN  Entomology.  versity. 

Depabtment  of  Astbonomy. 

PHILIP  E.  HOWARD, 

Publisher  of  the  Sunday  School  Times.  EDGAR  JADWrN",  A.M., 

Sunday  School.  Captam  in  the  Corps  of  Engmeers,  United 

States  Army. 

txr    -rr    TTi^nr-m-  t      t»—  t*      ■»»  t*      t  t   t*  MIUTABY  ENOINEBBING. 

W.  H.  HOWELL,  Ph.D.,  M.D.,  LL.D., 

^^^f^  Physiolc^  and  Dean  of  t^^  JOSEPH  JASTROW,  Ph.D., 

Medical  School  m  Johns  Hopkins  Univer-  Professor  of  Psychology  in  the  University 

"*y-  -^  of  Wisconsin. 


Physiology. 

PHILIP  G.  HUBERT,  Jb., 

Author  of  The  Stage  as  a  Career, 

Theatbe;  Stage. 


JAMES  R.  HUGHES, 


Scbanton. 


JAMES  G.  HUNEKER, 

Formerly  Music  Critic  of  the  New  York 
Sun. 

Music,  Opeba,  and  Otheb  Abticles. 

EDWARD  HUNTER, 

Colonel,   Judge  Advocate,   United   States 
Army. 

MiLiTABY  Law. 

JAMES  HERVEY  HYSLOP,  Ph.D., 

Formerly  Professor  of  Logic  and  Ethics 
in  Columbia  University. 

Hebhebt  Spenceb;  SpiBrruALiSM. 


JOHN  WILLIAM  IHLDER, 


BlOGBAPHY. 


GEORGE  ILES, 


Thomas  Henby  Huxley. 


JSINEST  INGERSOLL, 


Office  Editob,  Zoology. 


Psychical  Resbabch. 

MORRIS  JASTRaW,  Jb.,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  the  Semitic  Languages  and 
Librarian  in  the  University  of  Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Depabtment  of  Semitic  Abchjsology. 

JEREMIAH  WHIPPLE  JENKS,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  Political  Economy  and  Poli- 
tics in  Cornell  University. 

Tbusts. 

JUDAH  ACHILLES  JOFFE, 

Depabtment  of  Slavic  Languages  and  Liteba- 

TUBES. 

ALVIN  SYDNEY  JOHNSON,  Ph.D., 

Office  Editob,  Political  Economy. 

JOSEPH  FRENCH  JOHNSON, 

Professor  of  Economics  and  Finance  in 
New  York  University. 

Topics  in  Eoonomiob. 

J.  NORTON  JOHNSON,  Ph.D., 
Office    Editob,     Philology,    and    Classical, 
Slavic,  and  Obiental  Litebatubes. 

CHRISTOPHER  JOHNSTON,  Ph.D., 

Associate  Professor  of  Oriental  Histoiv 
and  ArchiBology  in  Johns  Hopkins  Uni- 
versity. 

Depabtment  of  BoYPTOioat. 


R.  li.  JOHNSTON, 


W.  H.  LARRABEE,  D.I)., 
Sayonaboia.  Department  Editor  of  the  Christian  Ad^ 

vocaie, 

MiNOB  RXUOIOUS  DSNOMINATIOlf S. 


DAVID  STARR  JORDAN,  Ph.D., 

President  Leland  Stenford,  Jr.,  University.    ^freD  O.  LEE,  M.D., 


Salmon. 

JOHN  W.  JOYES, 

Captain    in    the    Ordnance    Department, 
United  States  Army. 

Oboivance. 

MAURICE  G.  KAINS,  M.S.A., 

Formerly  Special  Crop  Culturist  in  the 
United  States  Department  of  Agriculture. 

OmcB   Editob,   HoBnouLTCBB;    Agbxcultubb; 
Botany. 

JOHN  DANIEL  KAPS, 

Assistant  in  Pleading  and  Practice  in  the 
School  of  Law,  Columbia  University. 

Topics  in  Law. 

WILLIAM  BERESFORD  KAVANAGH, 
MoDKBir  Abioes,  Miutabt  Science,  and  Spobts. 

CARLKELSEY, 

Fellow  in  Sociology  in  the  University  of 
Pennsylvania. 

Topics  in  Social  Science. 

JAMES  FURMAN  KEMP,  M.E., 

Professor  of   Geology  in   Columbia   Uni- 
versity. 

Adibondacks. 

CHARLES  FOSTER  KENT,  Ph.D., 

Woolsey  Professor  of  Biblical  Literature 
in  Tale  University. 

Bible. 


Medicine. 


EDWARD  A.  KIMBALL, 


Chbistian  Science. 


GEORGE  W.  KIRCHWEY, 

Nmsh  Professor  of  Lbiw  and  Dean  of  the 
School  of  Law  in  Columbia  University. 

Depabthent  of  Law. 

GEORGE  WILLIAM  KNOX,  D.D., 

Professor  of  Philosophy  and  History  of 
Religion  in  Union  Theol<Mrical  Seminary. 

Japanese    Language    and    Litebatdbe    and 
Obiental  Abticlbs. 

GUSTAV  K0BB£,  A.M., 

Music  Critic  of  the  yew  York  Herald. 

Topics  in  Musical  Biogbapht. 

GEORGE  KRIEHN,  PhJ)., 

Formerly  Assistant  Professor  of  Art  His- 
tory in  Leland  Stanford,  Jr.,  University. 

HlSTOBT  AND  ThSOBT  OF  AbT. 

C.  F-  LANGWORTHY,  PhJ)., 

AMoeiate  Editor  of  the  Experiment  Sta- 
tion Record,  United  States  Department  of 
Ajericnlture. 

TonOB  OcnrcsBNiNO  Foods  and  Feeding  Stufib* 


CHARLES  LEONARD-STUART, 

BBinsH  Gazetteeb  and  English  Histobt. 

H.  LEWIS,  D.D., 

Editor  of  the  American  Mesaenger. 

TBACT  Societies. 

WARREN  HARMON  LEWIS,  M.D., 

Instructor  of  Anatomy  in  Johns  Hopkins 
University. 

Human  Eicbbtoloot. 

WALTER  LICHTENSTEIN,  A.M., 

Medieval  Histobt. 

ROBERT  LILLET,  D.C.L., 
Topics  in  Chinese  and  Japanese  Histobt  and 
Litebatube. 

SAMUEL  McCUNE  LINDSAY,  Ph.D., 

United  States  Commissioner  of  Education 
in  Porto  Rico. 

Topics  in  Social  Science. 

BURTON  E.  LIVINGSTON,  Ph.D., 

Instructor  in  Plant  Physiology  in  the  Uni- 
versity of  Chicago. 

Topics  in  Botany. 

FRANCIS  E.  LLOYD,  MA., 

Professor  of  Biology,  Teachers  Collefje, 
Columbia  University. 

LlNN^US. 

MORRIS  LOEB,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  Chemistry  in  New  York  Uni- 
versity. 

Coal-Tab  Colobs  ;  Pebiodic  Law. 

HERBERT  GARDINER  LORD,  A.M., 

Professor  of  Philosophy  in  Columbia  Uni- 
versity. 

SCHOPENHAUEB. 

H.  M.  LYDENBERG. 

New  Yobk  Public  Libbabt. 

FREDERICK  AUGUSTUS  LUCAS, 

Curator  of  the  Division  of  Comparative 
Anatomy  at  the  United  States  National 
Museum. 

Flight;  Museum. 

LEROY  8.  LYON, 

Captain   in  the  Artillery  Corps,  United 

States  Army. 
MnjTABY  Signaling  and  Teleobaphing  ;  Abtil- 

LEBY. 

HAMILTON  WRIGHT  MABIE,  A.M.,  L.H.D., 
LL.D., 

Editor  of  the  Outlook, 

PoE  AND  Otheb  Topics  in  Litebatube. 

WALTER  FLAVIUS  McCALEB,  Ph.D., 

Office  Editob,  Gazetteeb. 


JOHN  JAMES  MoGOOK,  ROYAL  MEEKER, 

Professor  of  Modern  Languages  in  Trinity    Tamhaitt    Hall;    Mmr    Ststbic;    Bbovuxo 
College.  SuBsiDiss. 


v™r  o/^^T  /.T  «xT^T  T.r  rrr.^  *    «-  x.  CHARLES  EDWARD  MERRLAM,  PhJD., 
NELSON  GLENN  McCREA^  Ph.D.,  Instructor  of  Politi^lSce  in  t&e  Uni- 

Professor  of  Latm  m  Columbia  University.  versity  of  Chicaso 

Horace,  Epio  Poetbt,  and  Othsb  Aihiclkb.  *    SovEBBioirTT-  Statb. 

B.  L.  Mcdonald.  SAnraJoeiPH.  bimb»  truesdell  merkill, 

Robert  Rich  Professor  of  the  Latin  L<aa- 
W  J  McGEE,  LL.D.,  fi^^e  *»d  Literature  in  Wesl^yan   Uni- 

President  of  the  American  Anthropological  -,  _    versity. 

Association;  Ethnologist  in  charge  of  the  ToMos  RiOATiiro  to  Romaw  Topography  ahd 
Bureau   of   American   Ethnology   at  the  Numismaticb. 

Smithsonian  Institution. 

Departments  of  Anthropoloot  and  Ethnoloot.  ADOLPH  MEYER,  M.D.,  LL.D., 

Director  of  the  Pathological  Institute  of 
EVANDER  B.  McQILVARY,  Ph.D.,  the  New   York   SUte  Hospitals   for    the 

Professor  of  Moral  Philosophy  in  Cornell  Insane. 

University.  Patholoot, 

Department  or  Philosopht. 

J.  H.  MCGREGOR,  ^^^^L  LONG  MILIAR, 

Topics  in  Paleontology.  ^^^l  »^  ?®^^^*^  ^P^?*  S"^®? 

Church,    and   President   of  the   National 

JEAN  NEWTON  McILWRAITH,  }^^^^IF  ^if*y  J^'  *^®  German  Bap- 

Biography.  *"*  Brethren  Church. 

German  Baptist  Brbthrdt. 
CHARLES  HOLBROOK  MANN,  A.M., 

General    Secretary   of   the   New   Church  J.  A.  MONTGOMERY, 

Educational   Association;    Editor  of  the  Nesuchadnezzar,    and     Other    Artioixs     nr 

Swedenborg  Monthly.  Semitic  Archaeology. 

SWEDENBORO;    SWEDENBORQIANS. 

IS.  n.  >*  A  arMcr  ^^^^  MONROE,  Ph.D.. 

F.  E.  MASON,  Professor  of  the  History  of  Education  in 

Mental  Science.  Teachers  College,  Columbia  University. 

OTIS  TUFTCM^  MASON,  Ph.D.,  LL.D.,  Department  of  Education. 

Curator  of  the  Division  of  Ethnology  in  TAiLn?a  Turruwrc^ 

the  United  States  National  Museum;  Pro-  •»aJ>^b  ^WJNJLY,  ^^        . 

fessor  of  Anthropology  in  Columbian  Uni-  SolSSr     ""  '*''        American 

versity.  oiogy. 

Topics  in  Anthropology.  American  Indians. 

WILLIAM  DILLER  MATTHEW,  Ph.D.,  CLIFFORD  HERSCHEL  MOORE,  Ph.D., 

Associate    Curator    of    Vertebrate    Pale-  Assistant  Professor  of  Greek  and  Latin  in 

ontology    in    the    American    Museum    of  Harvard  University. 

Natural  History.  Department  of  Greek  History  and  Philology. 

Fossil  Horse.  

HENRY  FRANK  MOORE,  Ph.D., 

ALBERT  MATTHEWS,  Scientific    Assistant,    U.    S.    Fish    Com- 

National    Nicknames;    Popxtlar    Names    of  mission. 

Stahss.  Oyster. 

CHARLES  HENRY  MAY,  M.D.,  WILLLAM  A.  MOORE,  M.A., 

Chief  of  Clinic  and  Instructor  in  Oph-  Navigation    Laws;    Monroe    Docibine;    and 
thalmology  in  the  College  of  Physicians  Other  Articles  in  Law. 

and  Surgeons,  New  York. 

Vision,  w.  MOREY, 

DAVID  WILLIAM  MAY,  M.S.,  ^*^- 

Assistant  in  the  Office  of  Experiment  Sta-  j  vxKna  v  ibroTT  jy^  n 

«o«   United  States  Department  of  Agri-  ^'^'^lAi^^^e  "Wlish  l^X^gn.^  and 

•  Topics  Eeiatino  «,  Tteu,  Cbops.  ^^^^^^Z  ^  *'         "^  *'  ^  "' 

CHARLES  W.  MEAD,  Provencal  LiTERATxniB  and  Other  Abixoub. 

Department   of  Archeology,   Museum   of  _  ,...— ,..j«»,««  ^    •. 

Natural  History,  New  York.  W.  MAX  MULLER,  Ph.D., 

Peruvian  Antiquities.  ^J/^^^^\,^^   Egyptian   Archaojw  and 

Afncanistics  in  the  Reformed  Bpiioopai 
BMILY  FOGG  MEADE,  Seminaiy,  Philadelphia. 

CoNsiTMERs'  League  and  Other  Artiozxs.  Topics  nr  Bgyftology. 


BANA  CARLETON  MUNRO,  AM.,  M.  V.  PAPAZIANTZ, 

ProfeMor   of   European   History   in   tho  ErOEiaAOZZK. 

Uniyersity  of  Wisoonsin. 

JteAmoom  or  Eablt  Ewqubh  Hmtobt  ato  JAMES  MORTON  PATON,  Ph J)., 

MxDUEVAi.  HiBTOBT.  ABsociate  Professor  of  Greek  in  Wesleyaa 

University. 

GELABLE8  EDWARD  MUNROE,  Ph.D.,  Dbpabtments  or  Gbxek  akd  Roman  Abohjs- 

Professor  of  Chemistiy  and  Senior  Dean  oloot. 

in  GoluiiibUn  Uniwm^^_  Ptkwkjhht.    DANIEL  LAWRENCE  PEACOCK,  AM., 

United  States  Gazettbbb. 

EHRMAN  STME  NADAL.  _ 

Formerly  Secretary  to  the  United  States    HAROLD  W.  PERCIVAL^  

Embassy  at  the  Court  of  Saint  James.  TraosoPHT. 

Clubs.  LEWIS  FREDERICK  PILGHER, 

CHARLES  ALEXANDER  NELSON,  A.M.,  Professor  of  Art  in  VassarCoUege. 

Deputy  and  Referenoe  Librarian  Columbia  TOPios  IH  ABT. 

University.  jqhN  WINTHROP  PLATNER,  DJ)., 

IWDBX  AND  Past  or  Ubbabibs.  Professor  of  Church  History  in  Andover 

WILLIAM  WELLS  NEWELL^  D.D.,  "^iS^*^  Seminagr.  

SecreUiy    of    the    American    Folk-Lore  DBPABTiaaiT  or  Histobioal  Thboixkit. 

Society.  FRANK  CHAMBERLIN  PORTER,  D.D.,  Ph.D., 

SuPKBSTmoN.  Professor  in  the  Yale  Divinity  School. 

DAVm  WAT.TC  NEWLAND,  Revelation  of  Saint  John. 

Formerly  Assistant  in  the  New  York  State  JAMES  W.  POWELL, 

Geological  Survey.  Colonel  of  Infantry,  United  States  Army 

OmcB  Editob,  Gboloot;  Physical  Gbogbapht..  (retired). 

M.  H.  NORTHRUP,  Infantbt. 

Stbaousb.  FREDERICK  D.  POWER,  LL.D., 

EDWARD  EVERETT  NOURSE,  S.T.D.,  j^*^'^  ^L^^tTl™®^  Avenue  Christian 

Associate  Professor  of  Biblical  Theology  Church,  Washmgton,  D.  C. 

in  Hartford  Theological  Seminary.  Disoiplbs. 

Topics    m    New    Testament    Histobt    and  THOMAS  W.  PROSCH, 

Exegesis.  Seattle. 

ALEXANDER  DANA  NOYES,  A Jl,  MICHAEL  IDVORSKY  PUPIN,  Ph.D., 

Financial  Editor,  New  York  Evening  Post.  Professor  of  Electro-Mechanics  in  Colum- 

Stock  Exchange;  Tbust  Company.  bia  University. 

THADDEUS  K.  OGLESBY,  Transmission  of  Poweb  by  Elbotbioity. 

Formerly    Secretary'    to    Alexander    H.  GEORGE  HAVEN  PUTNAM,  A.M.,  Lrrr.D., 

Stephens,  Vice-President  of  the   Confed-*  Formerly  Secretary  of  the  American  Copy- 

erate  States  of  America.  -  right  League. 

Alexandeb  H.  Stephens.  Book;  B<x»ksellino ;  Litbbaby  Pbopebty. 

GEORGE  N.  OLCOTT,  Ph.D.,  HERBERT  PUTNAM, 

Lecturer  in  Roman  Archseology  in  Colum-  Librarian  of  Congress. 

bia  University.  Libbaby  or  Congbess. 

Nt«i8MATic8 ;   ^j^^r^Nnv^  Rohak  His-  ^        ^  piELDING  REID, 

TOBY  Airo  Latd.  Phimmmt.  AMOciate  Professor  of  Geological  Physics 

ALPHEUS    SPRIKO    PACSAKD,    LL.D.,  in  Johns  Hopkins  University. 

Professor    of    ZoSlogy    and    Geology    in  GtAom. 

ETOLuS^TcY^'l'^lii.,  Ain,  Otheb  Topics  PAUL  SiiMUEL  REINSCH    Ph.D.,, 

^  -dt^w^w,^  Professor  of  Political  Science  m  the  Uni- 

IN  BioixwY.  ^^^.^  ^j  Wisconsin. 

yRANCIS  R.  PACKARD,  M.D.,  Poutioal  Science. 

Professor  of  Diseases  of  the  Ear,  Phila-  atttot?t»  ni^iurv 

^^t  ^^iif  <if  rt^f.^^  ^^P^fS^if  Ha^ony  and  Coni^int 

^i^]^  feulc£r<i'"'^  •""'•  Must  ^l^^'iLi^rz^t7n^ 

nal  of  tU  MeiH>al  8^^^  j.ducatioi».  *?^  <>'.  Music  in  the  New  York  CoUeg, 

of  Music. 

JAMES  PAGE,  Depabtxkkt  or  Muua 

ftlJSL^nhi^Mll  Wal'ln^l^ii®^**"  CHARLES  RUSSELL  RICHARDS, 

Hydrographic  Offlce.  Wa.^»gton^^  P«»f«»o' of  Manual  TValning  b. 

vrxiiM^  xyuA»nxD.  p^.^^^    Institute;     Professor    of    Manual 

OONDE  B.  PALLEN,  Ph.D.,  LL.D.,  Training  in  Teachers  College,   Columbia 

'Eaaam  or  Abticijes  Relating  to  the  Roman  Univeruty. 

Gatbouo  Chubch.  Manual  TBJinraa, 


HEINRICH  RIES,  Ph.D.,  W.  A.  SOHAPER, 

Professor  of  Economic  Geology  in  Cornell  Saiht  PauXh. 

University;     Expert     Special     Agent    on  --^„^^   «^«,^^,,,    «    ^ 

Clay   for   the   United    States   Geological  ALBEM  SCHINZ,  Ph.D 
Survey.  Professor  of  French  Literature  in  Bryn 

Depabthent  of  Geology.  Mawr  College. 

French  Ianquaob  and  LnERATUBas. 

RALPH    CURTIS    RINGWALT,  XTAmrrAVTT^T     oimTr^rwi,      *  ^* 

Lecturer  in  Public  Speaking  in  Columbia  NATHANIEL  SCHMIDT,  AM., 
University.  Professor  of  Semitic  Languages  and  Lit- 

^'  RSAiUNa.  eratures  in  Cornell  University. 

Topics  in  Semitio  Abch.£OLOGT. 

FRED  NORRIS  ROBINSON,  Ph.D.,  JOHN  IGNACE  SCHULTE,   ^  ^^  ^  .      .     ^^ 
Assistant  Professor  of  English  in  Harvard  Editor  and  Expert  on  Field  Crops  m  the 

University  Office    of    Experiment    Stations,    United 

Dkpabtment  of  Celtic  Lttbratdre.  States  Department  of  Agriculture. 

Topics  Relating  to  Fieu)  Cbops. 

L.  M.  ROBINSON,  A.M.,  r.    t>    /i    cnnovp    «    n 

Professor  of  Liturgies  and  Ecclesiastical  ^'  ^-  »•  bUUrr,  PH.D.,       ^  ^^     ^    ^ 
Polity  in  the  Philadelphia  Divinity  School.  Etymological  Editor  of  the  Century  Die- 

Ltturoies.  tiofuiry. 
VoLAPtJK;  Universal  Language. 

W.  W.  ROCHE,  Touax).  FRED  NEWTON  SCOTT,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of   Rhetoric   in  the  University 
THE0PHILU8  P.  RODENBOUGH,  of  Michigan. 

Brevet  Brigadier-General,   United   States  Rhetdbic  ;  Figubeb  of  Rhetorio. 

Department  of  Miutabt  Sciencb.  JAMES  B.  SCOTT,  J.U.D., 

Professor  of  Law  in  Columbia  University. 

JOHN  CAREW  ROLFE,  International  Law;  War,  Laws  and  Usages 
Professor  of  the  Latin  Language  and  Lit-  of. 

erature  in  the  University  of  P^nns^^-  ^^j^^  ^  ^^^^   p^  „ 

Adjunct  Professor  of  Political  Economy 
WILLIAM  JAMES  ROLFE,  Lrrr.D.,  in  Columbia  University. 

Shakespeare.  Free  Trade;  Protection;  Tariff,  etc. 

SARAH  TYSON  RORER,  LOUIS  L.  SEAMAN,  M.D.,  LL.B., 

Principal    of    the    Philadelphia    Cooking  Major,    and    formerly    Surgeon,    United 

School.  States  Volunteers. 

Cookery.  Mhjtart  Surgery. 

MARTIN  A.  ROSANOFF,  .    ^.    .  JOSEPH  HAMBLEN  SEARS, 

Formerly  on  the  Staff  of  Wurtz's  DtoUon-  Physioal  Culture. 

naire  de  Chimie,  Paris. 

Department  of  General  Chemistry;   Office  LORENZO  SEARS,  A.M., 

Editor,  Exact  Science.  Professor     of    American     Literature    in 

WORTH  GWYNN  ROSS,  ^"^^^  University. 

Captain    in   the    United    Stetes    Revenue  v«atobt. 

Cutter  Service  and  late  Assistant  Inspec-  j  p   SEGALL,  Ph.D., 

tor  of  United  States  Life-Saving  Stations.  *    Professor  of  Romance  Languages,  Univer- 

Life-Saving  Service;  United  States  Revenue  gj^y  ^f  Maine. 

Cutter  Service.  Rumanian  Language  and  Liteeaturb. 

J.  W.  RUSSELL,  Roman  Cathouo  Missions;  Roman  Catholio 

Topics  jn  Biography.  Church. 

EDWIN  RYALS,  CHARLES  C.  SHERMAN, 

Savannah.  Office  Editor,  Biblical  Ckitioism  and  Thx- 

ALBERT  ROBBINS  SABIN,  A.M.,  ^"^^■ 

Professor  of  Audubon  School,  Chicago.  JAMES  A.  SHIPTON, 

Chicago.  Captain  in  the  Artillery  Corps,  United 

MARSHALL  HOWARD  8AVILLE,  ®**^  ^™y-  a.,^.,,^    t^.^..^^ 

Professor  of  American  Archeology  in  Co-  ABTimniY;  Balustics. 

lumbia   University;    Curator  of  Mexican  PAUL  SHOREY,  Ph.D., 

and  Central  American  Archsologv  in  the  Professor  of  Greek  in  the  University  of 

American  Museum  of  Natural  History.  Chicago. 

ASOHiBOUMY  AND  PEOPLES  OF  MexIOO.  TOPICS  IN  GEEBK  LuKBATUBI. 


xxm 


D.  B.  SHUMWAY,  Ph.  D.  (GWtt.),  SAMUEL  WESLEY  STRATTON, 

Professor   of   Qermanio    Langiuiges    and  Director,  National  Bureau  of  Standards. 

Literatures  in  the  Uniyersity  of  Pennsyl-  Weights  aivd  Mbasubbs. 

▼ania.  

Piattdedtsch;  Dutch.  SIMEON  8TRUNSKY,  ^  „  „ 

Office  Editob,  Histqbt. 

FRANCIS  P.  SIEGraiED,  ^..^1,-1-.-  JOSEPH  STRUTHERS,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  Philosophy  m  Saint  Charles  Associate  Editor  of  the 


Seminary,  Overbrook,  Pa. 
Scholasticism  ;  Theological  Education. 


Mining  Journal. 


Engineering  and 
SiLVEB  Obes;  Scma. 


MARCUS  SIMPSON,  Ph.D., 


Saga. 


BENJAMIN  ELI  SMITH,  L.H.D., 

Editor    of   the    Century    Cyolopadia    of 
yamee. 

Enctclopjedia. 


RUSSELL  STURGIS^  PhJ)., 

Architect;    Editor  and   Chief   Author  of 
The  DioHonary  of  Arohiteoture  and  Build- 
ing. 
Topics  in  Decorative  and  Industrial  Art. 

THOMAS  G.  TAAFFE,  Ph.D., 

Topics  in  Fraternal  Societies, 


CLARENCE  BEAMAN  SMITH,  M.S., 

Editor  and  Expert  on  Horticulture  in  the    RALPH  STOCKMAN  TARR, 


Office    of    Experiment    Stations    in    the 
United  States  Department  of  Agriculture. 

Topics  in  Horticulture. 

DAVID  EUGENE  SMITH,  Ph.D., 

Professor    of    Mathematics    in    Teachers 
College,  Columbia  University. 

Departuent  of  Mathematics. 


Professor  of  I)3mamic  Geology  and  Phys- 
ical Geography  in  Cornell  University. 

RiTER;    PHTSIOGRAPHT. 

CHARLES  ANDRUS  TAYLOR, 

Topics  in  Gazetteer. 

FRANCIS  HORACE  TEALL, 

Punctuation;  Proof-Rbadino. 


EDWARD  R.  SMITH,  A.M.,  TRAPTTFP 

Librarian  of  the  Avery  Architectural  Li-  ^^^^  W)YV  THACHBR, 
brary,  Columbia  University.  Autographs. 

Sculpture,  Section  Modern  Sculpture.  ALLAN  CLAPP  THOMAS,  A.M., 


MUNROE  SMITH,  J.U.D., 

Professor  of  Roman  Law  and  Comparative 
Jurisprudence  in  Columbia  University. 

Topics  in  European  Law. 

WILLIAM  ROY  SMITH, 

Associate  in  History  in  Bryn  Mawr  Col- 

lege- 

Persian  History. 

J.  R.  SPEARS, 

Yacht  and  Yachting. 

FRED  JOHN  SPLITSTONE, 


Professor   of   History   and   Librarian    in 
Haverford  College. 

Friends. 

CALVIN  THOMAS,  A.M., 

Professor    of    Germanic    Languages    and 
Literatures  in  Columbia  University. 

Swedish  Language  and  Literature. 

CHARLES  L.  THOMPSON,  D.D., 

Secretary  of  the  Presbyterian   Board  of 
Home  Missions. 

Presbyterians. 


J.  K-  firrouT, 


Topics  in  Patriotic  Societies. 


Pittsburg.    HOLLAND  THOMPSON,  A.M., 

Instructor  in  History  in  the  College  of  the 
City  of  New  York. 

Biography. 


CHAUNCEY  CLARK  STARKWEATHER, 

Sangallo. 

ALFRED  R.  STARR,  M.D.,  D.D.S., 

Professor  of  Operative  Dentistry  and 
Dental  Therapeutics  in  the  New  York 
College  of  Dentistry. 

Dentistry. 

REGINALD  H.  STARR,  D.D., 

Formerly  Professor  of  Dogmatic  Theology 
in  the  University  of  the  South. 

Topics  in  Theology. 

EDWIN  A.  START,  A.M., 

Formerly    Head    of   the    Department    of 
History  in  Tufts  College. 
Department  or  Modern  ettropean  History. 

HARLAN  F.  STONE,  PhJ).,  LL.B., 

Lecturer  in  Law  in  Colinnbia  University. 

Topics  in  Law. 


RALPH  S.  THOMPSON, 

Music  and  Biography. 

CHARLES  COMFORT  TIFFANY,  D.D., 
Formerly  Archdeacon  of  New  York. 

Protestant  Episcopal  Church. 

ROGER  EDMUND  TILESTONE, 

Paper. 

EDWARD  B.  TITCHENER,  Ph.D.,  F.Z.S., 

Sage  Professor  of  Psychology  and  Director 
of  the  Psychological  Laboratory  in  Cor- 
nell University. 

Department  op  Psychology. 

CHARLES  HASKINS  TOWNSEND, 

Director  of  the  New  York  Aquarium. 

Deep-Sea  Exploration. 

N.  M.  TRENHOLME,  Ph.D., 

Instructor  in  History  in  the  Pennsylvania 
State  College. 
Topics  in  Modern  Eurqpban  Histqrt. 


WILLIAM  PETERFIELD  TRENT,  LLJ)., 

Professor  of   English   Literature   in   Co- 
lumbia University. 
DEPABTMSifr  or  AMEBiOAir  LnmuTUBX. 

CHARLES  QUINCY  TURNER, 

Formerly  Managing  Editor  of  Outing, 

Topics  Relating  to  Spobts. 

ALFRED  CHARLES  TRUE,  Ph.D., 

Director  of  the  Office  of  Experiment  Sta- 
tions in  the  United  States  Department  of 
Agriculture. 

Bepabticsnts  or  Agbigultubb  and  Hobticul- 

TUBE. 

LEWIS  SAYRE  VAN  DUZER, 

Lieutenant-Commander  in  the  United 
States  Navy,  Secretary  of  the  United 
States  Naval  Institute. 

Depabthent  or  Naval  Sodengb. 

GILBERT  VAN  INGEN, 

Special  Assistant  Paleontologist  for  the 
New  York  State  Museum,  and  Consulting 
Geologist  to  the  Office  of  the  State  Engi- 
neer, Albany. 

Depabticent  or  Paleontoloot. 

HENRY  CLAY  VEDDER,  D.D., 

Professor  of  Church  History  in  the  Crozier 
Theological  Seminary. 

Baptists. 

« 

0.  W.  A.  VEDITZ,  Ph.D.,  LL.B., 

Professor  of  Sociology  in  Bates  College. 

Cbiminoloot,  and  Otheb  Abticleb. 

LOUIS  VON  ELTZ, 

Formerly  Instructor  in  French  in  Yale 
University. 

Abt  and  Bioobaphy. 

HERMAN  T.  VULTE,  Ph.D., 

Instructor  in  Chemistry  in  Columbia  Uni- 
versity and  Lecturer  on  Domestic  Science 
in  Teachers  College. 

Oils. 

HERBERT  TREADWELL  WADE, 
OrncE    Editob,    Physics,    Enoineebing,    and 
Mantttactubeb. 

WILLISTON  WALKER,  PH.D.,  D.D., 

Professor  of  Church  History  in  Yale  Uni- 
versity. 

Congbegationalism. 

JAMES  J.  WALSH,  M.D.,  Ph.D.,  LL.D., 

Lecturer  at  the  Champlain  Assembly  Sum- 
mer School  and  at  the  Western  Catholic 
Chautauqua. 

Topics  in  Chubch  Histobt. 

RICHARD  WEBSTER, 

BlOGBAPHT. 

BENJAMIN  WILLIS  WELLS,  Ph.D., 

Late  Professor  of  Modem  Languages  in 
the  University  of  the  South. 
Depabticent  or  Continental  Litebatube. 

MAX  WEST,  Ph.D., 

Pooling. 

CEUOILES  C.  WHINERY,  A.M., 

Bioobaphy;  OrncE  Editob,  Ahebican  Histoby. 

GUY  MONTROSE  WHIPPLE,  Ph.D., 
Cornell  University. 

Subldonal  Consciousness. 


HERBERT  PERCY  WHITLOCK,  C.E., 

Assistant  in  the  New  York  State  Museum. 

MiNEBALOGT* 

JAMES  MAURICE  WHITON    Ph.D., 
SUff  Editor  of  the  Outlook, 

LUTHEB;  MeLANGHTHOIT. 

ARTHUR  P.  WHITTEM,  A.M., 

Austen  Teaching  Fellow  in  Romance  Lan* 
guages  in  Harvard  University. 

Vebsitication,  Section  Romance  Vebsitication. 

EARLEY  VERNON  WILCOX,  Ph.D., 

Associate  Editor  of  the  Experiment  BtOt- 
tion  Record,  United  Stat^  Department 
of  Agriculture. 

Vetebinaby  Sciencb. 

CHARLES  WILHELMS, 

Ltthogbaphy. 

WALTER  FRANCIS  WILLCOX,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  Political  Economy  and  Star 
tistics  in  Cornell  University. 

Statistics  ;  Vital  Statistics  ;  and  Population. 

ALLAN  HERBERT  WILLETT,  Ph.D., 

Instructor  in  Political  Economy  in  Brown 
University. 

Topics  in  Insubangb. 

FREDERICK  WELLS  WILLIAMS,  LLJ)., 

Professor  of  Modern  Oriental  History  in 
Yale  University. 

Chinese  Language  and  Litebatube. 

TALCOTT  WILLIAMS,  LL.D., 


Newspapebs. 


HENRY  PARKER  WILLIS,  Ph.D., 

Recipbocity. 

ELIZABETH  WILSON,  M.A., 

Secretary  of  Training  Department,  Ameri- 
can Committee. 
Young  Women's  Chbistian  Associations. 

GEORGE  PARKER  WINSHIP,  A.M., 

Librarian  of  the  John  Carter  Brown  Li- 
brary, Providence,  R.  I. 

Depabtments     or     Disgoveby,     Colonization, 
Histoby  or  Nobth  and  South  Amebica. 

JOHN  P.  WISSER, 

Major  in  the  Artillery  Corps,  United 
States  Army;  formerly  Assistant  Pro- 
fessor of  Chemisti^,  Mineralogy,  and 
Geology  in  the  United  States  Military 
Academy;  formerly  Instructor  in  Mili- 
tary Science  in  the  United  States  Artillery 
School;  Editor  of  the  Journal  of  United 
States  Artillery, 

Abmy  Obganization  ;  Coast  DsrENSE;  Mhitaby 
Tactics. 

EDMUND  JACOB  WOLF,  D.D., 

Professor  of  Church  History  and  New 
Testament  Exegesis  in  the  Gettysburg 
Theological  Seminary. 

LUTHEBANS. 

GEORGE   E.   WOODBERRY,   A.M., 

Late  Professor  of  Comparative  Literature 
in  Columbia  University. 


J.  P.  YOUNG, 


San  FEAHcisoa 


KEY  TO  PRONUNCIATION. 


4 

«■ 

in 

• 

M 

a 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 


a 

M 

M 

• 

« 

« 

• 

• 

M 

M     M 


1 

M 

M 

• 

I 

M 

M 

I 

M 

M 

fl 

M 

«< 

a 

M 

M 

6 

M 

M 

5 

M 

M 

o 

M 

M 

«i 

M 

OT 

oo 

M 

M 

oa 

M 

M 

ft 

M 

M 

« 

M 

M 

ft 

M 

M 

^ 

M 

M 

t 
y 


M 
M 


M 


«•    « 


ale,  fate.   Alao  lee  <,  below. 

senate,  chaotic.    ALbo  lee  $,  below. 

glare,  care. 

am,  at. 

arm,  father. 

ant,  and  final  a  in  America,  armada, 
etc.  In  rapid  speech  this  vowel  read- 
ilj  becomes  more  or  less  obscured  and 
like  the  neutral  vowel  or  a  short 
u  (ft). 

final,  regal,  where  it  is  of  a  neutral  or 
obscure  quality. 

all,  falL 

eve. 

elate,  evade. 

end,  pet.  The  characters  i,  ft,  and  A 
are  used  for  ft  in  German,  as  in  Gftrt- 
ner,  Grftfe,  SQlhnel,  to  the  values  of 
which  th^  are  the  nearest  English 
Towel  sounds.  The  sound  of  Swedish 
ft  is  also  indicated  bj  i, 

fern,  her,  and  as  «  in  sir.  Also  for  8, 
00,  in  German,  as  in  G()the,  Goethe, 
Ortel,  Oertel,  and  for  eu  and  oeii  in 
French,  as  in  Neufchfttel,  CrdveccBur; 
to  which  it  i9  the  nearest  English 
vowel  sound. 

agency,  judgment,  where  it  is  of  a  neu- 
tral or  obscure  quality. 

ies^  quiet. 

quiescent. 

iU,  fit. 

old,  sober. 

obey,  sobriety. 

orb,  nor. 

odd,  forest,  not. 

atom,  carol,  where  it  has  a  neutral  or 
obscure  quality. 

oil,  boil,  and  for  eu  in  German,  as  in 
Feuerbach. 

food,  fool,  and  as  «  in  rude,  rule. 

house,  mouse. 

use,  mule. 

unite. 

cut,  but. 

full,  put,  or  as  00  in  foot,  book.  Also 
for  ft  in  German,  as  in  Mtlnchen, 
Hiiller,  and  ii  in  French,  as  in 
Buchez,  6ud6;  to  which  it  is  the 
nearest  English  vowel  sound. 

urn,  bum. 

yet,  yield. 

the  Spanish  Habana,  Cordoba,  where  it 
is  like  a  v  made  with  the  lips  alone, 
instead  of  with  the  teeth  and  lips. 

ehair,  cheese. 


ft 

G 


M      M 


aa  in  the  Spanish  Almodovar,  pulgada,  where 
it  is  nearly  like  th  in  English  then^ 
this, 
go,  get. 

the  German  Landtag,  and  oh  in  Feuer- 
bach, buch;  where  it  is  a  guttural 
sound  made  with  the  back  part  of  the 
tongue  raised  toward  the  soft  palate, 
as  in  the  sound  made  in  clearing  the 
throat. 

H  aa  /  in  the  Spanish  Jijona,  g  in  the  Span- 
ish gila;  where  it  is  a  fricative  some- 
what resembling  the  sound  of  fc  in 
English  hue  or  y  in  yet,  but  stronger. 

hw  **  ioh  in  which. 

K  **  oh  in  the  German  ich,  Albrecht,  and  g 
in  the  German  Arensberg,  Mecklen- 
burg; where  it  is  a  fricative  sound 
made  between  the  tongue  and  the 
hard  palate  toward  which  the  tongue 
is  raised.  It  resembles  the  sound 
of  fc  in  hue,  or  y  in  yet;  or  the  sound 
made  by  beginning  to  pronounce  a  k, 
but  not  completing  the  stoppage  of 
the  breath.  The  character  K  is  also 
used  to  indicate  the  rough  aspirates 
or  fricatives  of  some  of  the  Oriental 
languages,  as  of  kh  in  the  word  Khan. 

n    as  in  sinker,  longer. 


Bft 


$4      it 


«<      U 


ah 

th 

TH 


U  €€ 
tt  tt 
ti      €€ 


sing,  long. 

the  French  bon,  Bourbon,  and  m  in  the 
French  Etampes;  where  it  is  equiva- 
lent to  a  nasalizing  of  the  preceding 
vowel.    This  effect  is  approximately 
produced  by  attempting  to  pronounce 
'onion'  without  touching  the  tip  of 
the  tongue  to  the  roof  of  tiie  mouth. 
The  corresponding  nasal  of  Portu- 
guese is  also  indicated  by  ir,  as  in  the 
case  of  Sfto  Ant&o. 
shine,  shut, 
thrust,  thin.* 
then,  this. 
■h  as  iv  in  azure,  and  a  in  pleasure. 

An  apostrophe  [']  is  sometimes  used  to  denote 
a  glide  or  neutral  connecting  vowel,  as  in  tft'b'l 
(table),  k&z"m  (chasm). 

Otherwise  than  as  noted  above,  the  letters  used 
in  the  respellinf^  for  pronunciation  are  to  receive 
their  ordinary  English  sounds. 

When  the  pronunciation  is  sufficiently  shown 
by  indicating  the  accented  syllables,  this  is  done 
without  respelling;  as  in  the* case  of  very  common 
English  words,  and  words  which  are  so  spelled  as 
to  insure  their  correct  pronunciation  if  they  are 
correctly  accented.    See  the  article. on  Pbonuk- 

CIATION. 


A  PARTIAL  LIST  OF  THE  LEADING  ARTICLES  IN  VOLUME  L 


Professor  A.  V.  W.  Jackson. 

ABERRATION,  SPHERICAL. 

Professor  Joseph  Sweeiman  Ames. 

ABRAHAM. 

Professor  Morris  Jastrow. 

ABRASIVES. 

Mr.  Charles  Shattuck  Hill. 

ABSORPTION,   IN  PLANTS. 

Professor  Charles  Reid  Barnes. 

ACADEMY. 

Professor  Paul  Monroe. 

ACOUSTICS. 

Professor  Joseph  Sweetman  Ames. 

ADAM. 

Professor  Morris  Jastrow. 

ADAMS,  JOHN; 

ADAMS,  SAMUEL. 

Dr.  H.  A.  Cushing. 

ADDISON,  JOSEPH. 

Professor  Wilbur  Lucius  Cross. 

ADIRONDACKS. 

Professor  James  Furman  Kemp. 

ADULTERATION. 

Mr.  Martin  A.  Rosanoff;  Professor 
Qeorge  W.  Kirchwey. 

AERONAUTICS. 

Mr.  Charles  Shattuck  Hill. 

iESCHYLUS. 

Professor  Clifford  Herschel  Moore. 

^ESTHETICS. 

Professor  Evander  Bradley  McGilvary. 

AFRICA. 

Mr.  Henry  Gannett,  Mr,  Ernest  Inger- 
soll,  Mr.  George  Parker  Winship, 
Professor  Edwin  A.  Start,  and  others. 

AFRICAN  LANGUAGES. 

Dr.  Christopher  Johnston. 

AFTER-IMAGES. 

Professor  Edward  Bradford  Titchener. 

AGENT. 

Professor  Francis  M.  Burdick. 

AGRICULTURAL  EDUCATION; 

AGRICULTURE. 

Dr.  Alfred  Charles  True. 

AINO. 

Professor  Alexander  F.  Chamberlain. 

AIR  COMPRESSOR. 

Mr.  Charles  Shattuck  Hill. 

ALABAMA  CLAIMS. 

Dr.  H.  A.  Cushing;  Professor  George 
W.  Kirchwey. 

ALCOHOLS. 

Mr.  Martin  A.  Rosanoff. 

ALFIERI. 

Dr.  Frederic  Taber  Cooper. 

ALFRED  THE  GREAT. 

Professor  Dana  C.  Munro. 

ALG^. 

Professor  John  Merle  Coulter. 

ALGEBRA. 

Professor  David  Eugene  Smith. 


ALLOY. 

Dr.  Marcus  Benjamin. 

ALMANAC. 

Professor  Harold  Jacol^. 

ALPHABET. 

Professor  James  Morton  PlttoiL 

ALPS. 

Mr.  Henry  Gannett. 

ALTERNATION  OF  GENERATIONS. 
Professor  John  Merle  Coulter. 

ALUMINIUM. 

Dr.  Marcus  Benjamin. 

AMATEUR. 

Mr.  Charles  Quincy  Turner. 

AMERICA. 

Mr.  Henry  Gannett,  Mr.  Ernest  Inger- 
soil,  Mr.  George  Parker  Winship  and 
others. 

AMERICAN  LITERATURE. 

Professor  William  Peterfield  Trent 

ANALYSIS,  CHEMICAL. 

Professor  Robert  William  Hall. 

ANALYTIC  GEOMETRY. 

Professor  David  Eugene  Smith. 

ANATOMY. 

Professor  Frank  Baker. 

ANATOMY  OF  PLANTS. 

Professor  John  Merle  Coulter. 

ANCHOR. 

Lieutenant-Commander  Lewis  Sayre 
Van  Duzer. 

ANEMOMETER. 

Professor  Cleveland  Abbe. 

ANGEL. 

Professor  Nathaniel  Schmidt. 

ANGLING. 

Mr.  Charles  Quincy  Turner. 

ANGLO-SAXON  LAW. 

Professor  George  W.  Kirchwey. 

ANIMAL   PSYCHOLOGY. 

Professor  Edward  Bradford  Titchener. 

ANTELOPE. 

Mr.  Ernest  Ingersoll. 

APHASIA. 

Dr.  Albert  Warren  Ferris. 

APOCALYPTIC  LITERATURE. 

Professor  Edward  Everett  Nonrse. 

AQUEDUCT. 

Professor  Arthur  L.  Frothingham. 

ARABIC  LANGUAGE  AND  LITERATURB. 
Professor  Morris  Jastrow. 

ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Professor  James  Morton  Paton. 

ARCHAEOLOGY,  AMERICAN. 
Dr.  W  J  McGee. 

ARCHITECTURE. 

Professor  Arthur  L.  Frothinghant 

ARIOSTO. 

Dr.  Frederic  Taber  Cooper. 


THE  NEW 
INTERNATIONAL 
ENCYCLOPEDIA 


A     A.    The  initial  letter  of  almost  every 

/\         alphabet.     The    Runic    "futhark," 

/  ^        or   old   Germanic   alphabet,   forms 

/     ^      an  exception  to  this  rule.     The  a 

A  m  stands  in  the  fourth  place  in  the 
"^^  "futhark."  (See  Ruwes).  A  sug- 
gestion has  been  made,  but  apparently  without 
much  acceptance,  that  the  position  of  a  in  the 
**futhark"  may  possibly  be  due  to  an  artificial 
arrangement  of  the  letters  modeled  perhaps 
upon  the  order  of  the  words  in  the  old  Teutonic 
form  of  the  Paternoster.  The  Ethiopic  alpha- 
bet likewise  departs  from  the  common  scheme, 
for  it  places  aleph  in  the  thirteenth  place  instead 
of  the  first.  As  our  alphabet,  moreover,  directly 
follows  the  Latin,  which  itself  is  based  on  the 
Greek,  the  form  of  our  letter  A,  a  agrees  with 
the  same  character  in  those  languages.  The 
letter  was  called  alpha  in  Greek,  whence  "alpha- 
bet," like  our  own  "A,  B,  C,"  or  "Absey  Book." 
The  Greek  name  and  form  of  the  letter  agree 
with  the  West  Semitic  alphabet,  as  shown  by  the 
Hebrew  and  the  Aramaic.  In  these  two  lan- 
guages it  is  designated  as  aleph,  dlph,  but  the 
real  meaning  of  the  name  and  the  origin  of  the 
symbol  have  not  yet  been  satisfactorily  deter- 
mined, and  the  subject  is  still  under  discussion. 

Phonetic  Character.  In  regard  to  its  pho- 
netic character,  original  a  ma.y  £«  described  as  a 
''mid-back-wide"  vowel.  It  had  what  we  may 
term  the  a^-sound,  familiarly  known  as  the 
"Italian"  or  "Ck)ntinental"  o,  heard  in  far, 
father.  By  nature  o  is  a  simple  and  easy  vowel, 
made  by  opening  the  throat  naturally  and 
expelling  the  breath  with  the  least  modification 
by  the  parts  of  the  mouth.  Such  is  the  sound 
that  this  letter  has  in  most  languages;  in  Eng- 
lish, however,  it  has  undergone  so  many  modifi- 
cations that  to-da^  the  pure  aA-sound  is  com- 
paratively scarce  in  our  speech,  and  instead  of 
cslling  the  letter  itself  by  the  name  ah,  as  in 
most  Indo-Germanic  tongues,  we  now  term  it 
"ay"  (oe),  as  in  Tennyson  {The  Epic,  ad  fin.) 
"Mouthing  out  his  hollow  oea  and  aes'*  The 
Anglo-Saxon  or  earliest  English  preserved  the 
genuine  old  aA-sound,  though  shorter  perhaps 
in  quantity  than  the  a  of  father.  It  was  of 
quite  frequent  occurrence,  and  by  its  side 
existed  the  corresponding  long  a,  often  marked 
with  the  <]uantity  sign.  In  An^lo-Saxon,  short 
a  was  subject,  however,  to  certain  modifications 
and  ahiftings.     (See  PHoniiio  Laws.)     These 


modifications  account  only  in  part  for  the  vari- 
ety of  sounds  which  the  Modern  English  a  repre- 
sents, as  other  external  influences  have  come  in 
to  alter  the  sound  still  more.  The  orthography 
has  not  kept  pace  with  the  change  in  pronunci- 
ation; hence  the  anomalous  character  of  a  as  a 
sound-symbol.  There  are  some  half-dozen  dif- 
ferent sounds,  shorter  and  longer,  which  a  may 
represent  in  English;  some  of  these  sounds  are, 
of  course,  extremely  common;  others  are  com- 
paratively rare.    The  principal  are: 

(1)  fat,  (4)  father, 

(2)  fate,  (5)   false, 

(3)  fare,  (6)   what,  was. 

To  these  is  to  be  added  the  vowel  sound  in  oak, 
chance,  can't,  past,  which  varies  with  different 
speakers,  and  is  apparently  to  be  placed  some- 
where intermediate  between  fat  and  father. 
Likewise  is  to  be  noted  the  indifferent  sound  of 
a,  approaching  the  u  in  hut,  that  so  frequently 
occurs  in  unstressed  syllables,  like  against, 
abundant,  and  also  the  sporadic  a  in  any,  many, 
where  it  approaches  a  short  e.  The  rounded 
vowel  above  noted  in  teas,  false,  and  the  like,  is 
due  te  the  influence  of  the  adjacent  consonant, 
w,  I,  The  former  sound,  the  a  in  uma,  is 
longer  than  the  a  in  all.  In  the  latter  case  with 
Z,  we  find  also  au  beside  a  te  express  the  sound, 
as  fault  beside  false.  The  commonest  short 
sound  of  a  in  English,  however,  is  the  flat 
vowel  in  hat.  Its  frequency  leads  te  our.  calling; 
this  the  "short  a;"  as  the  corresponding  "long" 
we  generally  assign  the  vowel  in  hate,  although 
the  latter  is  really  the  long  e-sound  of  they. 
The  vowel  of  fare,  hare,  is  a  still  further  modi- 
fication. 

Indo-Germanic  a.  In  the  Indo-Germanic  Ian- 
f^uages  the  vowel  series  a,  i,  u  is  especially  prom- 
inent; in  Sanskrit,  and  also  in  Gothic,  these  are 
the  only  short  vowels.  The  short  a  is  never  writ- 
ten in  Sanskrit  after  consonante,  but  is  regarded 
as  inherent  in  the  sign.  Owing  to  these  circum- 
stances it  was  believed,  until  within  recent 
years,  that  the  primitive  Indo-Germanic  speech 
possessed  only  a,  i,  u,  and  that  a  was  the  oldest 
and  purest  of  the  vowels.  This  view  has  since 
been  much  modified;  it  has  been  shown  that  e 
and  o  must  have  existed  beside  a,  i,  u  in  the 
primitive  speech,  and  that  they  are  of  equal  age 
with  the  others.  As  an  instance  of  a  genuine 
Indo-Germanic  short  a,  we  may  take  Indo-Ger. 
^agrtha,  "field,  acre;"  Skr.,  djra-a;  Gk.  &yp65\ 


Lat.,  ager;  Goth.,  dkr-9.  The  corresponding  long 
id  occurs  commonly  in  the  oldest  English,  as  in 
the  other  Indo-Gtermanic  tongues;  the  history  of 
its  development  into  the  modern  speech,  how- 
ever, has  been  somewhat  different,  as  it  has 
passed  over  chiefly  into  an  d-sound.  (See  Pho- 
NEno  Laws.) 

As  A  Sthbol.  Standing  at  the  head  of  the 
alphabet  as  a  does,  it  is  commonly  used  as  a 
symbol  to  denote  the  first  in  order  in  a  row  or 
series.  It  is  therefore  so  employed  to  denote 
-one  of  the  notes  (to)  in  musical  notation  (q.v.) ; 
similarly  in  logic  (o.v.)  to  denote  the  universal 
Affirmative.  In  algebra  (q.v.)  the  letters  a,  h,  o 
are  used  to  denote  known  quantities  as  opposed 
to  X,  y,  z,  the  unknown  quantities.  In  abstract 
reasoning  and  hypotheses.  A,  B,  C  are  likewise 
employedf  as  convenient  designations  for  partic- 
ular persons  and  things.  In  writine  and  print- 
inff,  the  series  a,  b,  c  is  commonly  used  for 
reference.  In  nautical  matters,  Al,  A2,  A3  are  in 
common  use  to  denote  the  class  and  qualitjp'  of 
ships  and  similarly  in  business  matters  to  mdi- 
eate  the  commercial  standing  of  a  house.  This 
usage  has  passed  over  into  popular  parlance, 
so  that  a  person  is  sometimes  spoken  of  as  ''AT' 
to  indicate  that  he  is  a  thoroughly  reliable, 
^'first-class"  man.  A  stands  also  as  the  first  of 
the  Dominical  Letters  (q.v.). 

In  Gbammatical  Forms.  This  same  letter  is 
used  in  a  niunber  of  phrases  and  grammatical 
forms  in  English.  In  some  of  these  it  is  the 
mutilated  form  of  a  fuller  word.  The  first  use 
to  be  noted  is  its  employment  beside  an  as  an 
indefinite  article;  both  forms,  a,  an,  are  weak- 
ened from  the  A.  S.,  /In,  ''one."  In  provincial 
dialects  a  (*&)  appears  as  a  pronominal  form 
for  he,  etc.,  as  in  qiiotha,  "quoth  he."  Some- 
times it  thus  stands  for  have.  It  appears  as  a 
preposition  for  A.  S.,  on,  with  a  verbal  noun  in 
certain  old  phrases,  as  a-hunting,  a-huilding; 
also  for  A.  S.,  of  in  Jack-a-lantem,  John  a  Oaunt; 
and  similarly  as  a  prefix  for  A.  S.,  on  in  asleep 
(A.  S.  on  alape) ,  atoay  ( A.  S.  on  weg) ,  for  off  in 
Udoum  (A.  S.  of  dUne) ;  again  intensive  in 
a-ihirat  (A.  S.  of -thirsty.  It  likewise  stands  for 
long  d  as  a  verbal  prefix,  criee  (A.  S.  driaan), 
awake,  and  in  many  other  phrases.  The  charac- 
ter d  is  used  in  Swedish  as  a  labialized  guttural, 
like  English  6.  See  Alphabet  and  Abbrevia- 
tions. 

A.  As  a  note  in  music,  the  major  sixth  of  the 
scale  C  major.  See  Key  for  A  major  and  A 
minor. 

A1.  A  symbol  used  in  the  classification  of 
wooden  ships  by  Lloyds  Maritime  Insurance 
Association.  The  designation  follows  as  a  result 
of  examination  of  a  ship  by  one  of  the  Lloyds 
surveyors.  The  symbol  Al  denotes  that  hull 
and  equipment  of  the  ship  in  question  are  in 
good  dondition;  the  letter  A  standing  for  con- 
struction and  the  numeral  1  for  equipment; 
when  the  latter  is  inadequate  the  figure  2  is  used. 
Should  the  symbol  be  preceded  by  figures,  thus, 
12A1,  it  means  that  the  classification  is  good  for 
12  years.  Al  vessels  may  receive  further  exten- 
sion of  classification  (1  to  8  years),  and  the 
symbol  becomes  12-Al  Ck>nt.  6A1,  which  means 
*original  12  year  class  continued  6  years.  If 
later  restored  it  would  still  be  possible  to  remain 
in  Al  class  with  the  following  symbol:  12 A 1- 
Cont.  6A1-  Rest.  6A1.  When  a  vessel  has  passed 
the  age  for  the  character  A,  but  is  still  found 


2  AAiaOSG. 

fit  for  conveying  perishable  goods  to  all  Pftris 
of  the  world,  it  is  registered  A  in  red.  Ships 
designated  A  in  black  form  the  third  class,  and 
are  allowed  to  carry  perishable  goods  on  ahorter 
voyagea. 

In  classifying  iron  ships  a  broad  A  is  used 
with    numbers    prefixed,    those    ships    classed 
100/^  to   00  A   inclusive   requiring  to   be   sur- 
veyed every  four  years,  and  those  classed  85/^ 
and  under  requiring  a  special  survey  every  three 
years.    The    numerals    referring   to    equipment 
are  the  same  as  for  wooden  ships.    In  tne  classi- 
fication of  the  German  Lloyds,  Al  refers  to  new 
wooden    ships    and    repaired    ships    of    equal 
quality;  A  denotes  ships  not  equu  to  the  for- 
mer  class,   but   yet   of  superior   construction; 
the  terms  61,  B,  CL  and  CK  denote  those  of 
inferior  construction.    Iron  and  steel  ships  are 
designated  by  the  characters   /^,    A,    jj^,    with 
the  numerals  100,  05,  00,  etc.,  pre&ced  (100   A 
for  example),  and  referring  to  the  structural 
strength.    The  number  under  the  cross-arm  of 
the  ^   denotes  the  number  of  years  that  may 
elapse  before   the   vessel   must   be  resurveyed. 
An  interesting  account  of  the  development  of 
the  methods  of  classification  and  surveying  of 
the  British  Lloyds,  as  well  as  the  history  of  the 
society  itself,  will  be  found  in  Annals  of  Lloyd'a 
Regiater  of  Britiah  and  Foreign  Shipping  (Lon- 
don, 1884).    The  rules  for  the  building,  equip- 
ment and  classification  of  ships  are  not  given  m 
the  annual  Regiater  of  Shipping,  but  are  pub- 
lished separately  in  four  volumes,  one  for  steel 
vessels,  one  for  iron,  one  for  wooden  and  com- 
posite, and  one  for  yachts. 

AA,  ft.  The  name  of  a  number  of  rivers  and 
streams  in  Holland,  (Germany,  Switzerland,  Rus- 
sia, and  the  north  of  France.  As  man^  as  forty 
have  been  enumerated.  The  word  is  said  to  be  of 
Celtic  origin,  but  it  is  allied  to  the  O.  N.  d, 
O.  Ger.  a^,  Goth,  ahva,  identical  with  the  Lat. 
aqua,  "water."  Ach  or  Aach  is  another  form 
of  the  same  word.  Four  streams  of  the  name 
of  Ach  fall  into  the  Lake  of  Constance.  The 
word,  in  both  forms,  occurs  as  final  syllable 
in  many  names  of  places,  as  Fulda  (formerly 
Fuldaha),  Biberach,  Bieberich,  etc.  In  the 
plural  it  is  Aachen  (waters,  springs),  which  is 
the  German  name  of  Aix-la-Chapelle  (q.v.). 
Aix,  the  French  name  of  so  many  places  con- 
nected with  springs,  is  derived  from  Lat.  Aqua, 
which  became  in  O.  F.  Aiguea  and  then  Aiw, 
Compare  the  Celtic  Eak,  Ex,  Axe,  Quae, 

AACHEN,  Ho'en.    See  Aix-la-Chafelle. 

AAHHES.    See  Amasis. 

AALBOBG,  al'bOrK  (Eel-town).  A  city  of 
Denmark,  capital  of  the  Amt  of  Aalborg,  in  Jut- 
land, on  the  south  shore  of  the  Limfjord  (Map: 
Denmark,  CI).  The  town  has  a  cathedral,  a 
museum,  and  a  library  of  30,000  volumes.  It  is 
situated  on  one  of  the  branches  of  the  Danish 
State  Railway,  which  here  crosses  the  Limfjord 
on  an  iron  bridge  000  feet  long  and  16  feet  wide. 
The  manufactures  of  the  town  are  considerable, 
consisting  chiefly  of  brandy  and  spirits,  cotton 
goods,  dyed  articles,  cement,  and  lumber.  There 
is  an  electric  lighting  plant.  There  are  some  ship- 
building and  sea  trade,  the  latter  with  England, 
Norway,  and  Sweden,  for  the  most  part  in  vessels 
owned  by  citizens  of  the  town.  The  harbor  is  too 
shallow  for  large  vessels.  Aalborg  has  long  been 
an  important  commercial  centre.  It  was  plundered 


AALBOSO.  3 

by  Wallenstein  in  1627,  and  by  the  Swedes  in 
1644  and  1667.     Pop.,  1800,  10,503 ;  1001,  31,462. 

AALESUND.    See  Alesund. 

AAIiI  PASHA,  aa^  p&-8ha^  (1815-71).  A 
TorldBh  statesman  and  aiplomat.  He  entered 
the  public  service  at  fifteen  ^ears  of  age;  was 
chary^  d'affaires  in  London  m  1838,  and  from 
1841  to  1844  Ambassador  to  Great  Britain.  He 
then  became  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs,  and 
sereral  times  after  1852  was  Grand  Vizier.  He 
was  also  promoted  to  the  rank  of  Field-Marshal 
and  Pasha.  In  1856  he  represented  the  Porte 
at  the  Ck>ngres8  of  Paris,  and  in  1871  took  a 
prominent  part  in  the  London  conference  for  the 
settlement  of  the  Black  Sea  question.  He  was 
favorable  to  progress,  and  strove  earnestlj, 
though  ineffectually,  to  introduce  reforms  in  the 
Turkish  Government. 

AAIiST,  illst.    See  Alost. 

AAHy  or  AAHE,  ftr  (perhaps  connected  with 
Skt.  ara,  swift).  The  largest  tributary  of  the 
Bhine  in  Switzerland.  It  rises  in  the  glaciers 
near  the  Grimsel  in  Bern,  at  an  altitude  of  7345 
feet  (]Vfap:  Switzerland,  CI),  flows  northwest 
and  enters  Lake  Brienz  after  forming  the  famous 
falls  of  Handeck,  200  feet  high.  Issuing  from 
lAke  Brienz  it  enters  Lake  Thun,  passing  the 
town  of  Interlaken.  On  emerging  from  the  latter 
lake,  the  Aar  becomes  navigable,  and  after  a 
winding  course  westward  reaches  the  Jura 
Mountains,  and  flows  along  their  southern  slope 
down  to  its  confluence  with  the  Limmat,  where 
it  breaks  through  the  ridge  and  enters  the  Rhine 
near  Waldshut.  Its  entire  length  is  about  175' 
miles,  and  among  its  numerous  tributaries  the 
most  important  are  the  Saane,  Zihl,  and  Emme. 
Through  its  tributaries  the  Aar  is  connected 
with  some  of  the  principal  lakes  in  Switzerland. 
The  most  important  cities  on  its  banks  are  Bern, 
Interlaken,  Solothum,  and  Aarau.  There  are 
several  small  rivers  of  the  same  name  in  Ger- 
many. 

AASATT,  a'rou  {aar  -h  Ger.  Aue,  meadow, 
from  aha,  water).  Capital  of  the  canton  of 
Aargau,  Switzerland,  near  the  Jura  Mountains, 
on  the  right  bank  of  the  Aar,  41  miles  northeast 
of  Bern  (Map:  Switzerland,  C  1).  It  is  1100 
feet  above  sea  level,  and  lies  in  a  fertile  plain 
between  the  Jura  and  the  Swiss  plateau.  It  is 
well  built;  has  a  town  hall,  barracks,  several 
small  museums,  and  a  library  for  the  canton  of 
89.000  volumes,  rich  in  Swiss  historical  works. 
There  are  silk,  cotton,  leather,  and  cutlery  fac- 
tories, an  iron  foundry  famed  for  its  cannon  and 
bells,  and  other  workshops.  The  town  is  famous 
for  producing  excellent  mathematical  instru- 
ments. North  and  northeast  of  the  town  are 
the  Wasserfluh,  2850  feet  high,  and  the  Gisela- 
fluh,  2540  feet  high.  The  River  Aar  is  here 
crossed  by  a  suspension  bridge.  Eight  fairs  are 
held  at  Aarau  yearly.    Pop.,  1890,  7000. 

AASD-VABX,  ttrd'vArk'  (Dutch,  "earth- 
pig^).  A  burrowing,  nocturnal,,  insect-eating 
mammal  (Orycteropus  Capensis),  native  and 
common  in  South  Africa.  '  It  is  about  5  feet 
long,  including  a  long,  tapering,  naked  tail. 
The  head  is  long,  thin,  and  somewhat  pig-like, 
with  a  tubular  snout  and  high,  pointed  ears. 
The  body  is  stout,  fat,  and  thinly  covered  with 
bristly,  reddish  hairs.  The  limbs  are  short, 
strong,  and  equipped  with  claws  adapted  to  dig- 
ging m  hard  ground.    It  inhabits  open  regions. 


AABGAV. 

is  timid  and  mainly  nocturnal,  lives  in  burrows, 
and  feeds  upon  insects,  mainly  ants  and  termites, 
breaking  into  their  "hills"  and  gathering  them 
into  its  small  mouth  b^  means  of  its  long,  pro- 
trusile  tongue,  which  is  coated  with  glutinous 
saliva.  The  flesh  is  edible,  but  likely  to  taste 
of  the  formic  acid  in  its  food.  A  closely  allied 
species  (0.  /Sthiopious)  inhabits  northeastern 
Central  Africa.  These  two  animals  (with  sev- 
eral fossil  species)  represent  the  Orycteropo- 
did»,  a  family  of  Edentata  differing  from  the 
remainder  of  that  order  in  so  many  respects 
(including,  for  instance,  a  milk  dentition)  that 
some  naturalists  have  proposed  to  establish  a 
separate  order  for  it.    See  Plate  of  Ant-eatebs. 

AABD-WOLF  (Dutch,  "earth-wolf").  A  noc- 
turnal, carnivorous  mammal  {Protelea  lalandii) 
of  Soiith  Africa,  resembling  a  small  striped 
hvena  with  a  dog-like  head.  It  is  closely 
allied  to  the  hyena,  from  which  it  differs  mainly 
in  its  weak  jaws  and  peculiar  dentition,  which 
prevent  its  overcoming  and  eating  vertebrate 
prey  or  large  carrion.  Hence  its  food  consists  of 
small  carrion,  of  grubs,  and  largely  of  termites. 
Its  fur  is  coarse,  and  capable  of  erection  along 
the  back;  in  color  it  is  ashy-gray,  irregularly 
striped  up  and  down  and  around  the  legs  with 
black;  its  muzzle  is  black  and  nearly  naked; 
legs  and  feet  dark  brown  in  front  and  gray 
behind ;  ears  dark  brown  outside  and  gray  inside. 
It  goes  abroad  only  in  the  night,  and  several  are 
said  to  live  in  the  same  burrow.  It  is  the  sole 
representative  of  the  family  Protelids.  See 
Plate  of  Htenas. 

AABESTBX7P,  ^'re-stn^p,  Emil  (1800- 
1856).  A  Danish  poet,  bom  at  Copenhagen. 
He  was  little  regaraed  during  his  lifetime,  but 
since  the  publication  of  his  collected  poems, 
with  a  critical  essay  by  Georg  Brandes,  he  has 
been  deemed  one  of  the  first  lyrists  of  Denmark. 

AABGAV,  ftr^gou,  or  ABGOVIB,  nrgfr^. 
A  canton  of  northern  Switzerland,  with  an  area 
of  540  square  miles  (Map:  Switzerland,  CI). 
Its  surface  is  mostly  mountainous,  but  there 
are  a  number  of  fine  valleys.  The  chief  rivers 
are  the  Aar,  a  tributary  of  the  Rhine,  and  its 
tributaries,  the  Beuss  and  the  Turgi.  There  are 
a  number  of  mineral  springs.  The  soil  is  very 
fertile.  The  vine  is  cultivated  extensively  in 
the  river-valleys  and  the  output  of  dairy  prod- 
ucts is  considerable.  The  manufacturing  indus- 
tries are  well  developed  and  give  occupation  to 
about  18,000  people.  The  production  of  textiles 
is  the  chief  industry.  For  purposes  of  admin- 
istration the  canton  is  divided  into  eleven  dis- 
tricts. The  legislative  power  is  vested  in  the 
assembly  {Chroase  Rat),  elected  at  the  rate  of 
one  member  for  every  1100  inhabitants.  The 
executive  power  is  in  the  hands  of  a  council 
(Regierungarat)  of  five  members,  chosen  by  the 
assembly  for  a  period  of  four  years.  The 
referendum  is  frequently  resorted  to,  and  for 
private  initiative  m  legislation  5000  votes  are 
required.  In  the  National  Council  Aargau  is 
represented  by  ten  members.  The  population 
was  193,580  in  1890  and  206,460  in  1900.  The 
inhabitants  are  mostly  of  German  origin,  and 
the  (German  language  is  spoken  by  almost  the  , 
entire  population.  Capital,  Aarau.  Aargau,  in 
its  original  extent  much  larger  than  the  present 
canton,  was  a  part  of  ancient  Helvetia,  and 
was  subdued  by  the  Franks  in  the  fifth  cen- 
tury.   It    was    held    by    the   Hapsburgs    from 


AABGAV.  , 

1173  till  1415,  when  it  was  taken  from  them 
by  the  Swiss  Confederates,  who  gave  parts  of 
it  to  Bern  and  Lucerne.  In  1798  the  district 
was  divided  into  the  cantons  of  Aargau  and 
Baden,  which  became  members  of  the  Helvetic 
Confederation.  Ruled  mainly  by  the  aristocratic 
party,  Aargau  gained  a  liberal  constitution  in 
1831,  and  since  then  has  been  the  champion  of 
democracy  against  the  reactionists  and  the 
clericals.  Consult;  Historiache  Geaellachafi  dea 
Kantona  Aargau  (Aarau,  1898),  and  J.  Heierli, 
Die  Archdologiache  Karte  des  Kantona  Aargau 
(Aarau,  1899). 

AAJtHTTSy  ftr^lR^s.  A  seaport  and  episcopal 
city  of  Denmark,  capital  of  the  Amt  of  Aarhus, 
Jutland,  situated  on  a  bay  of  the  Kattegat,  in  a 
fertile  plain,  68  miles  northeast  of  Fredericia 
(Map:  Denmark,  D  2).  It  has  a  Gothic  cathe- 
dral, whose  erection  was  commenced  in  1201,  a 
museum,  an  exchange,  and  several  banks.  The  in- 
habitants are  engaged  in  shipbuilding  and  manu- 
facturing. The  town  is  connected  with  the  rest 
of  Jutland  by  the  State  Railroad,  and  there  are 
regular  lines  of  steamers  to  Copenhagen  and 
England.  The  harbor  is  well  protected  by  a 
breakwater,  and  admits  vessels  of  six  feet 
draught.  The  town  ranks  among  the  oldest  in 
Denmark,  for  it  had  the  first  Christian  church 
and  was  the  residence  of  a  bishop  in  948.  Aarhus 
was  the  scene  of  a  Danish  defeat  by  the  Prus- 
sians in  1849.     Pop.,  1890,  33,306;  1901,  51,909. 

AABONy  ar^tin.  A  Jewish  High  Priest  and 
elder  brother  of  Moses.  When  Moses  was  sent  on 
his  mission  of  deliverance  to  Pharaoh,  Aaron  was 
appointed  his  spokesman  and  performed  some 
miracles,  even  bringing  on  some  of  the  plagues. 
He  is  always,  however,  the  subordinate  of  Moses, 
from  whom  he  receives  his  ordination  as  High 
Priest.  (Ex.  xxix;  Lev.  viii  :  9.)  Aaron  was 
not  so  strong-minded  as  his  brother.  While 
Moses  was  absent  receiving  the  Ten  Command- 
ments, Aaron  acceded  to  the  importunities  of  the 
people  and  fashioned  for  them  the  golden  calf. 
Aaron  was  concerned  in  two  rebellions.  In  the 
first,  his  authority,  as  well  as  the  authority  of 
Moses,  was  called  into  question  by  the  Korahites 
(Num.  xvi).  The  miraculous  budding  of  the 
rod  of  Aaron  settled  that  dispute.  In  the  other, 
Aaron,  perhaps  inspired  by  Miriam,  rebelled 
against  the  authority  of  Moses,  but  here  Miriam 
was  punished.  Because  of  the  incident  at 
Meribah  (Num.  xx  :  8-13)  Aaron  was  not 
allowed  to  enter  Canaan,  but  died  and  was  bur- 
ied on  Mount  Hor,  on  the  confines  of  Idumsa. 
Elearar,  his  son,  succeeded  to  the  high  priest- 
hood. In  later  Hebrew  literature  Aaron  appears 
as  the  ideal  priest,  ''loving  peace,  pursuing 
peace''  {Ethica  of  the  Fathera,  I  :  12),  and  as 
the  great  conciliator.  Those  who  accept  the 
modem  Biblical  criticism  call  attention  to  the 
fact  that  it  is  only  in  the  Pentateuch,  which, 
they  assert,  is  post-exilic,  that  Aaron  is  re- 
garded as  the  ancestor  of  all  lawful  priests^ 
whereas  in  the  earlier  literature  he  is  merely  a 
prominent  figure  by  the  side  of  Moses  and  Mir- 
iam. The  prophet  Ezekiel  does  not  trace  the 
origin  of  the  Jerusalem  priesthood  farther  back 
than  to  Zadok,  who  lived  in  the  days  of  Solomon, 
^  and  when  we  come  to  the  Elohistic  history  ( see 
*  Elohist  and  Yahwist)  we  find  Joshua,  and 
not  Aaron,  assisting  Moses  in  the  exercise  of 
religious  rites.  In  the  Tahwistic  document  Aaron 
is  practically  ignored,  so  that  we  conclude 
that  the  picture  drawn  of  him  in  the  Priestly 


ABACO. 

Code  and  later  portions  of  the  Old  Testament 
is  part  and  parcel  of  the  "theocratic"  theory 
which  led  Hebrew  writers  to  reconstruct  Hebrew 
history  to  so  large  an  extent.    See  Moses. 

AABON.  A  character  in  the  Shakespearean 
play  of  Titua  Andronicua,  a  villainous  Moor. 
The  resemblance  of  Aaron's  brazen  avowal  of  his 
wickedness  in  the  last  act  of  this  play  to  a  sim- 
ilar passage  in  Marlowe's  Jew  of  Malta  has  been 
cited  as  an  indication  that  the  Titua  Andronicus 
may  possibly  owe  its  origin  to  the  same  author. 

AABSENS,  ar^sens,  Frans  van  (15721641). 
A  Dutch  diplomat.  At  twenty-six  years  of  age 
he  was  sent  to  Paris  as  the  agent  of  the  States- 
General;  later  he  became  ambassador  for  the 
United  Provinces,  and  long  represented  his  coun- 
try at  the  French  Court,  where  he  was  highly 
regarded  by  Richelieu.  He  was  also  at  different 
periods  Ambassador  to  Venice,  Germany,  and 
England.  Motley,-  who  considered  Aarsens  one 
of  the  ablest  diplomats  of  Europe,  shows  that 
he  contributed  largely  to  the  unrighteous  death 
of  Barneveldt,  1610. 

AASEN,  A^sen,  Ivar  Andreas  (1813-96).  A 
Norwegian  philologist.  He  was  born  at  S(5nd- 
m5re.  He  at  first  studied  botany,  but  subse- 
quently turned  his  attention  to  researches 
respecting  the  native  dialects.  Assisted  by  the 
Government,  he  traversed  nearly  the  whole  of 
Norway,  investigating  popular  speech,  upon 
which  he  sought  to  Ease  a  national  language 
that  should  be  free  from  Danish  infiuence.  In 
1848  he  published  Det  Norake  Folkeaproga  Oram- 
matik,  and  in  1850  added  Ordhog  over  det  Norake 
'Ffilkeaprog,  enlarged  under  the  title  of  Norak 
Ordhog  in  1873,  and  in  1856  Norake  Ordaprog, 
a  treatise  on  Norwegian  proverbs.  Through  his 
linguistic  work  he  was  the  originator  of  the 
patriotic  movement  generally  known  as  the 
"MaalstroBV." 

AASVAB,  fts'var.  Islands  off  Norway,  about 
latitude  66 '^  (Map:  Norway,  D  3).  They  have 
herring  fisheries,  in  which  more  than  10,000  men 
are  employed  in  December  and  January,  but  for 
the  rest  of  the  year  they  are  almost  deserted. 
The  fish  is  the  great  Nordland  herring,  and  the 
catch  often  reaches  200,000  tons  in  a  season. 

AASVOGEL,  as'f d-gd  ( South  African  Dutch, 
carrion-bird) .  Any  of  several  South  African  vul- 
tures. 

AB,  ftb.  The  fifth  month  of  the  Jewish  relig- 
ious year,  and  the  eleventh  ( in  intercalary  years 
the  twelfth )  of  the  Jewish  civil  year.  •  The  first 
day  of  Ab  becam^  a  fast  to  commemorate  the 
death  of  Aaron;  but  of  far  greater  significance 
is  the  ninth,  commemorated  as  a  fast  to  mark 
the  destruction  of  the  first  temple  by  Nebuchad- 
nezzar, 586  B.C.,  and  of  the  second  temple  by 
Titus,  70  A.D.,  though  there  is  no  evidence  to 
show  that  the  latter  ever  took  place  on  that  day 
of  the  month.  Ab  corresponds  roughly  to  July- 
August  of  the  common  year. 

ABAB'DE.  A  Hamitic  people  west  of  the 
Red  Sea,  below  Kosseir.  Their  habits  are  those 
of  the  desert,  the  camel  being  their  chief  domes- 
tic animal. 

AB^ACA.  A  term  used  in  the  Philippine 
Islands  to  designate  the  plant  which  produces 
manila  hemp.    See  Hemp,  Manila. 

ABACOn  &n[)&-k6,  or  Lucata,  Great  and 
LiTTu:.  T^o  of  the  Bahama  Islands,  150  miles 
east  of  Florida,  lat.  25*  51'  N.,  long.  77*  6'  W. 
(Map:  West  Indies,  J  1).    Together  they  cover 


ABALONE,     ETC. 


1.  ABATE   SHELL    (Aohatlrx),  V 
2.WIMa  SHELL   Uvlculi). 
«.AUaEn    SHELL    (TaralHl. 
4.  ARK  SHELL   Uro*}. 


9.  APPLEBNAIL  <Ainpul1(H(},  w 


G.  ABALONE  (Hallotli),  wlUi  animal  •■^ 
S.  ABALONE  ( I ntarler),  allowing  flallana 
T.  ANODON,  a  RIvar  Muaaal,  wlUi  fsM  a 
B.  EQOS   OF   APPLESNAIL. 


ABACO. 


ABANDONMENT. 


of  about  879  square  miles.  Shipbuild- 
ing, wrecking,  and  turtle-fishing  are  the  chief 
employments. 

AB^ACXrS  (Lat.,  from  Gk.  a^aJ^,  ahaaf) .  A  cal- 
culating machine  or  table  occasionally  employed 
in  modem  primary  schools  to  make  the  elemen- 
tary operations  of  arithmetic  palpable.  It  con- 
aista  of  a  frame  with  a  number  of  parallel  wires, 
on  which  beads  or  counters  are  strung.  In 
ancient  times  it  was  used  in  practical  reckoning, 

and  is  thus  used 
still  in  China,  Per- 
sia, and  elsewhere. 
The  ancient  abacus 
consisted  of  a  frame 
separated  by  ver- 
tical lines  into  col- 
umns denoting  the 
several  orders, 
units,  tens,  etc.  In  these  columns  counters 
were  set  to  denote  the  units  of  each  order. 
Counters  above  a  horizontal  line  denoted 
five  units.  In  the  Abacus  Pythagoricus  each 
counter  bore  a  number,  so  that  only  one  was 
needed  in  each  column,  and  more  complicated  op- 
erations could  be  performed.  See  Calculating 
Machines. 

ABACnS.  In  architecture,  a  square  or  oblong 
level  tablet  on  the  capital  of  a  column.  It  sup- 
ports the  entablature.  In  the  Doric,  Old  Ionic, 
and  Tuscan  orders,  the  abacus  is  a  regular 
oblong;  but  in  the  New  Ionic,  Corinthian,  and 


OHIHSSX  ABAOUS. 


A—Oothlc 


ABACUS. 


B— Doric. 


Boman  orders,  the  abacus  has  concave  sides,  with 
truncated  angles.  Square  marble  tablets  let 
into  walls,  and  fields  with  figures  in  them 
inserted  in  mosaic  floors,  were  also  included 
under  the  term  abacus  in  ancient  architecture. 

ABAD^  ft-b&d^  (Pers.  and  Hind.,  equivalent 
to  the  Engl,  abode).  An  affix  in  the  formation 
of  many  Oriental  geographical  names,  especially 
in  British  India  and  Persia,  as  Hyderabad  (Hai- 
darabad),  the  ''dwelling"  or  city  of  Hyder. 

ABAB  or  ABBAD.  Name  of  an  Arab  family 
of  Emesa,  from  which  descended  three  Moorish 
princes  of  Seville  known  as  Abadides.  Abad  I. 
(Mohammed  ibn  Ismail  Abu  al-Kasim  ibn  Abad) 
founded  the  Abadide  dynasty  in  Seville  during 
the  civil  wars  of  the  eleventh  century.  In  1023 
the  people  of  Seville  revolted  from  the  Caliph  of 
Cordova,  and  Abad,  cadi  of  the  city,  was  called  to 
the  head  of  affairs.  He  soon  seized  absolute  pow- 
er, maintained  his  position  against  the  efforts  of 
the  Caliph  to  bring  the  rebel  province  to  sub- 
mission, and  added  Cordova  to  his  possessions. 
He  died  in  1042  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son. 
Abad  II.  (Abu  Amr  ibn  Mutadid)  was  a  cruel 
ruler,  and  carried  on  petty  wars  against  his 
Moorish  neighbors  to  extend  his  dominions.  He 
was.  however,  forced  to  pay  tribute  by  Ferdinand 
L,  King  of  Castile  and  Leon.    He  died  in  1068. 


Abad  III.,  his  son  (Mohammed  ibn  Abad,  called 
Al-Mutamid),  was  a  poet  and  patron  of  letters. 
He  was  tolerant,  and  peaceably  added  a  part  of 
Portugal  to  his  kingdom.  Alfonso  VI.  of  Castile 
married  his  daughter,  and  the  alliance  roused  the 
jealousy  of  the  small  Moorish  princes,  who 
joined  with  the  Almoravides  of  Morocco  in  a 
league  by  which  Mohammed  and  Alfonso  were 
defeated.  He  died  in  a  prison  in  Moroeco  in  1095. 
Mohammed's  verses,  written  while  in  captivity, 
are  greatly  admired  by  Mohammedan  readers.  He 
was  the  last  of  the  Abadides,  whose  reign  ended 
in  the  conquest  of  the  Almoravides. 

ABAIXDON  (Heb.,  "ruin,"  "destruction").  In 
the  Old  Testament^  one  of  the  names  given  to 
Sheol,  or  rather  to  the  place  of  the  lost  in  Sheol ; 
only  once  used  in  the  New  Testament  (Rev.  ix. 
11),  and  then  as  the  proper  Hebrew  name  of  the 
King  of  the  Abyss,  whose  Greek  name  is  A  poll- 
yon.    See  Apooalyptio  Numbeb. 

ABAKA  KHAN,  VibS/kk  Hftn^  or  k&n^  See 
MoNooL  Dynasties. 

ABAKANSK,  a'b&-k£nsk^  A  foHified  vil- 
lage in  the  Government  of  Yeniseisk,  Siberia,  on 
the  right  bank  of  the  River  Yenisei  (Map:  Asia, 
J  3).  It  was  founded  by  Peter  the  Great  in 
1707,  and  is  situated  in  a  very  fertile  region  in 
the  vicinity  of  coal  mines  that  give  employment 
to  many  of  its  inhabitants. 

AB'ALCVNE  (Sp.,  of  unknown  origin).  A 
name  in  California  for  the  several  local  species 
of  marine  gastropods  (family  Haliotidse)  other- 
wise known  as  ear-shells  or  sea-ears;  represen- 
tatives are  niunerous  throughout  the  warmer 
seas  of  the  world,  except  the  western  Atlantic. 
The  shell,  although  having  the  shape  of  a  shal- 
low oval  saucer,  is  really  a  widely  flattened 
spiral,  the  apex  of  which  is  near  one  end,  while 
the  tumed-over  margin  is  the  columella.  (See 
illustrations  on  Plate  of  Abalone,  etc.)  The 
animal  creeps  about  rocks  near  the  shore,  spread- 
ing a  fringed  mantle,  and  extending  tentacles 
through  the  row  of  holes  in  its  shell;  it  feeds 
upon  seaweeds,  and  when  quiet  or  alarmed  with- 
draws all  soft  parts  beneath  the  shield-like  shell, 
and  sits  down  with  great  tenacity,  after  the 
manner  of  its  near  relatives,  the  limpets.  The 
lining  of  the  shell  is  a  layer  of  richly  colored 
mother-of-pearl,  much  used  for  inlaying  and  for 
the  manufacture  of  small  ornaments,  buttons, 
etc.  The  animals  are  eaten,  especially  by 
Orientals,  and  great  quantities  of  them  are 
collected  and  dried  on  the  coast  of  California, 
not  only  for  consumption  by  the  local  Chinese, 
but  for  export  to  China  and  Japan.  A  species 
in  the  Channel  Islands,  England,  is  regularly 
collected  for  food,  and  is  called  ormer, 

ABANCAY,  a'B&n-kl^  The  chief  city  of  the 
department  of  Apurimac,  Peru,  65  miles  west- 
southwest  of  Cuzco,  on  the  Abancay  (Map: 
Peru,  C  6 ) .  It  possesses  extensive  sugar  refiner- 
ies, and  is  the  centre  of  the  best  sugar-growing 
district  in  Peru.  There  are  also  several  silver 
mines  in  the  neighborhood.    Pop.,  1889,  3000. 

ABANa>OKMENT.  The  varying  and  dis- 
similar significations  of  this  term,  in  different 
branches  of  the  law,  render  a  single  definition 
of  it  impracticable.  For  its  most  important 
meanings  in  private  law,  see  Easement;  Insub- 
ANCE ;  Patents,  and  Propebtt. 

In  criminal  law,  abandonment  is  the  inten- 
tional exposure  or  desertion  of  a  dependent  per- 


ABANDONKBirr.  ( 

BOD  hy  one  who  ii  under  a.  legal  duty  of  proUct- 
ing  and  maintain i&g  him.  A  parent  or  a  euard- 
tan  of  the  person  of  a  young  child  is  guilty  of 
a  misdemeanor  at  common  law  if  the  child  is 


der.  At  present,  the  offense  is  Eenerally  defined 
by  statute.  In  some  States  it  has  been  extend- 
ed to  the  abandonment  of  a  disabled  or  infirm 
animal  in  a  public  place.  Consult:  Wharton, 
'Criminal  Law  (Philadelphia,  iSSe)  ;  Bishop. 
Commentaries  on  Criminal  Law  (Boston,  1995). 
ABANO,  D'b&-nO,  PiETBO  Di  (1260-1316).  An 
Italian  physician  and  astrologer,  profeeeor  of 
medicine  in  Padua.  He  became  famous  through 
hfi  work,  Conoiliator  Differentiarum,  qtia  inter 
Philosophos  et  Medico*  Veraantur  (Mantua, 
1472),  the  object  of  which  was  to  reconcile  the 
philosophy  and  medicine  of  the  time.  His  fame 
as  a  HcientiBt  and  his  enormous  popularity  as  a 
physician  aroused  the  envy  of  less  successful 
men.  Charges  of  heresy  and  atheiBm  were 
brought  against  him,  and  he  was  arraigned 
before  the  Inquisition,  but  died  in  prison  before 
the  end  of  the  trial. 

ABABBAITEL,    ft-sSrlii-Del'.    See    Abraba- 


abl^  the  "parts  beyond,"  and,  when 
article,  applied  to  a  range  of  mountains  in  the 
land  of  Moah,  east  of  the  Jordan  and  facing 
Jericho,  which  wat  ]>lainly  visible  in  the  dis- 
tance. The  highest  point  of  the  range  was  Mount 
Mebo,  the  place  where  Moses  closed  his  earthly 
career  (Deuteronomy  xxxii  :  49). 

AB'ARIB  (Qk.  •ABapif).  A  legendary  hyper- 
borean miracle- worker,  possessor  of  a  magic  ar- 
row of  Apollo,  an  which  he  could  ride  through  the 
air.  His  story  probably  originated  in  the  mysti- 
cal movements  of  the  sixth  century  B.C.,  though 
Abarfs  is  first  mentioned  by  Pindar  and  Herodo- 
tus. The  New  Platonists  elaborated  the  legend 
and  made  Abaris  a  companion  of  Pythagoras. 

ASASCAI.,  S'BAs-kll'.  Joet  Tebvajivo  (1743- 
1821).  A  Spanish  statesman  and  general.  He 
entered  the  army  in  17G2;  became  Governor  of 
Cuba  in  ITS6;  was  Viceroy  of  Peru  from  1806 
to  181R;  in  1816  he  was  made  a  marquis.  He 
was  noted  for  administrative  ability,  firmness, 
and  moderation. 

AXABIA,  A-bH's^A.     See  Abkhasia. 

ABABOLO,  S'Bft-sSIA,  Mariano  (17S0M819). 
A  Mexican  revolutionist,  bom  at  Dolores,  Guana- 
juato. He  participated  in  the  revolution  started 
by  Hidalgo  in  1810,  and  rose  to  be  a  major-gen- 
eral. He  fought  at  Puente  de  CalderAn.  was 
taken  prisoner  by  the  Spaniards,  was  tried  at 
Chihuahua,  and  was  sentenced  to  ten  years' 
imprisonment  at  Cadis,  where  he  died. 

ABATEIEBNT  (O.  7.  lessening,  from  Lat. 
a,  away  +  batuere,  to  beat) .  A  term  used  in 
various  senses  in  the  common  law  of  England  and 
the  United  SUtes,  as  follows;  (1)  Abatement  of 
Freefiold.  The  unlawful  entry  upon  and  taking 
possession  of  an  estate  of  inheritance  by  a 
stranger  after  the  death  of  the  ancestor  and 
before  the  heir  or  devisee  has  become  seized  of 
the  estate  by  entry.  See  Prkxhoui;  SraaiN. 
(2)  Abatement  of  Jfuitaneet.  A  remedy  against 
injury  by  nuisance  by  removal  of  the  nuisance. 
8m  Nuisance.  (3)  Plea  in  Abatement.  A  plead- 


ABATZS. 

y  the  defends  _  _      

complaint  or  declaration  by  which  th« 
defendant,  on  some  formal  and  technical  ground, 
seeks  to  abate  or  quash  the  action.  If  sustained 
it  does  not  determine  the  merits  of  the  contro- 
versy, but  requires  the  plaintiff  to  begin  his 
action  anew.  See  Action;  Puunino.  (4)  Abate- 
ment of  Legacies,  A  reduction  of  the  amount  of 
lefties  when  the  estate  of  the  testator  is  insuf- 
ficient to  pay  debts  and  legacies  In  full.  See 
IiKOACT.  (S)  Abatement  of  Buil.  Suspension  of 
proceedings  in  a  suit  in  Chancery  tor  want  of 
proper  parties  to  proceed  with  the  suit.  Abate- 
ment may  result  from  the  death,  ehan^  of 
interest  of  a  party,  or  marriage  of  the  plaintiff, 
if  a  woman.  After  abatement  the  suit  may  be 
revived  and  proceeded  with  by  the  legal  repre- 
sentative of  the  deceased  party,  or  by  the  hus- 
band of  the  plaintiff,  if  a  woman.  Action  at 
law  when  abated  could  not  be  revived  as  in 
equity.  This,  however,  is  now  permitted  by 
statute.  See  article  on  AonoH.  (6)  Abatement 
OT  discount  in  commercial  law.  (7)  Abatement 
or  deduction  of  duties  levied  by  the  custom- 
house. See  articles  on  Customs  Duties;  Draw- 
back. (8)  Abatement  or  reduction  of  taxes 
imposed  on  any  person.  Regulated  wholly  1^ 
statute.    Bee  Tax. 

ASATEKEHT,  In  heraldry,  an  addition  to 
the  paternal  coat  of  arms,  to  indicate  some  base 
or  ungentleman-like  act  on  the  part  of  the  bear- 
er. Ttis  coat  is  then  said  to  be  abated,  or  low- 
ered in  dignity.  Marks  of  abatement  are  repu- 
diated bv  the  best  heraldic  authorities.  Menes- 
trier  calls  them  aottitet  anglaiaea,  and  Montagu 
is  of  opinion  that  we  shall  seek  in  vain  for  a 
mare  appropriate  designation.  Abatements  are 
carefully  to  be  distinguished  from  such  subtract- 
Ive  alterations  In  coata  of  arms  as  si^Ify  junior- 
ity of  birth,  or  removal  from  tlie  principal  house 
or  senior  branch  of  the  family.  These  are  com- 
monly called  marks  of  cadency,  distinctions,  dif- 
ferences, or  brisures.  The  latter  term  is  gen- 
erally applied  to  marks  of  bastardy,  though 
these  are  sometimes  classed  with  abatements. 

ABATI,  A-Ut't«,  NioooTX)  dell'.    See  Abbate. 

AB'ATIB  ( Fr.  abatia,  mass  of  crushed 
objects).  A  military  defense,  used  for  the  pur- 
pose of  retarding  an  enemy's  advance.  It  is  a 
device  as  old  as  the  art  of  war  itself,  and  still 
used  under  certain  conditions,  or  in  positions 
where  wire  entanglements  are  neither  possible  nor 


available.  It  consists  of  trees  felled  and  placed 
side  l^  side,  the  stronger  boughs  and  branches 
intertwined,  and  pointed  in  the  direction  of  the 
enemy.  In  the  case  of  intrenehmenta  of  a  mors 
permanent  character,  the  abatis  is  built  in  a 


ABATI& 

■light  depression  in  front  of  the  trench  or  ditch, 
•o  that  it  is  fairly  safe  from  artillery  fire. 

ABATTOIB>      rbA'twftr^.     See   Slavohteb^ 
Houses. 

ABAXJZIT,  A'h^sA^,  FnuffiN  (1670-1767).  A 
French  scholar.  He  was  horn  in  Languedoe  and 
died  at  Geneva.  His  parents  were  Protestants, 
and  at  the  revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes 
he  was  sent  to  Geneva.  Here  he  studied  dili- 
gently, and  became  versed  in  almost  all  the 
sciences.  He  traveled  in  England  and  Holland 
in  1698.  William  III.  wished  to  retain  him 
permanently  in  England,  but  his  affection  for 
his  mother  induced  him  to  return  to  Geneva. 
He  translated  the  New  Testament  into  French 
in  1726,  and  for  his  lucid  investigations  into  the 
ancient  history  of  Geneva  he  received  from  its 
authorities  the  rights  of  citizenship.  He  was 
the  author  of  numerous  theological  and  archieo- 
logical  treatises.  His  orthodoxy  has  been  dis- 
puted. Rousseau,  who  could  not  bear  to  praise 
a  contemporary,  penned  his  solitary  panegyric  on 
Abauzit  m  the  Nouvelle  H^Unse,  In  the  course 
of  his  long  life  Abauzit  became  the  friend  of 
Newton,  Bayle,  and  Voltaire. 


^  (Gk.    a/GT/Sa).    The   Aramaic  form  of 

the  Hebrew  word  for  father.    It  occurs  three 
times  in  the  New  Testament  as  a  form  of  address 
to  the  Deity    (Mark  xiv  :  36;    Rom.  viii  :  16; 
Gal.  iv  :  6 ) ,  where  its  meaning  in  Greek  is  added, 
for  the  benefit  of  readers  unfaviiliar  with  He- 
brew.    In    Talmudic   literature    it    occurs    fre- 
quently as  a  title  of  honor  addressed  to  a  scholar, 
and  also  enters  into  the  composition  of  proper 
names.    The  title  Abba  is  frequently  met  with  in 
ecclesiastical  literature  and  is  applied  to  the  bish- 
ops of  the  Syriac,  Coptic,  and  Etniopic  Churches. 
ABBABIE,   A'bA'dA',   Antoine   Thomson   d' 
(1810-97),  and  Abnaud  Michel  d' .(1815-03). 
Two  French  explorers,  brothers,  born  in  Dublin. 
They  were  known  for  their  researches  in  Abys- 
sinia, from   1837  to   184^.     According  to  their 
own  account/  their  objects  were  purely  ethno- 
logical and  geographical ;  but  they  were  regarded 
by  certain  English  travelers  and  missionaries  as 
agents  employed  by  the  French  Government  for 
religious    and    political    purposes.     Among   the 
results   of   their   travels   were   a   catalogue   of 
Ethiopic  MSS.,  an  edition  of  the  Ethiopic  ver- 
sion of  the  Pastor  of  Hermas,  and  the  GMlMe  de 
la  Eaute-Ethiopie  (1860-73).    The  English  expe- 
dition to  Abyssinia  led  Amaud  to  publish,  in 
1868,    his   Douze   ans   dans   la  Haute-Eihiopie. 
Antoine  published  a  Dietionnairs  de  la  langue 
Amarinna  in  1881. 


Persia;  known  as  "the  Great.^  He  was  the 
•youngest  son  of  Shah  Mohammed  Khodabendeh. 
He  rose  in  rebellion  against  his  father  and  mined 
possession  of  the  throne  at  the  age  of  ei^teen. 
In  1597  he  defeated  the  Uzbdcs  in  a  ereat  battle 
near  Herat,  and  drove  them  from*  the  country. 
During  many  campaigns  against  the  Turks  he 
added  a  great  deal  of  territorr  to  his  possessions. 
He  overthrew  the  Turks  and  Tartars  near  Sul- 
tanieh  and  extorted  an  advantageous  peace  from 
them  (1618).  Upon  the  renewal  of  hostilities 
he  captured  Bagdad  after  a  year's  siege,  in  1623. 
His  reign  was  marked  by  the  magnificence  of 
his  court  and  by  the  many  impor&nt  reforms 
which  he  introduced.    See  Persia. 

ABBAS  I.,  PASHA,  UlAAs  p&-shft^  (1813- 
54).  Viceroy  of  Egypt  and  grandson  of  Mehemet 
Ali.  He  was  active  but  not  distinguished  in 
Mehemet's  wars  in  Syria.  After  Ibrahim's 
short  reign,  he  took  the  throne  (1848)  as  hered- 
itary successor,  and  proved  a  cruel  and  capricious 
ruler.  He  dismissed  all  Eui'opeans  from  State 
service,  and  in  general  was  a  foe  to  civilization. 
In  the  Crimean  War  he  assisted  the  Sultan  of 
Turkey  with  his  fleet  and  15,000  men.  It  is 
supposed  that  he  was  murdered. 

ABBAS  n.,  HiLMi,  K.G.C.  (1874—).  Khe- 
dive of  Egypt;  eldest  son  of  Tewfik  Pasha.  He 
was  educated  at  Vienna,  and  succeeded  his  father 
in  1892.  Though  his  attitude  toward  England 
in  Egypt  is  unfriendly,  he  has  carried  on  his 
government  under  British  supervision  since  his 
abortive  attempt  to  form  an  anti-British  cabinet 
(1893).    See  EGYPT. 

ABBAS  Ibn  Abd  al  Muttaub,  ftb^fts  Vn 
abd^  61  m?S9t-Ua«b  (566-652).  Paternal  uncle 
of  Mohammed.  He  was  at  first  a  determined 
opponent  of  his  nephew,  but  his  defeat  in  battle 
at  Bedr  was  followed  bv  his  conversion,  after 
which  he  became  one  ot  the  chief  apostles  of 
Islamism.  He  was  the  progenitor  of  the  Abbas- 
side  caliphs  of  Bagdad. 


If  Jacques  (I654T-1727).  A  French 
Protestant  theologian,  who  died  in  London.  Of 
a  poor  familv,  he  was  educated  by  his  friends, 
and  advanced  so  rapidly  that  at  seventeen  he 
was  granted  the  degree  of  doctor  of  theology  at 
Sedan.  He  spent  several  years  in  Berlin  as 
piinister  of  the  French  Protestant  church,  and 
in  1688  accompanied  Marshal  Schomberg  to 
England,  becoming  minister  of  the  French 
church  in  London  called  "La  Savoye."  He  was 
strongly  attached  to  the  cause  of  William  III., 
who  made  him  dean  of  Killaloe,  Ireland.  He 
wrote  a  defense  of  the  English  revolution  of 
1688,  but  was  best  known  by  his  theological 
works,  the  most  important  of  which  was  Traiii 
de  la  vMU  de  la  religion  chriiienne  (1684). 

r,    ftVbAs     (1557-1628).    Shah    of  ^ 


,,  ^V\A%  mer^2&  (1783-1833). 
A  Persian  prince,  the  son  of  Fath  Ali  Shah.  He 
possessed  great  ability,  and  was  a  friend  of  West- 
ern civilization.  As  provincial  Governor  of 
Azerbijan,  he  applied  himself,  with  the  aid  of 
English  officers,  to  the  reform  of  the  army.  He 
commanded  the  main  Persian  army  in  the  unsuc- 
cessful war  with  Russia,  which  was  concluded  by 
the  peace  of  Gulistan  in  1813,  when  Persia  lost 
its  remaining  possessions  in  the  Caucasus,  and 
was  forced  to  acknowledge  the  fiag  of  Russia  on 
the  Caspian  Sea.  At  the  instigation  of  Abbas, 
a  new  war  broke  out  in  1826,rotwe6n  Fath  AH 
and  Russia.  The  Prince  fought  a  second  time 
with  extraordinary  bravery  at  the  head  of  the 
army,  but  was  again  obliged  to  yield  to  the 
superiority  of  the  Russian  arms,  and  to  conclude 
a  peace,  on  February  22,  1828,  at  Turkmanchai, 
by  which  Persia  lost  most  of  her  Armenian  terri- 
tory. In  this  treaty,  Russia  guaranteed  to  Abbas 
the  succession  to  the  Persian  throne.  When,  in 
1829,  the  Russian  ambassador  at  Teheran  was 
murdered  in  a  popular  tumult,  which  he  had 
provoked  by  his  own  imprudence,  Abbas  went  in 
person  to  St.  Petersburg,  to  prevent  any  ill  con- 
sequences, and  to  maintain  the  peace.  He  was 
received  by  the  Emperor  with  kindness,  and  went 
back  to  Persia  loaded  with  presents.  His  eldest 
son,  Mohammed  Mirza,  mounted  the  throne  in 
1834.    See  Persia. 


ABBASSIPES.  8 

ABBAB^TDEBfTia:  {AT.alr'Ahhaaiyah).  CA-  later    ones    at    Bologna,   among    which    is   Us 

liphs  of  Bagdad,  and  the  most  celebrated  Moslem  "Adoration  of  the   Shepherds,"   considered  his 

dynasty,  although  their  rule  never  extended  over  .  finest ;  but  he  is  best  known  by  the  frescoes  which 

the  whole  of  Islam,  as  had  that  of  the  Ommiads  he  executed  for   the  i)alace   of   Fontainebleau, 

(q.v.)-    I^  was   never   acknowledged   in   Spain-  from  the  designs  of  Primaticcio.    His  "Martvr- 

and  only  nominally  in  Africa  outside  of  Egypt*  dom  of  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul"  is  in  the  Dresden 

Theirs  was,  however,  the  true  caliphate,  notwith-  Gallery. 

standing    the    rival    claims    of    Cordova.    The  ABBAZIA,   a'b&-ts6'A.    An  Austrian   health 

Abbassides    claimed    descent    i^om    Abbas,    the  resort,  charmingly  situated  at  the  head  of  the 

uncle  and  adviser  of  Mohammed  (566-652  A.D.).  q^j^  ^f  Quarnero(Adriatic Sea), nine  miles  west- 

The  rivalry  between  the  family  of  Abbas  and  the  northwest  of  Fiume  (Map :  Austria,  D  4) .    Well 

Ommiads  broke  out  into  open  war.     In  747  Ibra-  gheltered,  Abbazia  is  a  favorite  summer  and  win- 

him,  the  head  of  the  Abbasside  faction,  was  over-  ^^^  resort,  with  a  mean  temperature  of  50**  F. 

thrown  by  the  Caliph  Merwan  and  put  to  death,  jjj  winter  and  77°  F.  in  summer.    It  has  a  Kur- 

biit  three  years  later  his  brother,  Abu  al-Abbas,  ^^^^^  various  bathing  institutions,  and  the  Carol 

who   had   proclaimed    himself    rightful    Caliph,  promenade,  built  in  1896  at  the  expense  of  the 

defeated  Merwan  in  a  great  battle  near  the  river  j^.        ^^   Rumania.     The    population   is   about 

Zab    and    established    his    line    firmly    on    the  jgOO,  mostly  Croats. 

throne.    In  Spain,  however,  Abd  al-Rahman,  one  ^'^    .i.-     nn.    ^        x.             t             uu  * 

of   the   Ommiads,   who   had   escaped   from    the  ABB^,  A lA^    The  French  name  for  an  abbot 

general  destruction  of  his  house,  succeeded  in  (qjV.),  but  often  used  in  the  general  sense  of  an 

fstablishing  the  great  independent  emirate,  or  unbeneficed    Roman    Catholic    priest.     By    the 

kingdom    ("subsequently  caliphate)    of  Cordova  ^^'^^^^^  ^^^j;^^^^^ 

It  was  long  befole  the  rulers  of  Spain  assumed  X.  and  Francis  I.  (August  18, 1516),  the  French 

the  tlMe  of  Caliph.     The  successor  of  Abu  al-  ^^J^f  ^^^  the  right  to  nominate  upward  of  200 

Abbas,  Alman^ur*^  made  Bagdad  the  capital  of  fUs  commendataxres,  who,  without  having  any 

his    eipire.    Under   his    followers    the    empire  duty  to  perform,  drew  a  considerable  proportion 

enioved  comnarative  oeace  and  attained  to  a  *^^  *'*®  revenues  of  the  convents.    The  hope  of 

spfendid     development!^     The     caliphs     became  ^^^3^^  ^^^^fnf'^^^^ 

the    patrons  of    literature,    art,  and    learning,  of  young  men,  many  of  them  of  noble  birth   to 

and  their  courts  were  thi  homes  of  the  mo?t  ^^^^f  i^\;^^"?f^  ^^^T•'  '^^.^'  ^P^e^fr,  seldom 

extreme  luxury.     The  caliphs  Harun  al-Rashid  went  further   than  taking  the  inferior  orders 

(786-809)    and   al.Mamun( 813-833/    were    fa-  i^»^^,P»?=«8,^^Ho^^^^^ 

«nce.  Bu 

oPPer8iarruxu^,\nrthey^|^ad^^^^^    c^"s^lo  fS^^f^^  ^V  f.  short  black  or  violet-colored  frock, 

be  relied  upon  for  military  ^rvice.    In  Africa  J^^  f  peculiar  style  of  wearing  the  hair    was 

and  in  the  northeastern  part  of  Persia,  emirs  found  as  friend  or  ghostly  adviser  m  almost 

seized   the   opportunity   tb   declare   themselves  every  family  of  consequence,    \\hen  a  candidate 

independent;    Jn   the   west   the   Greek    Empire  obtained  aji  abbey,  he  was  enjoined  to  take  holy 

showed  a  revival  of  energy;  but  the  real  danger  orders;    but  many  procured  dispensation,  and 

came,  as  with  the  Roman  Empire,  from  an  alien  *^^i""*^  *%'!''?'^  .^v®  revenues  as  secular  or  lay- 

soldiery.     Mutesim     (833-842)    had    formed    a  ^^^<»-    ^^  ^^^J  t^®/*"®  ""^^  ^^  unbeneficed 

body-guard  of  Turks,  and  these  in  time  seized  ^^^^f^  ^^^  ^^^^  ahhate, 

upon  the  real  powers  of  government.  They  AB'BE,  Cleveland  (1838 — ).  An  American 
nnsassinated  Mutawakkil,  the  son  of  Mutasim,  astronomer,  meteorologist,  and  educator,  bom  in 
in  861,  and  in  the  following  century  forced  the  New  York  City.  He  graduated  in  1867  at  the 
caliphs  to  delegate  the  chief  powers  of  govern-  Free  Academy  (now  the  College  of  the  City  of 
ment  to  their  commander.  Gradually  the  empire  New  York) ,  and  studied  astronomy  with  F.  Briin- 
of  the  Abassides  became  contracted,  until  it  was  now  at  Ann  Arbor  (1858-60)  and  with  B.  A.  Gould 
finally  narrowed  down  to  Bagdad  and  the  sur-  at  Cambridge  (1860-64).  From  1864  to  1866  he 
rounding  territory.  In  1258  Hulaku  Khan,  the  resided  at  the  observatory  at  Pulkova,  Russia, 
Mongol  ruler  of  Persia,  burned  Bagdad  and  put  and  from  1868  to  1873  was  director  of  the  Cin- 
the  ruling  Caliph  to  death.  Depriv^  of  all  poiit-  cinnati  Observatory,  where  he  inaugurated  a 
ical  power,  the  Abbassides  found  refuge  with  the  svstem  of  daily  weather  forecasts  based  upon 
Mameluke  rulers  of  Egypt,  who  paid  them  simultaneous  meteorological  observations  report- 
respect  as  the  spiritual  heads  of  the  Moham-  ed  by  telegraph.  This  led  to  the  establishment 
mcdan  world.  The  last  of  the  Abbassides,  of  a  similar  system  by  the  Government;  and  in 
Mutawakkil  III.,  died  in  1538  at  Cairo,  where  December,  1870,  Professor  Abbe  was  called  to 
he  was  living  under  the  protection  of  the  Washington  to  prepare  the  official  weather  pre- 
Turkish  Sultan.  Consult:  Muir,  The  Caliphate  dictions  and  storm  warnings,  and  was  appointed 
(London,  1891)  ;  Syed  Ameer  Ali,  A  Short  Hia^  professor  of  meteorology  in  the  Weather  Bureau. 
tory  of  th4i  Saracens  (New  York,  1809) ;  and  To  him  is  due  the  initiation  in  May,  1879,  of  the 
the  more  elaborate  work,  Weil,  Oeschichte  der  movement  toward  the  introduction  of  the  present 
Chalifen  (Mannheim  and  Stuttgart,  1846-62).  system  of  standard  time  and  hourly  meridians. 
ABBATB,  &b-btt'tA,  or  ABATI,  &-ba't«,  Nic-  lu  January,  1873,  he  prepared  the  first  official 
coLd  DELL*  (1512-71).  An  Itelian  painter,  who  Monthly  Weather  Review,  which  has  continued 
was  bom  at  Modena  and  died  at  Fontaine-  under  his  editorship.  He  is  professor  of  meteor- 
bleau.  He  was  an  able  and  skillful  artist  ology  in  Columbian  University,  Washington, 
in  fresco-painting,  and  was  a  follower  both  of  lecturer  on  meteorology  in  Johns  Hopkins  Uni- 
Baphael  and  Correggio;  yet  he  rather  blended  the  versity,  Baltimore,  and  a  member  of  the  National 
two  styles  in  one  than  imitated  either  separately.  Academy  of  Sciences.  He  received  the  degree  of 
His  earlier  works  are  to  be  seen  at  Modena,  hla  LIi.I>.  from  the  University  of  Michigan  in  1887, 


9 


and  from  the  Universitj  of  Glasgow  on  the  occa- 
sion of  the  Kelvin  Jubilee  in  1896.  Among  his 
pnblieations  may  be  mentioned  the  Annual  Sum- 
mary and  Review  of  Progress  in  Meteorology 
(1873-88)  ;  Treatise  on  Meteorological  Appara- 
tus and  Methods  (1887);  Preparatory  Studies 
for  Deductive  Methods  in  Storm  and  Weather 
Predictions  (1880);  The  Mechanics  of  the 
Earth's  Atmosphere  (1891). 


Jk\/he,  Ebnst  (1840-1906).  A  Ger- 
man physicist.  He  was  bom  at  Eisenach,  Thu- 
ringia,  and  after  studying  at  the  universities  of 
Jena  and  Gdttingen  became  assistant  at  the 
astronomical  observatory  in  Grdttingen  and  lec- 
turer before  the  Physical  Society  of  Frankfort- 
on-tbe-Main.  In  1870  he  was  made  professor 
at  Jena,  where  he  had  lectured  since  1863,  and 
in  1878  he  became  director  of  the  astronomical 
and  meteorological  observatories.  In  1891  he 
gave  up  his  ordinary  professional  duties.  In 
addition  to  his  work  in  pure  science  Abbe  is 
known  for  the  part  he  played  in  the  design  and 
perfection  of  optical  instruments.  In  1866  lie 
became  connected  with  the  optical  establishment 
of  Carl  Zeiss  in  Jena,  and  largely  as  a  result 
of  his  experimental  work  the  instruments  and 
lenses  manufactured  by  this  firm  have  main- 
tained a  high  degree  of  excellence  and  have  dis- 
played many  improvements.  Especially  has  the 
improvement  been  marked  in  photographic  and 
microscopic  lenses.  Abbe  invented  the  refracto- 
meter  which  bears  his  name,  and  was  the  author 
of  Neue  Apparate  zur  Bestimmung  des  Brech- 
ungS'  und  Zerstreuungsvermogens  fester  und 
fiiissiger  Korper  (Jena,  1874). 


The  superior  of  a  religious  com- 
munity of  women,  who  corresponds  in  rank  and 
authority  to  an  abbot  (q.v.),  except  that  she  is 
not  allowed  to  exercise  the  spiritual  functions 
of  the  priesthood — ^such  as  preaching,  confession, 
etc.  Nor  can  she  release  her  nuns  from  their 
vows  or  suspend  or  dismiss  them.  Her  personal 
confessor  and  those  for  her  nunnery  must  be 
approved  by  the  bishop.  The  Council  of  Trent 
decreed  that  her  electors  must  be  professed  nuns 
and  that  she  must  be  at  least  forty  years  old 
and  an  inmate  of  the  nunnery  over  which  she 
was  to  preside  for  at  least  the  eight  previous 
years. 


XE,  Ab'vW  (Fr.,  "city  of  the  Ab- 
bey," of  St.  Riquier).  Capital  of  the  arron- 
iiissement  of  Abbeville,  in  the  department  of 
Somme,  France  (Map:  France,  HI).  Abbeville 
is  built  partly  on  an  island,  and  partly  on  the 
banks  of  the  River  Somme.  The  streets  are  nar- 
row, and  the  picturesque  houses  are  built  mostly 
of  brick  and  wood.  The  building  most  worthy  of 
notice  is  the  church  of  St.  Wolfran,  commenced 
in  the  reign  of  Louis  XII.,  a  splendid  example 
of  the  flamboyant  style.  Its  city  hall,  built  in 
1209.  is  a  curious  medieval  structure;  the 
library,  containing  45,000  volumes,  dates  from 
1690.  The  chief  manufactures  of  Abbeville  are 
velvets,  serges,  cottons,  linens,  sacking,  hosiery, 
Jewelry,  soap,  glassware,  glue,  paper,  etc.  It 
IS  on  the  Northern  Railway,  and  is  connected 
by  canals  with  Amiens,  Paris,  Lille,  and  Bel- 
gium, Vessels  of  between  150  and  200  tons  can 
•afl  up  the  Somme  as  far  as  Abbeville,  which  is 
twelve  miles  from  that  river's  mouth  in  the 
British  Channel.  Abbeville  is  well  known  in 
the  scientific  world  from  the  remarkable  fossil 
TcmaSnB  of  extinct  mammals,  as  well  as  the 
Vol.  L— 8. 


flint  implements  of  prehistoric  man,  which  have 
been  discovered  in  its  neighborhood.  Pop.,  1896, 
17,781 ;  1901,  20,388. 

ABBEVnXE,  aVb^vIl.  A  town  and  county 
seat  of  Abbeville  Co.,  S.  C,  105  miles  west  of 
the  State  capital.  Columbia,  on  the  Southern 
and  the  Seaboara  Air  Line  railroads  (Map: 
South  Carolina,  B  2).  It  is  in  an  agricultural 
end  cotton  growing  region,  and  the  principal 
industries  are  cotton  ginning,  cottonseed  oil 
pressing,  flour  and  feed  milling,  and  brick  mak- 
ing.   Pop.,  1890,  1696;  1900,  3766. 

ABBEVILLE  (%b'v«K)  TREATIES.  Louis 
IX.  of  France  appears  to  have  doubted  the  validity 
of  his  title  to  some  of  the  former  possessions  of 
the  English  princes ;  and  so  after  seventeen  years 
of  intermittent  discussion  the  difficulty  was 
settled  in  a  treaty  of  peace  with  Henry  III. 
This  treaty,  named  from  Abbeville,  where  the 
two  kings  met,  and  dated  May  20,  1259,  was  in 
reality  negotiated  with  Earl  Simon  de  Montfort 
^t  Paris  and  concluded  with  Henry  during  his 
visit  to  France,  November,  1259,  to  April,  1260. 
By  its  terms  Henry  surrendered  all  claim  to 
Normandy,  Touraine,  Maine,  Anjou,  and  north- 
ern Saintonge;  receiving  from  Louis  in  return 
P(^rigord,  Limousin,  southern  Saintonge,  and 
some  other  territory  south  of  the  Loire,  to  be 
held  as  fiefs.  Henry  gave  up  the  titles  of  Duke 
of  Normandy  and  Count  of  Anjou ;  while  as  Duke 
of  Guienne  and  peer  of  France  he  agreed  to  do 
homage  to  the  French  monarch,  this  engagement 
being  performed  in  the  Garden  of  the  Temple 
at  Pans.  The  inhabitants  of  the  districts  ceded 
to  Henry  were  ill  pleased,  and  in  later  times 
they  refused  to  celebrate  the  saint-day  of  Louis. 
A  treaty  between  Henry  VIII.  and  Francis  I.  was 
made  at  Abbeville  in  1527.  The  negotiations  on 
the  part  of  England  were  conducted  by  Wolsey. 

AB'BEY.    See  Monastery;  Sanotuabt. 

ABBEY,  Edwin  Austin  (1852 — ).  An 
American  figure  painter,  whose  first  successes 
were  in  the  field  of  illustration.  He  was  born 
in  Philadelphia,  studied  at  the  Pennsylvania 
Academy  of  the  Fine  Arts,  and  afterward 
worked  in  New  York  until  1878,  when  he  re- 
moved to  England.  He  was  for  many  years  best 
known  as  an  illustrator  for  the  periodicals  and 
as  a  painter  of  water  colors.  His  illustrations  of 
Herrick's  poems  and  Shakespeare's  plays  are 
most  widely  known;  among  other  illustrated 
editions  are  She  Stoops  to  Conquer^  Old  Songs, 
And  Who  is  Silvia  f  Although  dealing  almost 
entirely  with  literary  subjects,  his  canvases  are 
of  high  artistic  merit.  They  include  "A  May- 
Day  Morning"  (1890),  ''^Fiametta's  Song" 
(1894),  and  "Crusaders  Sighting  Jerusalem." 
In  1901  he  was  commissioned  to  paint  the  coro- 
nation of  Edward  VII.  His  most  important  work 
in  the  United  States  is  "  The  Quest  of  the  Holy 
Grail"  (1891-1902),  a  series  of  large  panels  on 
the  walls  of  the  delivery  room  of  the  Boston 
Public  Library.  He  has  also  produced  some  very 
individual  work  in  pastel,  full  of  sentiment  and 
color.  His  works  are  distinguished  by  careful 
archseological  accuracy  and  fine  sentiment.  His 
strong  feeling  for  color  is  remarkable  in  one  who 
passed  so  many  years  as  a  worker  in  black  and 
white;  he  may  be  ranked  among  the  strongest 
colorists  and  the  most  intellectual  painters 
America  has  produced.  He  is  Chevalier  of  the 
Legion  of  Honor,  and  a  member  of  the  National 
Academy,  New  York,  the  Royal  Academy,  Lon- 
don, and  other  foreign  societies. 


10 


ABBOT. 


ABBEY,  HsifBT  (1842—).  An  American 
poet  and  merchant,  bom  at  Rondout,  N.  Y.  He 
is  the  author  of  May  Dreams,  Ralph  and  Other 
Poems,  Btories  in  Verse,  Ballads  of  Good  Deeds, 
The  City  of  Success,  and  Phaeton,  His  works 
are  collected  in  Poems  of  Henry  Abbey,  of  which 
there  are  three  editions. 

ABBIATEGBASSO,  &b-by&'t&-gras^sd.  A  city 
in  north  Italy,  394  feet  above  the  sea,  on  the 
Grande  and  Bereguardo  canals,  and  10  miles 
west  of  Milan  (Map:  Italy,  C  2).  It  manufac- 
tures fertilizers  and  markets  rice.  It  was  cap- 
tured in  1167  by  Emperor  Frederick  I.,  and  in 
1246  by  Emperor  Frederick  II.  In  1313  Matteo 
Visconti  vanquished  the  Guelphs  here,  and  in 
1524  Giovanni  de'  Medici  the  French.  Pop., 
about  5000  (commune,  about  10,000). 

AB'BITIB^IE,  or  ABBITIBBE.  A  Canadian 
river  and  lake.  The  river  flows  northward  to 
James  Bay  in  Hudson  Bay,  and  is  the  outlet  of 
the  lake  which  is  situated  in  latitude  49^  N.,  with 
a  trading  station  of  the  same  name  upon  its  shores. 

AB^O  OF  FLETTBY,  fl§'r^  (Abbo  Flobia- 
oensib)  (9457-1004).  A  French  theologian. 
He  studied  at  Rheims  and  Paris,  and  at  the 
request  of  Oswald,  Archbishop  of  York,  taught 
in  985-987  in  the  English  abbey  of  Ramsey. 
When  he  returned  to  France  he  was  chosen  Abbot 
of  Fleury,  whose  school  he  developed.  He  was 
sent  by  King  Robert  upon  a  diplomatic  mission 
to  Pope  Gregory  V.,  and  was  killed  at  the  priory 
of  La  R^ole,  Qascony,  in  an  uprising  against 
his  reforms  in  monastic  discipline.  He  wrote 
an  Epitome  de  Vitis  Romanorum  Pontificum, 
Desinens  in  Oregorio  I.  (printed  in  1602).  His 
biography  was  written  by  his  pupil  Almoin  in 
the  Vita  Abbonis  abbatis  Floriacensis, 

ABrSOT  (through  Lat.  abbas,  Gk.  aPPac, 
abbas,  from  Syriac  abbd,  father).  A  name  orig- 
inally given  as  a  term  of  respect  to  any  monk, 
especially  to  one  noted  for  piety,  but  afterward 
ordinarily  applied  to  the  superior  of  a  monastery 
or  abbey.  The  first  abbots  were  laymen,  as  the 
monks  were,  but  in  the  Eastern  Church  priestly 
abbots  appear  in  the  fifth  century,  and  in  the 
Western  Church  in  the  seventh,  and  such 
ordained  abbots  are  now  the  rule.  After  the 
second  Nicene  Council  (787) ,  abbots  were  empow- 
ered to  consecrate  monks  for  the  lower  sacred 
orders;  but  they  remained  in  subordination 
under  their  diocesan  bishops  until  the  eleventh 
century.  They  exercised  absolute  authority  over 
their  monasteries.  As  abbeys  became  wealthy, 
abbots  increased  in  power  and  influence;  many 
received  episcopal  titles;  and  all  were  ranked 
as  prelates  of  the  Church  next  to  the  bishops, 
and  had  the  right  of  voting  in  Church  councils. 
Even  abbesses  contended  for  the  same  honors 
and  privileges,  but  without  success.  In  the 
eighth  and  ninth  centuries,  abbeys  began  to  come 
into  the  hands  of  laymen,  as  rewards  for  military 
service.  In  the  tenth  century  many  of  the  chief 
abbeys  in  Christendom  were  under  lay-abbots 
{abbatea  milites,  or  abba-comites) ,  while  subor- 
dinate deans  or  priors  had  the  spiritual  over- 
sight. The  members  of  the  royal  household 
received  grants  of  abbeys  as  their  maintenance, 
and  the  king  kept  the  richest  for  himself.  Thus, 
Hugo  Capet  of  France  was  lay-abbot  of  St. 
Denis,  near  Paris.  Sometimes  convents  of  nuns 
were  granted  to  men,  and  monasteries  to  women 
of  rank.     These  abuses  were,  in  great  measure, 


reformed  during  the  tenth  century.  After  the 
reformation  of  the  order  of  Benedictines,  monas- 
teries arose  that  were  dependent  upon  the 
mother-monastery  of  Clugny  and  without  abbots, 
being  presided  over  by  priors  or  pro-abbates.  Of 
the  orders  founded  alter  the  eleventh  century, 
only  some  named  the  superiors  of  their  convents 
abbots;  most  used  the  titles  of  prior,  major, 
guardian,  rector.  Abbesses  have  almost  always 
remained  under  the  jurisdiction  of  their  diocesan 
bishop;  but  the  abbots  of  independent  or  liber- 
ated abbeys  acknowledged  no  lord  but  the  Pope. 
In  the  Middle  Ages,  the  so-called  abbates  mitrati 
frequently  enjoyed  episcopal  titles,  but  only  a 
few  had  dioceses.  Before  the  period  of  seculari- 
zation in  Germany,  several  of  the  abbots  in  that 
country  had  princely  titles  and  powers.  In 
England  there  were  a  considerable  number  of 
mitred  abbots  who  sat  and  voted  in  the  House  of 
Lords.  The  election  of  an  abbot  belongs,  as  a 
rule,  to  the  chapter  or  assembly  of  the  monks, 
and  is  afterward  confirmed  by  the  Pope  or  by 
the  bishop,  according  as  the  monastery  is  inde- 
pendent or  imder  episcopal  jurisdiction.  At  the 
time  he  must  be  at  least  twenty-five  years  of 
age.  From  early  times,  the  Pope  in  Italy  has 
claimed  the  right  of  conferring  abbacies,  and  the 
Concordat  of  Bologna  (Au^st  18,  1516)  between 
Francis  I.  and  Pope  Leo  A.  gave  that  right  to 
the  king  of  France.  Non-monastic  clergy  who 
possessed  monasteries  were  styled  secular  abbots; 
while  their  vicars,  who  discharged  the  duties, 
as  well  as  all  abbots  who  belonged  to  the  monas- 
tic order,  were  styled  regular  abbots.  In  France, 
the  abuse  of  appointing  secular  abbots  was  car- 
ried to  a  great  extent  previous  to  the  time  of  the 
revolution  of  1789  (see  Abb£)  ;  indeed,  often  mon- 
asteries themselves  chose  sonie  powerful  person 
as  their  secular  abbot,  with  a  view  of  '^commend- 
ing"  or  committing  their  abbey  to  his  protection, 
and  such  lay-abbots  were  called  abbis  commenda- 
taires.  In  countries  which  joined  in  the  Refor- 
mation of  the  sixteenth  century  the  possessions 
of  abbeys  were  mostly  confiscated  by  the  crown; 
but  in  Hanover,  Brunswick,  and  WUrttemberg 
several  monasteries  and  convents  were  retained 
as  educational  establishments.  In  the  Greek 
Church,  the  superiors  of  convents  are  called 
hegumeni  or  mandrites,  and  general  abbots, 
archimandri  tes. 

ABBOT,  Benjamin,  LL.D.  (1762-1849).  A 
New  England  teacher,  who  had  among  his  pupils 
Jared  Sparks,  Daniel  Webster,  George  Bancroft, 
Edward  Everett,  and  others  who  became  famous. 
For  nearly  fifty  years  (until  1838),  he  was  at 
the  head  of  Phillips  Academy,  Exeter,  N.  H. 

ABBOT,  Chables,  first  Babon  Colchesteb 
(1757-1829).  A  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Com- 
mons. He  was  bom  at  Abingdon  and  was 
educated  at  Christ  Church.  After  he  had  occu- 
pied numerous  positions  under  the  Government 
he  became  Speaker  of  the  House  (1802)  and  held 
the  ofiice  until  1816,  when  ill  health  compelled 
him  to  resign.  He  was  one  of  the  ablest 
Speakers  that  ever  occupied  the  chair,  and  also 
rendered  valuable  services  as  a  trustee  of  the 
British  Museum.  His  valuable  Diary  and  Cor- 
respondence was  published  by  his  son  in  1861. 

ABBOT,  EzBA  (1819-84).  An  American  bib- 
lical scholar.  He  was  bom  at  Jackson,  Waldo 
Co.,  Me.,  and  died  at  Cambridge,  Mass.  After 
graduation  at  Bowdoin  College  (1840)  he  taught 


ABBOT.  11  ABBOT. 

school  in  Maine  and  in  Cambridge,  Mass.,  until  political  life  as  the  determined  foe  of  Spain  and 
in  1856  he  beoune  asaistant  librarian  of  Har-  rrance^  largely  because  they  were  Roman  Cath- 
Yard  University.  From  1872  till  hb  death  he  olic  countries.  His  courageous  opposition  to  the 
«as  Busaey  Professor  of  New  Testament  Criti-  King  on  several  momentous  occasions  cost  him 
cism  and  Interpretation  in  the  Divinity  School  of  after  1613  much  of  the  royal  favor.  While 
Harvard  University.  He  received  the  degrees  of  under  a  cloud  he  had  the  misfortune,  when  hunt- 
LL.D.  (Yale,  1869;  Bowdoin,  1878)  ;  S.T.D.  ing,  accidentally  to  kill  a  gamekeeper.  His 
(Harvard,  1872)  ;  D.D.  (Edinburgh,  1884).  His  enemies  used  the  incident  a^inst  him.  Laud 
industry,  classical  scholarship,  wide  acquain-  brought  about  a  court  of  inquiry  into  the  alleged 
tance  with  books,  and  rare  capacity  for  retaining  infringement  of  canon  law,  and  three  persons 
minute  information  made  him  a  remarkable  bibli-  designated  to  bishoprics  refused  to  be  conse- 
ographer  and  textual  critic.  He  won  fame  in  crated  by  him.  The  inquiry  came  to  nothing, 
the  first  direction  by  his  valuable  Literature  of  but  the  stigma  remained.  The  death  of  James 
the  Doctrine  of  the  Future  Life  {lSd4) ,  Ajp^nd'  I.  (1625)  was  an  additional  misfortune  to 
ed  to  W.  R.  Alger's  book  on  the  subject,  and  Abbot,  as  Charles  I.  was  influenced  by  Laud, 
by  his  bibliographical  additions  to  Smith's  Bible  After  1627  he  was  practically  deprived  of  the 
Dictionary  (American  edition,  Boston,  1867-70,  rights  and  privileges  of  his  office.  He  died  at 
4  volumes),  though  the  value  of  the  additions  Croydon,  then  the  country  residence  of  the  Arch- 
is*  not  commensurate  with  their  number,  as  no  bishop  of  Canterbury,  August  4,  1633.  Of  his 
critical  distinctions  were  made  between  the  books  writings  the  most  popular  was  his  commentary  on 
vhose  titles  were  so  accurately  given.  But  much  the  Book  of  Jonah  (1600),  which  was  reprinted 
wider  was  his  fame  in  the  second  direction,  for  with  a  life  by  Grace  Webster  (London,  1846). 

Ws  acquainUnce  with  the  tejrt  of  the  Greek  N^^^        ABBOT,  Heihiy  Laboom  (1831-).    AnAmer- 

Testament  was  recognized  throughout  the  bibli-  .  ■■**'*7'*>  ***«»»  ^-.wi»  v  **'«       /  • *    •" 

«*!  world,  and  gavl  him  a  plaSe  beside  Lach-  ^^f"^  ^^^^^^  *"J  ''''^a'^1'^  ^ f^  t&  ^f^I 
mann,  Ti;chendorf,  Tregelles,*^  Scrivener,  West-  tlf-fv^**!"  "^^  ^w"^^  ?V^«  Y^l^.^^^. 
cott,  and  Hort.  He  was  therefore  an  efficient  ^'^'^^^  Academy,  West  P«^?^^' ^^i^ff' ^'^^^^ 
mmber  of  the  American  New  Testament  Revis-  ^^^.^'V^  °*  f  «!f.«^";."^  '^Y'^  ^i1»o^  w  ^1- 
ion  Company  ( 187181 ) ,  and  enabled  it  to  boast  distinction  until  his  retirement  m  1896.  He  was 
textual  Scholarship  equal  to  the  British.  Into  «°»^  i;' }^^  »"'J.«y  *^'  the  Pacific  Railroad 
the  revision  he  put  the  most  painstaking  and  «fd  the  hydrographic  survey  of  the  Mississippi 
accurate  learning:  He  displayed  his  attainments  R^^^^  delte.  During  the  Civil  War  he  was 
in  ways  which  won  him  the  hearty  thanks  of  the  ^tg^ged  in  engineering  and  artillery  operotions. 
authors  he  aided,  but  not  much  public  recog-  ^e  7*%^^,^"^^^  at  the  battle  of  Bull  Run  m 
nition.  Thus  he  was  the  coadjutor  of  Caspifr  1861.  In  the  operations  around  Richmond  he 
Ren^  Gregory  upon  his  prolegomena  to  the  commanded  the  siege  artiUenr.  At  the  close  of 
eighth  major  editiwi  of  TiscTliendorf's  Greek  New  $^^.7*^^^  ^*4  breyetted  Brigadier-General  of 
TttUment  (Leipzig,  1884-94,  3  parts);  he  Lnited  States  Volunteers,  and  mjor-General  of 
revised  the  whole  of  Schars  Companion  to  the  the  United  States  Army.  For  many  years  he 
.Veir  Testament  (New  York,  1883)  ;  and  greatly  was  m  command  of  the  garrison  of  en^neers  at 
enriched  E.  C.  Mitchell's  Critical  Handbook  of  ^iHetU  Point,  N.  Y.,  and  while  there  developed 
the  New  Testament  (New  York,  1880).  His  the  torpedo  and  submarine  defense  of  the  I^ng 
modesty  made  him  indifferent  to  fame,  and  he  Island  Sound  approach  to  New  York  City  and 
put  his  strength  upon  correcting  other  people's  founded  the  school  for  engineers.  In  this  con- 
books  and  upon  monographs  which  the  scholariy  nection  he  did  much  important  work  in  miliUry 
world  appreciated.  These  latter  have  been  col-  science,  devotinc  himself  to  the  design  and  con- 
lected  by  J.  H.  Thayer,  and  are  published  under  atruction  of  submarine  mines  and  mortar  bat- 
tbe  caption.  Critical  Essays  (Boston,  1888) .  Con-  teries,  as  well  as  to  the  development  of  military 
•ult  Barrows'  sketch  of  Ezra  A  bbot  ( Boston,  1884 ) .  engineering  equipment  and  drill,  and  serving  on 
^xtxtnm  i?i>A«^«e  ir*TT»^«,^^  /1QOA  lonox  the  Gun  Foundry  Board,  the  Board  on  Fortifica- 
ABBOT,    Francis  Eujnowood    (1836-1903).  t ions  and  Defends,  and  numerous  other  military 

in^^'^Z'^J^'J^J^^li  H^rvIJS  n«T  commissions.    He  ^as  a  member  of  the  board  ti 

m  Boston   Mass.,  and  graduated  at  Harvard  Uni-  ^     .  ,       ^      ^j^    protection  and  reclamation 

venuty    (IHoO)    and   the   MeadviUe   Theological  ,  xiT  nyr-    •  -;^«:  k«-;«    t»  iq7o  y.^  «o<,  oi^ofoii  « 

School      1863  .     After   having   had   char^  of  °^*''L      /^i^'^v.flln'.i    A51™tTlil^^ 

IniUrian  congregations  from  1863  to  1868,  he  member  of  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences, 

tamed  to  joiihialisui,  and  from   1870  to   1880  He  served  as  president  of  a  board  of  consulting 

edited  a  w^Wy  journal,  the  Inde<t,  devoted  to  efpneers  to  consii^r  the  question  of  a  proposed 

rtigiouB  topics.    He  published  «cien«/ic  TAeisw  »»"?  cMial  from  Pittsburg  to  Lake   Erie,   and 

(1886), and  Tfc«Woy  Out  oMff»KW*»«»'»  (1890).  ??*'8"!°   ^H  harbor   at   Manitowoc,   Wis.     In 

.'muun      r%  iir.n««««.        .    v..-  v  M*y.  1897,  he  MTas  appointed  a  member  of  the 

.TTT^'    ''"^     (1562-1633).     Archbishop  Technical  Committee  of  the  New  Panama  Canal 

of  Canterbury.    He  was  born  at  Guildford  Sur-  Company.    He  is  the  author  of  Siege  Artillery 

7;*f^«''*A^'i?^  'n^^**^!.'!   -^-.i^'  «■•»    the   Campaign   Against    RieknK^    (1867); 

M\   1585;  D.D.  1697).    He  took  holy  orders  in  Ean>erimenUa^  Inveatigation,    to   Develop   a 

w    •"k    ^'^/u^     h  flPIi?"°Jlk'*w-^""  S^ew  of  Submarine  Mine,  for  Defending  Bar- 

»nt,7  and  Lichfield,  and  in  1610  he  was  trans-  «*°*™V^  A  Humphreys,  Phj/stes  and  Hydrau- 

UtM  to  the  see  of  London.     In   1611  he  was  ''«  pf  '*f  Ht»»;'»^PPh  in  addition  to  a  Urge 

enthroned  Archbishop  of  Canterbury.    He  owed  """"t^'  .»'  '^P^'f  "*■  ""'•*"'7  """l  engineering 

thfse  successive   appointments   to   the    marked  commissions  and  boards. 

fiTor  of  James  L,  and  used  his  exalted  position        ABBOT,  Joseph  Halk  (1802-73).    An  Amer- 

to  advance  a  narrow  Protestantism  and  to  perse-  ican  educator,  bom  at  Wilton.  N.  H.    He  grad- 

cnte  Roman   Catholics.     He   also   appeared   in  uated  in  1822  at  Bowdoin  College,  and  from  1827 


ABBOT. 


12 


ABBOTT. 


to  1833  was  professor  of  mathematics  and  an 
instructor  in  modem  languages  at  Phillips 
Academy,  Exeter.  He  contributed  numerous 
valuable  papers  to  the  Transactions  of  the  Amer- 
ican Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences,  and  was  an 
associate  editor  of  Worcester's  Dictionary  of  the 
English  Language  ( 1860 ) . 

ABBOT,  Samuel  (1732-1812).  An  American 
philanthropist.  He  was  bom  at  Andover,  Mass., 
and  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Andover 
Theological  Seminary,  to  which  he  gave  $20,000 
in  1807  and  $100,000  more  in  his  will.  He  was 
a  successful  merchant  of  Boston  and  a  large  con- 
tributor to  charities. 

ABBOT,  The.  The  title  of  one  of  Sir  Walter 
Scott's  novels,  published  in  1820.  Its  incidents 
form  a  sequel  to  The  Monastery,  and  are  based 
upon  the  history  of  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  in  the 
years  1567  and  1568,  ending  with  the  battle  of 
Langside  and  her  escape  to  England. 

ABBOT,  Willis  John  ( 1863 — ) .  An  Ameri- 
can author  and  editor,  grandson  of  John  S.  C. 
Abbott.  He  was  born  at  New  Haven,  Conn.,  and 
graduated  at  the  University  of  Michigan  in  1884. 
He  is  best  known  by  his  Blue  Jackets  of  *61, 
Blue  Jackets  of  1812,  and  Blue  Jackets  of  *76, 
a  series  of  stories  for  boys  relating  to  the  naval 
history  of  the  United  States,  and  by  his  Battle 
Fields  of  1861.  Mr.  Abbot  was  managing  editor 
of  the  Chicago  Times  in  1802  and  1893,  and 
from  1896  to  1898  was  on  the  editorial  staff  of 
the  New  York  Journal. 

ABBOT  OF  JOY  (Abb£  de  Liesse).  The 
title  bestowed  upon  the  chief  of  a  brotherhood 
founded  at  Lille.  Accompanied  by  a  suite  of 
officers  and  servants  who  bore  before  him  a 
standard  of  red  silk,  he  presided  over  the  games 
which  were  held  at  Arras  and  the  neighboring 
towns  during  the  period  of  the  carnival,  coming 
under  the  general  title  of  "Feast  of  tiie  Ass" 
(q.v.).    See  also  Misrule,  LoBD  OF. 

AB^OT  OF  KISBTTLE/.  See  Misbule, 
Lord  of. 

AB^OTSFOBD.  The  estate  of  Sir  Walter 
Scott,  situated  on  the  south  bank  of  the  Tweed, 
about  three  miles  from  Melrose  Abbey.  Before 
it  became,  in  1811,  the  property  of  Scott,  the 
site  of  the  house  and  grounds  of  Abbotsford 
formed  a  small  farm  known  as  Clarty  Hole.  The 
new  name  was  given  it  by  the  poet,  who  loved 
thus  to  connect  himself  with  the  days  when 
Melrose  abbots  passed  over  the  fords  of  the 
Tweed.  On  this  spot,  a  sloping  bank  overhang- 
ing the  river,  with  the  Selkirk  Hills  behind,  he 
built  at  first  a  small  villa,  now  the  western  wing 
of  the  mansion.  He  afterward  added  the  remain- 
ing parts  of  the  building,  on  no  uniform  plan,  but 
with  the  desire  of  combining  some  of  the  features 
(and  even  actual  remains)  of  those  ancient 
works  of  Scottish  architecture  which  he  most 
loved.  The  result  was  a  picturesque  and  irregu- 
lar pile,  which  has  been  aptly  called  "a  romance 
in  stone  and  lime."  The  property  has  remained 
in  Scott's  family  now  to  the  fourth  generation. 
Consult:  Irving's  Ahhotsford  (London,  1850)  ; 
Lockhart's  Life  of  Scott  (Edinburgh,  1838),  and 
Mary  Scott's  Ahhotsford  (New  York,  1893). 

AB'BOTT,  Austin,  LL.D.  (1831-96).  An 
American  lawyer,  bom  in  Boston,  Mass.,  the  son 
of  Jacob  Abbott.  He  graduated  at  the  University 
of  the  City  of  New  York  in  1851  and  was  admit- 
ted to  the  bar  in  the  following  year.    He  was  in 


partnership  with  his  brothers,  Benjamin  Vaughan 
and  Lyman  (afterward  editor  of  the  Out- 
look). He  gained  a  national  reputation  as 
counsel  for  Theodore  Tilton  in  his  suit  against 
Henry  Ward  Beecher.  He  aided  his  brother 
Benjamin  in  the  preparation  of  his  well-known 
digests  of  laws,  and  published  many  legal  text 
books.  He  also  wrote,  in  collaboration  with  his 
two  brothers,  two  novels,  Matthew  Carahy  and 
Conecut  Comers.  He  was  an  able  lecturer  on 
law  and  was  Dean  of  the  Law  School  of  the 
University  of  the  City  of  New  York  from  1891 
until  his  death. 

ABBOTT,  Benjamin  (1732-96).  A  Methodist 
Episcopal  minister,  born  on  Long  Island,  N.  Y. 
He  was  apprenticed  to  a  hatter  m  Philadelphia, 
and  subsequently  to  a  farmer  in  New  Jersey. 
He  was  converted  from  a  dissipated  life  when 
about  40  years  old,  and  immediately  became 
an  itinerant  Methodist  preacher.  After  sixteen 
years'  service  in  New  Jersey  he  was  assigned  to 
the  Dutchess  (N.  Y.)  circuit  in  1789.  He  was 
transferred  to  the  Long  Island  circuit  in  1791,  to 
Salem,  N.  J.,  in  1792,  to  the  Cecil  circuit,  Mary- 
land, as  presiding  elder,  in  1793,  and  died  at 
Salem,  N.  J.,  in  1796.  He  was  famous  in  his 
day,  and  is  still  remembered  as  a  "rousing" 
preacher.  His  vehemence  was  such  that  he 
frequently  fainted,  and  generally  raised  a  com- 
motion among  his  hearers. 

ABBOTT,  Benjamin  Vaughan  (1830-90).  An 
American  lawyer,  the  son  of  Jacob  Abbott.  He 
graduated  at  the  University  of  the  City  of  New 
York  in  1850,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in 
1852.  In  legal  practice  his  brothers  Austin  and 
Lyman  were  associated  with  him.  He  produced 
nearly  100  volumes  of  reports  and  digests  of 
Federal  and  State  laws.  In  1865,  as  secretary  of 
the  New  York  Code  Commission,  he  drafted  a 
penal  code  which,  when  adopted  by  the  Legis- 
lature, became  the  basis  of  the  present  code.  In 
1870  President  Grant  appointed  him  one  of  three 
commissioners  to  revise  the  statutes  of  the 
United  States. 

ABBOTT,  Chables  Conbad  (1843 — ).  An 
American  archseologist  and  naturalist,  bom  at 
Trenton,  N.  J.  He  studied  medicine  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Pennsylvania,  and  served  as  a  surgeon 
in  the  Federal  Army  during  the  Civil  War.  From 
1876  to  1889  he  was  assistant  curator  of  the 
Peabody  Museum  in  Cambridge,  Mass.,  to  which 
he  presented  a  collection  of  20,000  archaeological 
specimens,  and  he  has  given  freely  to  other  arch»- 
ological  collections.  His  book  Primitive  /n- 
dustry  (1881)  detailed  the  evidences  of  the  pres- 
ence of  pre-glacial  man  in  the  Delaware  Valley, 
and  is  a  valuable  contribution  to  archeology.  He 
has  also  published  many  books  on  out-door  obser- 
vation, such  as  A  Naturalist's  Ramhles  Ahout 
Home  (1884).  His  other  works,  besides  some  fic- 
tion, include:  Upland  and  Meadow  (1886); 
Wasteland  Wanderings  (1887)  ;  Outings  at  Odd 
Times  (1890)  ;  Clear  Skies  wnd  Cloudy  (1899) ; 
and  Jn  Nature's  Realm  (1900). 

ABBOTT,  Edward,  D.D.  ( 1841—) .  An  Amer- 
ican clergyman,  journalist,  and  author,  bom  at 
Farmington,  Me.  He  graduated  in  1860  at  the 
University  of  New  York,  studied  from  1860  to 
1862  at  the  Andover  Theological  Seminaiy,  and 
in  1863  served  in  the  United  States  Sanitary 
Commission  at  Washington  and  with  the  Army 
of  the  Potomac.     He  was  ordained  in  1863  to 


ABBOTT.  13 

the  Congregational  ministry,  and  was  pastor  of 
Pilgrim  Church,  Cambridge,  Mass.,  from  1865 
to  1869.  From  1869  to  1878  he  was  associate 
editor  of  the  Congregationaliat,  and  from  1878 
to  1888  editor  of  the  Literary  World,  whose 
direction  he  again  assumed  in  1895.  In  1879 
he  was  ordained  a  priest  of  the  Protestant  Epis- 
copal Church  and  appointed  rector  of  St.  James's 
parish,  Cambridge.  His  publications  include 
The  Converaaiiona  of  Jeaua  (1875),  and  Phillips 
Brooks   (1900). 

ABBOTT,  Ret.  Edwin  Abbott  ( 1838 — ) .  An 
English  author,  born  in  London.  He  graduated 
at  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  with  distinction 
(B.A.  1861,  M.A.  1864);  was  assistant  master 
in  King  Edward's  School,  Birmingham  (1862- 
64),  and  head-master  of  the  Citv  of  London 
School  (1865-1889),  which  he  made  one  of  the 
best  dav  schools  in  England;  retired  in  1889,  and 
receiyed  a  pension  the  next  year.  He  was  twice 
Select  Preacher  at  Cambridge  and  once  at 
Oxford.  He  published  several  volumes  of  ser- 
mona  and  other  religious  works,  as  Cambridge 
Sermons  (1875),  Oxford  Sermons  (1879),  Car- 
dinal Newman  (1892),  and  St,  Thomas  of  Can- 
terfmry  (1898).  He  is  best  known  by  his 
Shakespearian  Grammar  (1869;  third  edition 
revised  and  enlarged,  1870),  a  pioneer  work, 
which,  though  unscientific,  has  hardly  been 
superseded. 

ABBOTT,  Emma  (Emma  Abbott  Wethebell) 
(1849-1891).  An  American  soprano,  bom  in 
Chicago,  111.  She  began  her  musical  experience 
in  the  choir  of  Plymouth  Church,  Brooklyn, 
X.  Y.,  and  afterwards  studied  in  Milan  under 
San  Giovanni  and  in  Paris  under  Wartel  and 
Albert  James.  She  made  her  d^but  at  Covent 
Ctarden,  London,  as  Maria  in  La  Fille  du  R6gi- 
ment.  For  three  years  thereafter  she  made  an 
operatic  and  concert  tour  of  England  and  Ire- 
land under  the  direction  of  Colonel  Mapleson. 
Siibiwquently  she  returned  to  the  United  States, 
where  she  sang  with  the  Abbott  and  Hess  Opera 
Company,  and  later  with  the  English  opera  com- 
pany long  known  by  her  name.  She  sang  in 
Martha,  Faust,  Les  Huguenots,  The  Chimes  of 
Xormandy,  and  the  more  popular  works  of 
Verdi,  Bellini,  and  Donizetti,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  Clara  Louise  Kellogg,  she  was  perhaps 
more  widely  known  than  any  other  American 
singer  of  her  time. 

ABBOTT,  Fbank  Frost  ( I860—) .  An  Amer- 
ican Latinist,  bom  at  Redding,  Conn.  He  grad- 
uated at  Yale  in  1882,  and  in  1891  received  the 
degree  of  Ph.D.  From  1885  to  1801  he  was 
tutor  at  Yale;  in  1892  he  was  appointed  associ- 
ate professor,  and  in  1894  professor  of  Latin  in 
the  University  of  Chicago.  He  was  also  professor 
in  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies  at 
Home,  from  1901  to  1902.  His  works  include 
A  History  of  Roman  Political  Institutions  (Bos- 
ton, 1901),  and  numerous  philological  papers. 

ABBOTT,  CtoBHAM  Dummeb  (1807-1874).  An 
American  Congregational  clergyman  and  edu- 
cator, born  in  Hallowell,  Me.  He  graduated  at 
Bowdoin  in  1826  and  at  Andover  in  1831.  With 
his  brothers,  Jacob  and  John  S.  C.  Abbott,  he  was 
a  pioneer  in  the  higher  or  collegiate  education  of 
young  women.  In  1847  he  founded  the  Spingler 
Institute,  in  New  York  City.  The  school  main- 
tained a  high  reputation  during  its  brief  history. 
He  wrote  The  Family  at  Home,  Nathan  W, 
Diekerman,  Pleasure  and  Profit, 


ABBOTT. 


ABBOTT,  jAOOfB  (1803-79).  A  popular  juve- 
nile and  didactic  writer.  He  was  born  at  Hal- 
lowell, Me.  He  graduated  at  Bowdoin  0>llege 
in  1820.  Like  his  brother  John,  he  studied  for 
the  ministry  at  Andover,  and  was  ordained  to 
the  Congregational  ministry.  From  1825  to 
1829  he  was  professor  of  mathematics  and  natural 
philosophy  at  Amherst.  He  then  established  a 
girls'  school  in  Boston,  and  in  1834  organized 
the  Eliot  Church,  Roxbury.  Five  years  later  he 
moved  to  Farmington.  He  passed  the  remainder 
of  his  life  there,  in  New  York,  and  in  foreign 
travel,  devoting  himself  wholly  to  literature. 
He  died  at  Farmington,  October  31,  1879.  Abbott 
published  more  than  two  hundred  volumes,  the 
most  noteworthy  of  which  are  The  Rollo  Books 
(28  volumes).  The  Franconia  Stories  (10  vol- 
imies).  The  Rainbow  and  Lucky  Scries  (5  vol- 
imies),  a  number  of  juvenile  histories,  written 
in  collaboration  with  his  brother,  and  a  series  of 
histories  of  America.  He  also  edited  many 
school  books.  His  style  had  a  singular  fascina- 
tion for  the  young,  and  many  of  his  writings 
continue  to  be  popular. 

ABBOTT,  SiB  John  Joseph  Caldwell  (1821- 
03).  A  Canadian  statesman,  born  at  St.  An- 
drew's, Quebec.  He  was  educated  at  McGill 
College,  Montreal;  studied  law,  and  in  1847  was 
called  to  the  bar.  Beginning  in  1859  he  repre- 
sented Arfi:enteuil  County  in  the  Canadian 
Assembly  until  the  union  in  1867,  when  he 
became  a  member  of  the  Dominion  Parliament 
for  the  same  place.  In  1862  he  was  solicitor- 
general  in  the  cabinet  of  John  Sandfield  Mac- 
donald,  but  resigned  before  his  chief  lost  power. 
In  1887  Sir  John  A.  Macdonald  invited  him  to 
join  the  cabinet  as  a  minister  without  portfolio. 
In  June,  1891,  on  the  death  of  Sir  John  A.  Mac- 
donald, Abbott  was  made  Premier  of  the  Domin- 
ion Government,  but  resigned  in  November,  1892, 
because  of  his  ill  health.  He  took  a  seat  in  the 
cabinet  of  his  successor.  Sir  John  Thomson,  but 
without  a  portfolio.  He  was  Dean  of  the  Facul- 
ty of  Law  of  McGill  University  for  ten  years, 
was  considered  an  authority  on  commercial  law, 
and  was  knighted  in  1892. 

ABBOTT,  John  Stephens  Cabot  (1805-77). 
An  American  historian,  pastor,  and  pedagogical 
writer,  a  brother  of  the  equally  prolific  Jacob 
Abbott  (q.v.).  He  was  born  at  Brunswick,  Me., 
and  graduated  at  Bowdoin  College  in  1825.  He 
studied  for  the  ministry  at  Andover,  and  was 
ordained  a  Congregational  minister  in  1830. 
He  held  successive  pastorates- at  Worcester,  Rox- 
bury, and  Nantucket.  His  writings  were,  from 
the  outset,  popular.  Beginning  with  semi-relig- 
ious pedagogy,  The  Mother  at  Home  (1833), 
The  Child  at  Home,  etc.,  he  was  presently 
diverted  to  history,  and  after  1844  resigned  his 
pastorate,  giving  himself  entirely  to  literature. 
He  died  at  Fairhaven,  Conn.,  June  17,  1877. 
His  most  noteworthy  books  are  The  French  Revo- 
lution.  The  History  of  Napoleon  Bonaparte, 
Napoleon  at  St,  Helena,  The  History  of  Napoleon 
the  Third  (1868),  The  History  of  the  Civil  War 
in  America  (1863-65),  and  The  History  of  Fred- 
erick II,,  Called  Frederick  the  Or  eat  (New 
York) .  All  these  are  readable,  but  none  of  them 
has  any  critical  value. 

ABBOTT,  Lyman,  D.D.  ( 1 835—) .  An  Ameri- 
can Congregational  clergyman  and  editor.  He 
was  born  at  Roxbury,  Mass.,  a  son  of  Jacob 
Abbott.    He  graduated  at  the  New  York  Univer- 


ABBOTT.  14 

Bity  in  1853  and  for.  a  time  practiced  law  with 
his  brothers  Austin  and  Benjamin  Vaughan 
Abbott.  Afterward  he  studied  theology  with  his 
uncle,  Rev.  John  S.  C.  Abbott,  and  beoime  pastor 
of  a  church  at  Terre  Haute,  Ind.,  in  1860.  Five 
years  later  he  was  made  secretary  of  the  Ameri- 
can Union  (Freedman's)  Commission  and  became 
pastor  of  the  New  England  Church  in  New  York 
City.  In  1869  he  resigned  this  pastorate  and 
thereafter  was  successively  one  of  the  editors  of 
Harper's  Magazine,  the  principal  editor  of  the 
Illustrated  Christian  Weekly,  and,  as  associate 
of  Henry  Ward  Beccher,  an  editor  of  the  Chris- 
tian Union  (now  the  Outlook) ,  of  which  he  after- 
ward became  editor-in-chief.  He  succeeded  Mr. 
Beecher  as  pastor  of  Plymouth  Church,  Brook- 
lyn, in  1888,  but  resigned  in  May,  1899,  and  has 
since  devoted  himself  entirely  to  editorial  and 
literarj  work.  In  collaboration  with  his 
brothers  Austin  and  Benjamin  he  wrote  two 
novels,  Conecut  Comers  (1885)  and  Matthew 
Carahy  (1888).  Among  his  other  numerous 
works  are  commentaries,  Jesus  of  Nazareth 
(1869)  ;  a  Dictionary  of  Religious  Knowledge 
(1872,  with  Dr.  T.  J.  Conant)  ;  Life  of  Henry 
Ward  Beecher  (1883) ;  Evolution  of  Christianity 
(1892);  Christianity  and  Social  Problems 
i  1896) ;  The  Theology  of  an  Evolutionist  ( 1897)  ; 
Life  and  Letters  of  Paul  (1898)  ;  Life  and  Liter- 
ature of  the  Ancient  Hebrews  (1901) ;  The  Rights 
of  Man  (1901). 

ABBOTT,  Thomas  Kingsmill  (1829 — ).  An 
Irish  scholar.  He  was  born  at  Dublin  and  was 
educated  at  Trinity  College,  where  he  afterward 
occupied  the  chair  of  moral  philosophy  (1867- 
72),  of  biblical  Greek  (1875-88),  and  of  Hebrew 
(after  1879).  He  wrote  the  following  books: 
The  Elements  of  Logic  (third  edition,'  1895)  ; 
Essays,  chiefly  on  the  original  texts  of  the  Old 
and  New  Testaments  (1892);  A  Commentary 
on  Ephesians  and  Colossians  (1897)  ;  a  trans- 
lation of  Kant's  Ethics,  with  a  memoir,  and 
Kant's  Introduction  to  Logic  (fifth  edition, 
1878). 

ABBBE'VIA'^TIONS  (Lat.  ad,  to -i-brevis, 
short).  Contrivances  in  writing  for  saving 
time  and  space.  They  are  of  two  kinds,  consist- 
ing either  in  the  omission  of  some  letters,  or 
words,  or  in  the  substitution  of  some  arbitrary 
sign.  In  the  earliest  times,  when  uncial  or 
lapidary  characters  were  used,  abbreviations  by 
omission  prevailed,  such  as  we  find  in  the 
inscriptions  on  monuments,  coins,  etc.  In  these 
the  initial  letter  is  often  put  instead  of  the  whole 
M'ord,  as  M.  for  Marcus,  F.  for  Filius.  It  was 
after  the  small  Greek  and  Roman  letters  had 
been  invented  by  transcribers  for  facilitating 
their  work  that  signs  of  abbreviation,  or  char- 
acters representing  double  consonants,  syllables, 
and  whole  words,  came  into  use.  Greek  manu- 
scripts abound  with  such  signs,  and  often  only 
one  who  has  e2q)re88ly  studied  Greek  paleo^a- 
phy  can  make  them  out.  From  the  manuscripts 
they  passed  into  the  early  printed  editions  of 
Greek  books,  and  it  is  only  within  the  last  cen- 
tury that  they  have  quite  disappeared.  Among 
the  Romans  the  system  was  carried  to  such  an 
extent  that  L.  Annaeus  Seneca  collected  and  clas- 
sified 5000  abbreviations.  The  same  practice  has 
prevailed  in  all  languages,  but  nowhere  more 
than  in  the  rabbinical  writings.  The  abbrevi- 
ations used  by  the  ancient  Romans  were  contin- 
ued and  increased  in  the  Middle  Ages.    They 


ABBBEVIATIOKS. 

occur  in  inscriptions,  manuscripts,  and  legal 
documents;  and  the  practice  endured  in  these 
lonff  after  the  invention  of  printing  had 
made  it  unnecessary  in  books.  An  act  of  Parlia^ 
ment  was  passed  in  the  reign  of  George  II.,  for- 
bidding the  use  of  abbreviations  in  legal  docu- 
ments. Owing  to  these  abbreviations,  the  deciph- 
ering of  old  writings  requires  special  study  and 
training,  and  forms  a  separate  science,  on  which 
numerous  treatises  have  been  written.  One  of 
the  most  exhaustive  is  Tassin's  Nouveau  Traits 
de  Diplomatique    (6  volumes,  Paris,   1750-65). 

See  Paleography. 

In  ordinary  writing  and  printing  few  abbrevia- 
tions are  now  employed.  The  sign  d,  originally 
an  abbreviation  for  the  Latin  et,  "and,"  is  one 
of  the  few  still  to  be  met  with  of  this  arbitrary 
kind.  It  does  not  stand  properly  for  a  word, 
for  it  is  used  in  different  languages,  but  for  an 
idea,  and  is  as  much  a  symbol  as  4-.  The  abbre- 
viations  by  using  the  initials  of  Latin  words 
that  are  still  in  use  are  chiefiy  confined  to  titles, 
dates,  and  a  few  phrases;  as  MJ^.  {magister 
artium),  Master  of  Arts;  a.d.  {anno  Domini), 
in  the  year  of  our  Lord;  e.g,  {exempli  gratia), 
for  example.  Many  are  now  formed  from  Eng- 
lish woros  in  the  same  way;  as  F.G.S.,  Fellow 
of  the  Geological  Society;   B.C.,  before  Christ. 

The  following  table  contains  many  of  the 
more  important  abbreviations  in  general  use. 
There  are  omitted  from  it  many  others  whose 
meanings  are  obvious,  and  all  abbreviations  for 
days,  months,  countries.  States,  many  proper 
names,  as  those  of  the  Scriptures;  grammatical, 
scientific,  and  other  technical  terms;  familiar 
titles,  as  Mr,,  Oov.;  and  the  majoriU"  of  commer- 
cial terms,  as  B/1,  bill  of  lading.  The  names  of 
many  societies  are  omitted,  especially  when  their 
abbreviations,  as  TM.C.A,,  are  well  known. 

A.B.,  Bachelor  of  Arts. 

Abp.,  Archbishop. 

A.C.   {ante  Christum),  Before  Christ. 

Accel. (accelerando).  In  music,  more  quickly. 

A.D.  {anno  Domini),  In  the  year  of  our  Lord. 

A.D.C.,  Aide-de-camp. 

A.H.  {anno  Eegirtz),  In  the  year  of  the 
Hegira    (reckoning  from  622  a.d.). 

Ad.  Lib.  {ad  libitum).  At  pleasure. 

Aet.  {cBtatis),  Of  (his  or  her)  age. 

A.M.  {ante  meridiem).  Before  noon;  {anno 
mundA),  In  the  year  of  the  world;  {artium  mag- 
ister). Master  of  Arts. 

An.  {anno),  In  the  year. 

Anon.,  Anonymous. 

A.K.A.,  Associate  of  the  Royal  Academy  (Lon- 
don). 

A.S.A.,  American  Statistical  Association. 

A.T.S.,  American  Tract  Society. 

A.U.C.  iab  urbe  condita) ,  From  the  building 
of  the  city — ^that  is,  Rome. 

A. v.,  Authorized  Version. 

b..  Born. 

BA.  or  A.B.  {artium  baccalaureus) ,  Bachelor 
of  Arts. 

Bart,  or  Bt.,  Baronet. 

B.C.,  Before  Christ. 

B.C.L.,  Bachelor  of  Civil  Law. 

B.D.,  Bachelor  of  Divinity. 

B.L.,  Bachelor  of  Letters. 

B.LL.,  Bachelor  of  Laws. 

B.M.,  Bachelor  of  Medicine. 

B.Mus.,  Bachelor  of  Music. 

Bp.,  Bishop. 

B.S.  or  B.Sc.,  Bachelor  of  Science. 


ABBBBVIATIOKS.  15 

B.V3f.,  Blessed  Virgin  Maiy. 

C.  {centum),  a  hundred;  chapter;  o.  {oiroa), 
about;  c.  century.    Also  C.=C6nti£Tade. 

Cantab.   (Cantahrigiensis) ,  Of  Cambridge. 

C.B.,  Companion  of  the  Bath. 

C.E.,  Civil  Engineer. 

cf.  or  cp.y  Confer;  compare. 

CJ.,  Order  of  the  Crown  of  India. 

C.I.E.,  Companion  of  the  Order  of  the  Indian 
Empire. 

CJtf.Q.,  Companion  of  St.  Michael  and  St. 
Ocorge. 

Co.,  County. 

c/o.  Care  of. 

C.O.D.,  Cash,  or  collect,  on  delivery. 

Cr.,  Creditor. 

Cresc  (crescendo),  In  music,  more  loudly. 

CSJ.,  Companion  of  the  Star  of  India. 

cwt..  Hundred- weight. 

d.  (dcnariua) ,  Penny;  died. 

D.C.    {da  capo).  From  the  beginning. 

D.C.L.,  Doctor  of  Civil  Law. 

D.D.,  Doctor  of  Divinity;  donum  dedit, 

D.D.8.,  Doctor  of  Dental  Surgery. 

D.G.  {Dei  gratia).  By  the  grace  of  Qod;  {Deo 
^ratios)  thanks  be  to  God. 

Dim.   {diminuendo),  In  music,  less  loudly. 

D.Lit.,  Doctor  of  Literature. 

Do.   (Ital.  detto,  said),  Ditto,  the  same. 

D.O.M.  {Deo  Optimo  mawimo).  To  Qod  the 
best  and  greatest. 

Dr.,  Doctor,  debtor. 

DJSc,  Doctor  of  Science. 

D.8.O.,  Companion  of  the  Distinguished  Ser- 
vice Order. 

D.V.   {Deo  ifolente),  Qod  willing. 

dwt.,  Pennyweight. 

e.g.  or  ex.  gr.  {exempt  gratia),  For  example. 

et.  al.   {et  alii),  And  others. 

etc  {et  cetera) ,  And  the  rest;  and  so  on. 

et  seq.   (et  sequentia).  And  the  following. 

P.,  Fahrenheit. 

f.  {forte),  loudly. 

F.  and  A.  M..  Free  and  Accepted  Masons. 

F.D.   (fidei  defensor),  Defender  of  the  Faith. 

ff.  (fortissimo).  Very  loud. 

f.  or  ff.,  Following. 

fl.  (ftaruit).  Flourished. 

F.M.,  Field  Marshal. 

FJLC.P.,  Fellow  of  the  Royal  College  of  Physi- 
cians. 

F.R.C.S.,  Fellow  of  the  Royal  College  of  Sur- 
geons. 

F.R.G.S.,  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Geographical 
Society. 

F.R.8.,  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Society. 

F.S^.,    Fellow    of    the    Society    of    Antiqua- 


ABBBBVIATIOKB. 


G.C.B.  (Knight),  Grand  Cross  of  the  Bath. 

G.C.M.G.  (Knight),  Grand  Cross  of  St. 
Michael  and  St.  George. 

G.C.S.I.  (Knight),  Grand  Commander  of  the 
Star  of  India. 

H.B.M.,  His   (or  Her)   Britannic  Majesty. 

H.E.,  His  Eminence;  His  Excellency. 

H.I.H.,  His  (or  Her)  Imperial  Highness. 

H.M.S.,  His  (or  Her)  Majesty's  Service,  or 
Ship. 

H.8.H.,  His  (or  Her)  Serene  Highness. 

I.  (imperator  or  imperatrix),  Emperor  or 
£mprees. 

ib.  or  ibid,   (ibidem),  In  the  same  place. 

Id.  (idem).  The  same;  (idus),  the  Ides. 

i.e.  (uiesO*  That  is. 


I.H.S.*  {lesus  Hominum  Salwitor),  Jesus  the 
Saviour  of  men. 

Incog.    (Ital.  incognito),  Unknown. 

Inf.    (infra).  Below. 

In  loc.  (in  loco).  In  the  place  referred  to. 

I.N.R.I.  (lesus  Nazarenus  Rex  Judaasrum), 
Jesus  of  Nazareth,  the  King  of  the  Jews. 

Inst,  (instante — mense  understood).  In  the 
current  (month). 

I.O.O.F.,  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows, 

J.C.D.  (juris  civilis  doctor).  Doctor  of  Civil 
Law. 

J.P.,  Justice  of  the  Peace. 

Jr.,  Junior. 

J.U.D.  (juris  utriusque  doctor),  Doctor  of 
Laws,  i.e.,  both  of  civil  and  canon  law. 

Kal.  (JTaZeiuto),  The  Kalends. 

K.C.,  King's  Counsel. 

K.C.B.,  Kniffht  Commander  of  the  Bath. 

K.C.M.G.,  Knight  Commander  of  St.  Michael 
and  St.  George. 

K.C.S.I.,  Knight  Commander  of  the  Star  of 
India. 

K.P.,  Knight  of  St.  Patrick. 

K.T.,  Knight  of  the  Thistle. 

L.  (libra),  Pound  (in  English  money). 

Ib.  (K6ro),  Pound  (weight). 

I.e.  (loco  citato).  In  the  place  cited;  (lower 
case)  small  letters  in  printing. 

leg.  (legato) ,  smooMy, 

L.H.D.  )  (litterarum    huma/niorum     doctor), 

Litt.D.  S  Doctor  of  Literature,  or  Letters. 

LL.B.  (legum  h<iccalaureus) ,  Bachelor  of  Laws 
(the  double  L  denoting  the  plural). 

LL.D.  (legum  doctor).  Doctor  of  Laws. 

L.S.   (locus  sigilli).  The  place  of  the  seal. 

M.,  Monsieur;  MM.,  Alessieurs  (plural); 
(meridies)  noon. 

M.A.,  Master  of  Arts. 

M.B.,  Bachelor  of  Medicine. 

M.C.,  Member  of  Congress. 

M.D.   ( medicines  doctor).  Doctor  of  Medicine. 

M.E.,  Mininn:  or  Mechanical  Engineer;  Meth- 
odist Episcopal. 

mf.  (mezzo  forte).  Moderately  loud. 

M.F.H.,  Master  of  Fox  Hounds. 

Mile.,  Mademoiselle. 

Mme.,  Madame. 

M.P.,  Member  of  Parliament;  Methodist  Prot- 
estant. 

M.S.  or  M.Sc.,  Master  of  Science. 

MS.,  Manuscript;    MSS.,  manuscripts. 

Mus.D.  (musico!  doctor).  Doctor  of  Music. 

N.B.  (nota  bene),  Mark  well. 

nem.  con.  (nemine  contradicente) ,  Unanimous- 
ly. 

n.d..  No  date. 

Non.  (nonop),  The  Nones. 
N.S.,  New  style. 
Ob.  (obiit).  Died. 

O.P.    (ordinis  prasdicatorum) ^  Of  the  Domin- 
ican Order. 
O.S.,  Old  style. 

O.SJV.,  Order  of  St.  Augustine. 
O.S.F.,  Order  of  St.  Francis. 
Oxon.  (Oxoniensis) ,  Of  Oxford, 
p.   (piano).  Softly. 
P.C,  Privy  (Councilor. 

•Thl0  wMorlfdnally  written  IH2,  tbe  lint  three  Greek  let- 
ters  of  the  name  Jeeoe;  but  lie  orgin  having  been  loetaiffht  of, 
by  eabetitntlng  B  for  S  and  then  mlcrtaklng  the  Greek  H  Oong 
e)  for  Latin  Bu  a  signiflcatlon  waa  fonnd  for  each  letter.  The 
aymbol  was  further  developed  by  converting  the  horizontal 
s&oke,  which  waa  the  sign  of  abbreviation,  into  a  cross,  in 
which  form  It  is  the  recognized  device  of  the  Jesuit  order. 


ABBBEVIATIOKS.  16 

Ph.B.  {philoaophuB  Inicoalaureus) ,  Bachelor  of 
Philosophy. 

Ph.D.  (philoaophicB  doctor),  Doctor  of  Philos- 
ophy. 

P.E.,  Protestant  Episcopal. 

Ph.G.y  Graduate  Pharmacist. 

P.L.,  Poet  Laureate. 

P.M.   {po8t  meridiem),  After  noon;  postmas- 
ter. 

pp.  ipianisBimo) ,  Very  softly. 

P.P.;  Parish  priest. 

P.P.C.    (Pr.   pour  prendre  congi),   To   take 
leave. 

p.,  Page;  pp.,  pages. 

pro  tem.  {pro  tempore),  For  the  time. 

prox.    {promimo-^mense  understood),   In  the 
next  (month). 

P.S.   {post  8criptum),  Postscript. 

P.T.O.,  Please  turn  over. 

Q.,  Query  or  question. 

Q.C.,  Queen's  Counsel. 

Q.E.D.    {quod   erat   demonstrandum),   Which 
was  to  be  proved. 

Q.E.F.   {quod  erat  faciendum),  Which  was  to 
be  done. 

Q.S.   {quantum  eufficit),  A  sufficient  quantity. 

q.v.  {quod  vide) ,  Which  see. 

K.  {rex  or  regina) ,  King  or  queen.    Also,  R.  = 
Reaumur. 

K.  or  I^  (recipe).  Take. 

R.A.,    Royal   Academician;    Royal   Artillery; 
Royal  Arch. 

rail,    {rallentando) ,  More  slowly. 

Rj\.M.,  Royal  Academy  of  Music. 

R.C.,  Roman  Catholic. 

R.E.,  Royal  Engineers. 

R.I.P.    {requieacat  in  pace).  May  he  rest  in 
peace. 

rit.  {litardando) ,  More  slowly. 

R.M.,  Royal  Marines. 

R.N.,  Royal  Navy. 

R.S.V.P.  (Pr.  ripondez  8*il  voua  plait),  Please 
reply. 

K.V.,  Revised  version. 

S.,  Saint;  south;  shilling;  SS.,  saints. 

sc.   ( scilicet ) ,  Namely ;  understood. 

sf.   {sforzando).  With  marked  emphasis. 

S.J.,  Society  of  Jesus. 

s.p.  {sine  prole),  Without  issue. 

S.P.Q.R.  {senatus  populusque  Romanus),  The 
Senate  and  People  of  Rome. 

sq.    {sequens},    The    following;    sqq.    in    the 
plural. 

Sr.,  Senior. 

S.S.,  Steamship;  Sunday  school. 

St.,  Saint;   street. 

S.T.D.    {sanctcB  theologue  doctor),  Doctor  of 
Divinity. 

S.T.P.    {sanctof  theologies  professor).  Doctor 
of  Divinity. 

sup.    {supra),  above. 

s.v.    {suh  voce).  Under  the  heading. 

T.C.D.,  Trinity  College,  Dublin. 

Twp.,  Township. 

ult.   {ultimo — mense  understood),  In  the  last 
( month ) . 

U.P.,  United  Presbjrterian. 

U.S.,  United  States. 

U.S.A.,    United    States    of    America;    United 
States  Army. 

U.S.N.,  United  States  Navy. 

V.C.,  Victoria  Cross;  Vice  Chancellor. 

vs.  (versus).  Against. 

Consult,  for  a  reproduction  of  13,000  abbrevia- 


ABD-AI<-I<ATIF. 

tions  used  in  old  Latin  MSS.,  Campelli»  Disio^ 
nario  di  Abbreviature  (Milan,  1899). 

ABBSE'VLA.TIO  PLAC'ITCXBUIC  (Lat., 
abridgment  or  abstract  of  pleas).  A  record 
of  judicial  decisions  in  the  itinerant  Court  of  the 
King's  Bench  {cwria  regis,  q:v.)  in  the  Norman 
period  of  English  law.  It  is  one  of  the  earliest 
collections  of  judicial  precedents  in  our  law, 
antedating  the  Year  Books  (q.v.).  It  was  first, 
published  in  1811.  See  articles  on  Norman  Law  : 
Plea;  Pleading;  Master  of  the  Rolls;  and 

RXFOBT. 

ABBBE'VIA'TOBS.  In  the  Papal  Court,  a 
college  of  eleven  prelates  to  whom  the  revision  of 
the  papal  bulls  and  other  similar  documents  is 
committed,  and  who  sign  them  in  the  name  of 
the  Cardinal  Vice  Chancellor.  They  date  from 
Pius  II.  (1458-64),  and  derive  their  name  from 
the  fact  that  by  means  of  traditional  abbrevia- 
tions they  prepared  a  short  minute  of  the  decis- 
ion, which  they  subsequently  expanded  into 
proper  form. 

ABBT,  &pt,  Thomas  (1738-66).  A  German 
author,  born  at  Ulm,  educated  at  the  University 
of  Halle,  and  professor  of  mathematics  at  Rin- 
teln.  He  did  much  toward  the  improvement  of 
the  language  of  his  country.  Of  his  books  the 
more  important  are  Vom  Verdienste  (1765),  and 
Vom  Tod  fur's  VaterUind  (1761). 

ABCHEBON,  &b'she-rOn^  or  ABSHEBOK. 
See  Apsheron. 

ABD,  ftbd.  In  Arabic  and  in  the  Sem- 
itic languages  in  general,  "slave"  or  "serv- 
ant." With  the  name  of  God,  it  enters  into  the 
composition  of  many  proper  names;  as,  Abd- 
Allan,  "servant  of  Allan  ;*'  Abd  al-Kader,  "serv- 
ant of  the  mighty  one;"  Abd  al-Latif,  ''servant  of 
the  gracious  one,"  etc.  In  Hebrew,  we  have 
such  names  as  Abdeel,  "servant  of  God,"  "Abdi," 
but  also  the  form  "Ebed,"  and  **Ebed  melech." 
In  Syriac  and  Assyrian  we  likewise  have  proper 
names  compounded  with  this  word  under  the 
forms  Abad  and  Abdi  respectively. 

ABD  AXLAH  IBN  ZTTBAIB,  &bd  V/\k  li'n 
sSRJ'bar'  (622-692).  Ruler  of  Mecca.  He  was  the 
son  of  Zubair  and  nephew,  by  alliance,  of  thcf 
Prophet.  Believing  himself  more  entitled  to  the 
caliphate  than  Yazid,  the  son  of  the  usurper,  Abd 
Allah  began  to  struggle  for  supremacy  after  All's 
assassination.  He  seized  Mecca,  holding  it  against 
Yazid,  Calipli  of  Damascus.  During  the  siege  the 
Kaaba  was  destroyed,  but  Yazid's  d6ath  saved 
the  city  from  capture.  Abd  Allah  was  acknowl- 
edged Caliph  of  Mecca,  and  rebuilt  and  restored 
the  city  by  685.  The  caliphs  of  Damascus  re- 
newed the  war,  and  Mecca  was  again  besieged, 
and  after  a  stubborn  resistance  was  Unally  taken 
by  assault,  and  Abd  Allah,  who  retreated  within 
the  Kaaba,  was  slain. 

ABD  ALLAH  IBN  T ASHEUB,  *  tftsh'fSor 
(died  1058) .  The  founder  of  the  Almoravide  sect 
ill  Morocco,  which  in  a  short  space  of  time, 
through  the  propaganda  of  the  ^word,  became 
transformed  into  a  temporal  power,  overran 
northern  Africa  and  conquered  Mohammedan 
Spain.  Though  holding  supreme  authority  for  a 
long  time,  he  was  content  with  no  other  title 
tlian  that  of  "Theologian." 

ABD-AX-LATIP,  abd'  Al  Utef.     Bee  Abd- 
vl-Latif. 


ABD  All  KTJICIK  ABU  HOHAMMED.      17 


ABDICATION. 


ABD   AX.    KTJICIK    ABU    HOHAIOCED, 

ibd  ftl  mJX/m^  JB/boo  m6*hSin^med  (c.l004- 
1163).  The  founder  of  the  dynasty  of  the  Almo- 
hades  (q.T.)*  He  was  bom  at  Tajira,  in  the 
Province  of  Tlemcen,  North  Africa,  and  was  a 
member  of  the  Kumiya,  one  of  the  Berber  tribes 
of  the  Atlas  region.  After  the  death  of  Ibn 
Tumart,  the  founder  of  the  sect  of  the  Almohades, 
who  had  shown  great  favor  to  Abd  al  Mumin, 
he  was  chosen  as  his  successor.  He  now  as- 
Aumed  the  title  of  Caliph,  put  the  Almo- 
ravides  to  flight,  and  conquered  the  cities  of 
Oran,  Tlemcen,  Fez»  Sal6,  Ceuta,  and  finally, 
after  a  siege  of  eleven  months,  Morocco  (1140- 
47).  He  extended  his  dominion  over  Al- 
Maghrib  and  the  other  provinces  of  North  Africa, 
and  passed  over  into  Spain,  conquered  Cordova 
(WiS),  Almeria  (1151),  and  Granada  (1154); 
in  short,  the  greater  part  of  Mohammedan  Spain. 

ABD-EL-KADEB  IBN  HOTTHI  AD-DIN, 

ibd'el-kaM€r  Vn  jx^St/h^  Ad-d6n'  (c.  1807-83). 
An  Algerian  ruler  and  patriot.  He  was  bom 
near  3£iscara«  and  was  educated  under  the  super- 
vision of  his  father  at  the  Ghetna,  an  educational 
institution  of  the  Marabouts.  His  father,  who  was 
esteemed  a  very  holy  man,  exercised  great  in- 
fluence over  his  countrymen,  and  b^ueathed 
this  influence  to  his  son.  In  his  eighth  year 
Abd-el-Kader  made  a  pilgrimage  to  Iklecca  with 
his  father ;  and  in  1827  he  visited  Egypt,  where, 
in  Cairo  and  Alexandria,  he  first  came  in  contact 
iiith  Western  civilization.  He  had  a  gifted 
mind,  and  a  character  marked  by  religious  enthu- 
Biasm  and  a  tendency  to  melancholy.  He  was 
free  from  cruelty  and  sensuality.  He  studied 
in  the  chief  schools  of  Fez,  maintained  the  faith 
of  his  people,  and  used  their  fanaticism  as  one 
of  his  most  important  sources  of  influence.  His 
public  career  began  at  the  time  of  the  conquest 
of  Algiers  by  the  French.  No  sooner  was  the 
power  of  the  Turks  broken,  than  the  Arab  tribes 
of  the  province  of  Oran  seized  the  oppor- 
tunity to  make  themselves  independent.  Thev 
obtained  possession  of  Mascara  and  elected  Abd- 
el-Kader  their  emir.  He  established  his  author- 
ity over  a  number  of  the  neighboring  tribes. 
He  attacked  the  French,  and  after  two  bloody 
battles,  fought  on  December  3,  1833,  and  Janu- 
ary 6,  1834,  against  General  Desmichels,  then 
commanding  in  Oran,  obliged  the  latter  to  enter 
into  a  treaty  with  him.  In  the  interior  of  the 
country  his  power  spread  rapidly.  The  cities 
and  tribes  of  the  provinces  of  Oran  and  Titeri 
acknowledged  him  as  their  sultan;  the  more 
distant  tribes  sent  him  ambassadors  with  pres- 
ents. Hostilities  were*  soon  resumed  between 
him  and  the  French.  General  Tr<^zel,  at  the 
head'  of  a  French  army,  was  attacked  at  Makta, 
on  June  28,  1835,  by  nearly  20,000  Arab  cavalry, 
and  suffered  a  defeat.  The  tide  turned,  how- 
ever, and  after  a  struggle  of  six  years  Abd-el- 
Kader  found  himself  obliged  (1841)  to  take 
refuge  in  Morocco.  There  he  succeeded  in  organ- 
izing a  reliffious  war  against  the  enemies  of 
Islam,  and  the  arms  of  France  were  now  turned 
against  Morocco  for  the  support  given  to  him. 
After  the  decisive  battle  of  l8ly(  1844)  the  Sultan 
of  Morocco  was  obliged  to  give  up  Abd-el-Kader's 
caose,  but  soon  found  that  the  latter  was  at  least 
his  equal  in  power.  The  end  of  Abd-el-Kader's 
power,  however,  had  come.  On  the  night  of 
December  II,  1847,  he  made  a  bold  attack  on 
the  Moorish  camp,  in  which  he  was  defeated. 
Ha  flbd  with  his  loUowerB  to  Algeria,  where  the 


greater  part  surrendered  to  the  French.    Bis* 

ririted,  Abd-el-Kader  surrendered  December  22, 
847,  to  General  Lamorici^re  and  the  Duo 
d'Aumale.  He  waa  kept  a  prisoner  with 
his  family  at  Toulon,  Pau,  and  the  Chftteau 
d'Amboise.  Liberated  in  1852  by  Napoleon  III., 
he  lived  at  Brussa,  in  Asia  Minor,  till  1855. 
He  then,  for  a  time,  lived  in  Constantinople, 
and  finally  made  his  home  in  Damascus.  For 
his  services  during  the  Syrian  massacres  of  1800 
he  received  the  Grand  Cross  of  the  Legion  of 
Honor  from  Napoleon  III.  In  1805  he  visited 
Paris  and  England,  and  was  present  at  the  Paris 
Exposition  in  1867.  In  his  retirement  he  wrote 
a  religious  work,  a  translation  of  which  was  pub- 
lished at  Paris  in  1858,  under  the  title,  Rappel 
d  Vintelligeni:  avis  A  VindiifSrent.  He  died  in 
Damascus,  May  20,  1883.  See  Algeria  ;  consult 
C.  H.  Churchill,  The  Life  of  Ahdel-Kader  (Lon- 
don, 1867),  described  as  "written  from  his  own 
dictation  and  compiled  from  other  authentic 
sources,"  highly  eulogistic,  and  in  no  sense  a 
scientific  biography:  Lam^naire,  Vie,  aventurea, 
combats f  amours  et  prise  d* Abd-el-Kader  (Paris, 
1848)  ;  Bellemare,  Abd-el-Kader,  sa  vie  politique 
et  militaire  (Paris,  1863). 

ABD-EL-KELEK,  ftbd^el-m&nek.  See  Asmai. 

ABD-EL-WAHHAB,  abd^el-wtth^Rb.  Bee 
Wahabib. 

ABa>EHON.  A  Tyrian  who  distinguished 
himself  by  solving  the  riddles  which  had  been 
propounded  to  his  master,  Hiram,  by  King  Solo- 
mon. According  to  the  story,  Solomon  chal- 
lenged Hiram  and  the  Tyrians  to  a  contest  of 
wits,  each  side  sending  riddles  for  solution  by 
the  other.  Solomon  had  already  won  in  the 
competition  and  the  amount  agreed  upon  as  a 
wager  had  been  paid  him^  when  Abdemon  entered 
the  lists,  and  not  only  found  answers  to  the 
riddles  which  had  baffled  his  countrymen,  but 
also  invented  others  with  which  to  try  further 
the  Israelite  king.  Solomon  failed  to  answer 
them  and  returned  the  forfeit. 

ABBE^A  (Gk.  'A06npa),  A  town  on  the 
coast  of  Thrace  between  the  mouth  of  the  Nestus 
and  Lake  Bistonis.  It  is  fabled  to  have  been 
founded  by  Hercules  on  the  spot  where  his 
favorite,  Abderua,  was  torn  to  pieces  by  the 
steeds  of  Diomedes.  The  historical  colonization 
took  place  in  650  B.C.  under  the  leadership  of 
Timesius  of  Clazomenie.  Shortly  after  its  col- 
onization, the  town  was  destroyed  by  the 
Thracians,  and  in  543  B.C.  it  was  recolonized  by 
the  inhabitants  of  Tecs.  It  was  the  birthplace 
of  Protagoras,  Democritus,  Anaxarchus,  the  later 
Hecata>us,  and  other  distinguished  men.  Its 
inhabitants  were,  however,  proverbial  for  their 
stupidity,  and  the  term  "Abderite"  was  a  term 
of  reproach. 

ABD-EB-EAHMAN,    IBK    ABDALLAH, 

ttbd^er-rllH'mAn  Vn  Ab-dallA  (?-732).  A  Sara- 
cen governor  of  Spain.  At  the  head  of  about 
80,000  men  he  invaded  Gaul  in  732,  but  encoun- 
tered the  Franks  under  Charles  Martel  and 
Eudes,  near  Poitiers  (October,  732).  After  six 
days  of  hand-to-hand  fighting,  during  which  Abd- 
er-Rahnian  was  slain,  the  Christians  gained  a 
decisive  victory,  and  put  an  effectual  check  to 
the  conquests  of  the  Arabs  of  Spain. 

AB'DICA^ION  (Lat.  abdicatio,  renuncia- 
tion, from  abf  away  from  -\-  dicare,  to  proclaim). 
The  renunciation  of  an  office,  generally  the  office 


ABDICATION.  18 

of  ruler  or  sovereign.  It  is  rarely  done  out  of 
pure  preference  of  a  private  station,  but  is  gen- 
erally the  result  of  vexation  and  disappointment. 
The  general  well-being  of  a  State  is  sometimes 
served  by  the  abdication  of  its  ruler.  Military 
reverses,  popular  disaffections,  court  scandals 
and  other  causes  often  render  it  imperative. 
History  records  many  abdications  of  this  char- 
acter. It  was  perhaps  voluntarily  and  from 
being  wearied  with  dominion,  that  Diocletian, 
and  along  with  him  Maximian,  abdicated  (305). 
Christina  of  Sweden  retired  from  the  throne 
(1654)  out  of  preference  for  the  freedom  of 
private  life,  but  wished  still  to  exercise  the 
rights  of  a  sovereign.  Charles  V.  of  Qermany 
laid  down  the  crown  (1556)  and  assumed  the 
humble  habit  of  a  monk,  because  his  great 
schemes  had  failed.  Philip  V.  of  Spain  laid 
down  the  crown  in  1724,  but  resumed  it  on 
the  death  of  his  son.  Amadeus  VIII.  of  Savoy 
abdicated  (1449)  to  become  a  priest.  Victor 
Amadeus  II.  of  Sardinia,  who  abdicated  in  1730, 
wished  to  recall  the  step,  but  this  was  not 
allowed.  Louis  Bonaparte  resigned  the  crown  of 
Holland  in  1810  rather  than  consent  to  treat  that 
countrv  as  a  province  of  France.  Charles  Em- 
manuel II.  of  Sardinia  retired  from  the  throne 
in  1802,  not  finding  himself  able  to  cope  with  the 
French.  Victor  Emmanuel  I.  of  Sardinia  re- 
signed in  1821  in  consequence  of  a  revolutionary 
movement.  William  I.  of  the  Netherlands  re- 
signed (1840)  in  great  measure  by  reason  of  his 
mortification  at  the  disastrous  results  of  his 
policy  regarding  Belgium.  Foreign  force  com- 
pelled the  abdication  of  Augustus  the  Strong  of 
Foland  (1706),  and  later,  that  of  Stanislaus 
Leszczynski  (1735)  and  of  Poniatowski  (1795); 
as  well  as  that  of  Charles  IV.  of  Spain  (1808), 
and  of  Napoleon  (1814  and  1815).  Insurrec- 
tions have  been  the  most  frequent  cause  of  forced 
abdications.  The  early  history  of  the  Scandi- 
navian kingdoms  abounds  in  instances.  In 
England,  the  compulsory  abdication  of  Richard 
II.  (1399)  is  an  early  example.  More  recent 
times  saw  Charles  X.  of  France  ( 1830)  and  Louis 
Philippe  (1848)  retire  before  the  storm  of  revo- 
lution. The  abdication  of  Ferdinand  of  Austria 
(1848)  was  a  consequence  of  the  events  of  the 
year  of  revolutions;  that  of  Charles  Albert  of 
Sardinia  (1849)  of  the  battle  of  Novara.  Of 
several  cases  among  German  princes,  the  chief 
is  tnat  of  Ludwig  of  Bavaria  (1848).  Amadeus, 
King  of  Spain,  felt  himself  obliged  to  give  up 
his  crown  on  February  11,  1873.  Prince 
Alexander  of  Bulgaria  was  compelled  in  1886 
to  relinquish  his  principality,  and  three  years 
later  King  Milan  I.  of  Servia,  worried  by  domes- 
tic troubles  and  beset  by  internal  dissensions 
in  his  kingdom,  left  the  throne  to  his  son  Alex- 
ander I.  In  ^ome  countries,  the  king  can  abdi- 
cate whenever  he  pleases;  but  in  England,  the 
constitutional  relation  between  the  crown  and 
the  nation  being  of  the  nature  of  a  contract, 
the  king  or  queen,  it  is  considered,  cannot  abdi- 
cate without  the  consent  of  Parliament.  It  is, 
however,  said  that  the  king  does  abdicate,  or,  to 
speak  perhaps  more  correctly,  an  abdication 
may  be  presumed,  and  acted  on  by  the  people, 
if  his  conduct  politically  and  overtly  is  inconsis- 
tent with,  and  subversive  of,  the  system  of  con- 
stitutional government  of  which  the  qualified 
monarchy  of  his  office  forms  part.  At  the  con- 
ference between  the  two  Houses  of  Parliament 
previous  to  the  passing  of  the  statute  which 


ABDOUEK. 

settled  the  crown  on   William   III.,   it   would 
appear  that  the  word  "abdicated"  with  reference 
to  King  James  II.  was  advisedly  used  instead 
of    "deserted" — ^the    meaning,    it    is    presumed, 
being  that  King  James  had  not  only  deserted  his 
office,  but  that  by  his  acts  and  deeds,  of  whicH 
the  said  desertion  formed  part,  he  had,  in  vie\^ 
of  the  Constitution,  ceased  to  have  right  to  the 
throne.    From  this  it  may  be  inferred  that  abdi- 
cation was  considered  to  have  a  twofold  political 
signification,    involving    maladministration     as 
well  as  desertion.    The  Scottish  convention,  how- 
ever,  more  vigorously  and   distinctly   resolved 
that  King  James  "had  forefaulted   [forfeited] 
the  crown,  and  the  throne  was  become  vacant/* 

ABDI-CHIBA,  liVd6-ch€^&.     A  governor  of 
Jerusalem  in  the  time  of  Amenophis  IV.  ( 1403- 
1385  B.C.).    If  correctly  read,  his  name  probably 
designates  him  as  a  "servant  of  Hadad,"    the 
storm-god;     but    it    possibly    was    pronounced 
"Ardu-hipa,"  and  may  have  been  of  Mitanian 
origin  (compare  Pu-hipa,  Tadu-hipa,  Gilu-hipa). 
Among  the  letters  found  at  £1  Amama,  the  site 
of   Amenophis's   capital,   Chut-t-Aten,   in    1888, 
Abdi-chiba  was  the  author  of  at  least  six  (179- 
184,  edition  Winckler)  and  possibly  of  two  more 
(185,  186).    He  is  also  mentioned  in  a  letter  of 
Shuwardata  (165).    These  letters  are  written  in 
cuneiform  characters  and  in  a  Babylonian  Ian* 
guage  that  was  no  doubt  spoken  by  a  part  of  the 
population  in  Syria.  Abdi-chiba  apparently  came 
from  a  family  that  had  reigned  over  Jerusalem 
before  the  Eg>j)tian  conquest,  as  he  repeatedly 
reminded  Amenophis  of  the  fact  that  his  father 
and  mother  had  not  made  him  a  ruler,  but  the 
strong  arm  of  the  great  king,  probably  Ameno- 
phis III.,  had  given  him  the  territory  of  his 
ancestors,  who  may  have  been  Mitanians  or  Hit- 
tites.     As  king  he  seems  to  have  had  a  certain 
control  over  the  governors  of  Palestine.    With  his 
neighbors,  Shuwardata  at  Kilti-Keilah  and  Mil- 
kili  at  Gath,  he  was  often  at  war.     He  was 
accused   by   them   of   having   plotted   with   the 
Khabiri  and  taken  possession  of  Kilti,  while  he 
charged  them  with  the  capture  of  Bit  Ninib,  a 
town  belonging  to  the  country  of  Urusalim,  and 
with  betraying  the  land  into  the  hands  of  the 
Khabiri.     These  were,  perhaps,  the  Hebrews  in 
the  widest   sense,   including   Israelitish,   Edom- 
itish,   Moabitish,   and   Ammonitish   clans.     The 
term  Abiru  probably  means  simply  a  "nomad,"  a 
"wanderer."    Neither  the  Egyptian  resident,  nor 
the  king  himself,  seems  to  have  trusted  Abdi- 
chiba,  and  the  correspondence  leaves  it  doubtful 
whether  the  relief  he  asked  for  was  finally  grant- 
ed.   These  Amarna  letters  have  been  published  by 
Winckler,  in  Der  Thontafelfund  von  El  Amarna 
(Berlin,  1889-90),  and  Keilinftchriftliche  Bihlio' 
thek,  Volume  V.    (1896).     They  have  also  been 
translated   or  discussed  by  Hal^vy   in  Journal 
Asiatique  (Paris,  1891),  and  in  Revue  S^mitique 
(Paris,  1893),  bv  Zimmem  in  Zeitschrift  fur  i»- 
spriologie   (Leipzig,  1891.  vi  :  245-263),  by  Jas- 
trow  in  Journal  of  Biblical  Literature  (Boston, 
1892,  9.5-124),  and  Hehraica,  ix  :  24.46( Chicago), 
bv  Delattre  in  Revue  dea  questions  hisioriquet 
(Paris,     1896),     and    by    Eduard     Meyer    in 
JfJoyptiaca   (Berlin,  1897). 

ABDIEL,  nVdl-^  (Heb.  'aid,  servant  +  *«. 
god).  In  Paradise  Lost,  the  faithful  angel  who 
opposed  the  revolt  in  heaven  begun  by  Satan. 

ABIKXlCEiN.    The  lower  cavity  of  the  human 


ABDOKEV.  ig  aBH-TIX-HAHIDl 

bodj.    Tie  trunk  of  the  hunuLn  bodj  is  divided  treftt«d  the  Kbduction  or  unlawful  taking  away 

hj  the  diaphragm  into  two  caTitiea — the  upper  of  a  wife,  or  of  a  child,  or  of  a  ward,  aa  a  tort 

bai^   the  thorax  or   cheat,   and  the   lower   the  or  private  wrong  to  the  husband,  the  parent,  and 

abdomen    or   belly.     Both    the    cavity    and    the  the    guardian    respectively,    and    gave    to    the 

Tiacera    it   contains   are   included   in    the    term  injured  party  an  action  for  damages.     The  term 

abdomen.      It     contains     the     liver,     pancreas,  is  generally  used,  however,  to  denot«  the  crim- 

apleen,    and   kidneys,   as   well   as   the   stomach,  inal  offense  of  forcibly  taking  away  a  woman 

•mall    and    large    intestine.     The    lower    bowel,  for  the  purpose  of  marriage  or  of  prostitution. 

the  bladder,  and  internal   organs  of  generation  As   distinguished    from    kidnapping    (q.v.)    the 

lie   in   the  lowest  part  of   the  cavity,  which  is  crime  has  been  defined  hy  statute  in  England 

called   the  pelvis.     The  abdomen   is   lined  by  a  for  more  than   five   hundred  years.     It   is  also 

aeraiis    membrane,    the    peritoneum,    which    is  a  matter  of  statutory  definition  and  regulation 

folded  over  the  viscera,  allowing  them  a  certain  in    this    country.     The    tendency    of   our    legis- 

freedom   of  motion,  but  keeping  them  in   their  lation  is  to  extend  the  scope  o(  the  term   far 

£-oper  relations  to  each  other.    The  abdomen  is  beyond  its  common  law  limits.    For  example, 

Tid«d  by  two  imaginary  horiEoatal  lines  into  many  statutes  declare  that  a  person  receiving 
or  harboring  a  female  under  the  age  of  sixteen 

irHlFa    lr.r    (-ha    niipn/ia.    „l    n.^.t !  <  ..•  jV.-     jo     ^.,l\t^ 


years  for  tbe  purpose  of  prostitutio 


, __.    . —  r  — I- —  —   r tion   is  guilty 

of  abduction.  Nor  is  his  ignorance  of  the  gir]^ 
a^  an^  defense  to  the  abduction.  He  ^3  at 
his  peril  in  so  harboring  or  receiving  her.  Under 
early  English  statutes,  abduction,  as  therein 
deflned,  was  a  felony  without  benefit  of  clergy 
(q.T.).  In  this  country  it  is  a  crime,  punishable 
by  imprisonment  for  a  term  of  years  or  by  a 
heavy  fine  or  by  both.  See  the  authorities 
referred  to  under  Cbiminai.  Law.  Consult; 
Wharton,  Oriminal  Lata  (Philadelphia,  ISQS) ; 
Harris,  PrinoipUt  of  tho  Criminal  Late  (London, 
ISSQ). 

ABD-UL-AZIZ,ftbd'yl-4-sei' (1830-76).  Thir- 
ty-second sultan  of  the  Ottoman  Empire.  He 
was  the  second  son  of  Mahmud  II,,  and  suc- 
ceeded his  brother  Abd-ul-Medjid,  June  26,  1861. 
He  placed  tbe  government  in  the  hands  of  two 
ministers,  Fuad  and  All,  both  of  reforming  ten- 
dencies, largely  reduced  his  own  civil  list,  and 
aroused  hopes  of  an  improvement  in  the  condi- 
tion of  his  empire.  But  he  soon  lapsed  into 
reckless  extravagance,  and  the  projected  reforms 
proved  meaningfess  and  ineffective.  In  1867  he 
made  a  tour  of  Europe,  visiting  the  Paris  Expo- 
aitioD  and  several  capitals,  in  which  he  spent  a 
vast  amount  of  money  to  little  purpose.  In  1869 
ABDOBEM  *"  reorganised  the  council  of  stite,  and  promised 

more  reforms  in  response  to  the  demand  of  the 
three  principal  tones — the  upper  or  epigastric,  Powersj  but  the  revolt  in  Crete  took  his  atten- 
the  middle  or  umbilical,  and  the  lower  or  hypo-  tion,  war  with  Greece  was  probable,  and  th« 
gastric.  These  are  again  subdivided  by  two  ■'*'«  °'  the  treasury  precluded  efficient  reform. 
Tertical  lines— the  side-divisions  being  called  the  The  O'"**''  difficulty  was  arranged  by  a  confer- 
hypochondriac,  lumbar,  and  iliac  regions  respec-  ence  at  Paris.  Ismail  Pasha,  Khedive  of  E^pt, 
tively;  the  names  epigastric  and  umbilical  are  ^°^  advantaRe  of  the  Suitnn's  financial  embar- 
then  applied  in  a  restricted  sense  to  the  middle     rassment  to  obtain  important  concessions,  among 


divisions    of    the    two   upper    Eones,    while    the  ^•'«™  a  new  law  of  succesflion  for  his  house,  l   _ 

middle  division  of  the  lower  is  called  the  hypo-  nearly   all   the   prerogatives   of  an   independent 

gastric  region.     The  abdominal  viscera  are  sub-  sovereign.    The  Sultan's  affairs  grew  desperate. 

^ct  to  many  important  acute  and  chronic  affec-  The  friendship  of  France  had  been  Turkey's  main 

Uona,   to   which  reference   is   made  under  their  reliance  during  the  Second  Empire.     When  that 

respective  headings.  Ml  in  1870,  the  rival  Russian  influence  became 

ABDOMEn.     In    entomolcOT,    the    last    of    the  powerful  at  Constantinople.     When  the  revenues 

three  parte  into  which  the  body  of  an  insect  is  were  so  low  as   barely   to   pay   interest  on  the 

divided.     It  is  composed  of  a  number  of  rings  or  public  debt,  a  revolt  began  in  HerMgovina(  1875). 

segments,  frequently  nine,  more  or  less  distinct  *nd  '"'on   extended  fo  Bosnia.     A   renewed  and 

from  eftch  other.     It  contains  a  portion  of  the  n'°''*  imperative  demand  of  the  Powers  for  radi- 

intestine*  and  the  sexual  organs.     In  the  perfect  f^'  reformi  was  embodied  in  the  "Andrftssy  note" 

insect,  its  s^menU  bear  no  legs  or  wings;  but  (December  30,  1875),  and  the  progressive  consti- 

tbe   hind   legs   of   larvBs   or   caterpillars,   which  tutional   party    (Young  Turkey)    demanded   the 

afterward  d^ppear.  are  attached  to  them.     In  Sultana    abdication.     He    was    deposed    by   the 

many  insects,  its  last  s^ments  bear  appendages  council  of  ministers  May  30,  1876,  and  on  June 

of   various   usee   and   forms,   as   pincers,   stings,  *  ""■  found  <lead  '"  bis  apartments,  whether  by 

borer*  or  ovipoeitois,  eU.    See  Ahatokt  and  au-  assassination  or  suicide  is  not  known, 

tboritiee  there  referred  to.  ABD-UL-HAJffTD  (abd'ol-hA-mftl')  I.   (1725- 

ABDUCnOH.      Tbe    English    common    law  B9).     Sultan  of  Turkey  and  son  of  Ahmed  III. 


ABD-TTL-TT  A  TWTD,  20 

He  succeeded  his  brother,  Mustapha  III.,  in  1774. 
He  was  twice  involved  in  wars  with  Russia.  By 
the  treaty  of  Kutchuk-Kainardji  in  1774,  he 
was  eompelled  to  relinquish  his  suzerainty  over 
the  Crimea  and  other  Tartar  regions.  In  1788 
the  town  of  Otchakov  was  stormed  by  the  Rus- 
sians, a  humiliation  that  doubtless  hastened  his 
death.  Consult:  Assim  Tarischi,  History  of  Ahd- 
ul-Hamid  and  8elim  III.  (Constantinople,  1867). 

ABD-TTL-HAMII)  H.  (1842—).  Thirty- 
fourth  sultan  of  the  Ottoman  Empire;  second  son 
of  Abd-ul-Medjid.  He  was  born  September  22, 
1842,  and  succeeded  to  the  throne  August  31, 
1876,  on  the  deposition  of  his  elder  brother, 
Murad  V.  Abd-ul-Hamid  came  to  power  at  a 
trying .  time.  The  insurrection  in  Bosnia  and 
Herzegovina  was  gaining  strength,  Servia  had 
declared  open  war  upon  Turkey,  and  Russia  was 
fomenting  the  spirit  of  dissatisfaction  in  the 
Slav  states  tributary  to  Turkey.  The  party  of 
Young  Turkey,  led  by  Midhat  Pasha,  attempted 
to  establish  a  parliamentary  government  and  to 
escape  European  control  just  when  the  aid  of 
Europe  was  needed  against  Russia.  The  savage 
measures  taken  to  suppress  the  revolt  in  Bul- 
garia and  the  failure  of  all  Turkish  promises 
of  reform  quickly  alienated  the  Powers,  who 
^ave  Russia  a  free  hand.  The  Czar  declared  war 
in  April,  1877,  a  Russian  army  at  once  invaded 
Turkey,  and  advanced  almost  to  Constantinople. 
Turkey  was  saved  only  by  European  jealousy 
of  Russia.  The  treaty  of  San  Stefano  between 
the  belligerents  was  materially  modified  by  the 
Congress  of  Berlin  (q.v.),  but  even  then  Turkey 
lost  its  remaining  claims  to  suzerainty  over 
Montenegro,  Servia,  and  Rumania,  yielded  all 
real  sovereignty  in  Bulgaria,  Bosnia,  and  Herze- 
govina, and  lost  some  of  its  territory  in  Asia 
Minor.  The  Sultan  was  bound  by  the  treaty  to 
introduce  reforms  in  the  Christian  provinces, 
but  he  failed  to  do  this,  and  adopted  a  distinctly 
reactionary  policy.  He  took  into  his  own  hands 
the  direction  of  the  council  of  ministers  and 
made  his  government  a  personal  one.  The  Arme- 
nian outrages  from  1805  to  1896  at  first  aroused 
the  signatory  powers  of  the  Berlin  treaty  to  ac- 
tion, but  the  international  relations  at  the  time 
were  complicated,  and  Abd-ul-Hamid  pursued  the 
policy  he  has  always  so  well  understood  of 
eluding  all  demands  for  redress  or  reform  by 
means  of  promises  and  excuses,  playing  off  the 
rival  Powers  against  one  another  in  the  meantime. 
In  1897  a  rising  in  Crete,  brought  on  by  Turk- 
ish misgovernment,  was  assisted  by  Greece  and 
led  to  war  between  that  country  and  Turkey, 
in  which  Greece  was  defeated  and  forced  to  con- 
sent to  a  rectification  of  the  Thessalian  border 
in  favor  of  Turkey  and  to  pay  an  indemnity. 
Conditions  which  threatened  to  revive  the  East- 
ern question  in  an  acute  form  were,  however, 
obscured  by  events  in  other  parts  of  the  world, 
and  Turkish  affairs  remained  quiet.  Abd-ul- 
Hamid  stands  as  the  representative  of  the  con- 
servative orthodox  Mohammedan  party,  and  has 
revived  the  pretension  to  the  actual  headship  of 
Islam.  Consult:  B^rard,  La  Turquie  et  VHelU- 
nisme  contemporain  (Paris,  1893).  and  La  poli- 
tique  du  sultan  (Paris,  1897)  :  E.  Oilier,  Cos- 
selVs  Illustrated  History  of  the  Russo-Turkish 
War  (London,  1900),  voluminous,  but  not  criti- 
cal. 

abditllAh  ibn  abbxtl  mttttalib, 

ab-dvillA  Vn  ab'dvl  m^RSttan^b  (545-570).    The 


ABD-UL-aOLEJID. 


an  only  child, 

by  his  father 

and  persuaded 

camels  instead 

married  Amlna, 

union  came  the 

Abdullah  that» 

of  his  marriage 

died  of  broken 


father  of  Mohammed.    He  was 
and  was  about  to  be  sacrificed 
when  another  person  interfered 
the  father  to  sacrifice  a  hundred 
of  the  boy.    Soon  after  Abdullah 
a  daughter  of  Wahb,  and  of  this 
great  Prophet.    So  beautiful  was 
according  to  tradition,  on  the  day 
two  hundred  maidens  of  Mecca 
hearts. 

ABDULLAHI  IBN  SEYID  HOHAHHEB, 

ab'dvl-ia'hft  'b'n  sft-ygd'  m6-ham'm$d  (c.  1845- 
99).  The  "Khalifa,"  follower  of  the  Mahdi 
(q.v.),  whom  he  succeeded  in  1885.  He  extended 
his  dominions  in  the  Sudan,  but  incurred  the  en- 
mity of  his  followers  by  his  cruelty.  He  was 
defeated  by  the  British  under  Kitchener  at  Om- 
durman,  September  2,  1898,  and  fied  to  the  south 
with  the  remainder  of  his  army,  which  was  dis- 
persed in  the  battle  of  Om  Debrikat,  November 
24,  1899,  Abdullahi  himself  being  slain. 

ABD-UL-LATIF,  abd'vM&t^f'  (1160-1231). 
A  prolific  Arabian  writer,  physician,  and  trav- 
eler. He  was  born  at  Bagdad,  and  died  while 
on  the  pilgrimage  to  Mecca.  His  early  training 
consisted  in  memorizing  not  only  the  Koran,  but 
also  works  on  law,  philology,  and  the  standard 
poets.  He  then  went  to  Damascus,  whither  Sal- 
adin  had  assembled  the  learned  men  of  the 
Mohammedan  world.  Thanks  to  the  liberality 
of  Saladin  and  with  letters  of  introduction  from 
his  vizier,  Fadhl,  Abd  -  ul  -  Latif  was  able  to 
travel  to  Egypt,  and  in  Cairo  he  sought  out  the 
great  Jewish  doctor  and  philosopher,  Maimoni- 
des.  At  Cairo  he  taught  medicine  and  philos- 
ophy (subjects  with  the  Arabs  generally  com- 
bined), but  his  love  of  travel  brought  him  to 
Damascus  again  and  to  Aleppo.  Of  the  many 
works  of  Abd-ul-Latif  only  one,  The  Account  of 
Egypt,  is  generally  known.  This  was  translated 
into  Latin  by  White  (1800)  and  into  French  by 
De  Sacy  (1810),  Relation  de  VEgypte  (Paris, 
1810).  Consult  Brockelmann,  Qeschichte  der 
ardhischen  Litteratur  (Weimar,  1898). 

ABD-XTL-MEDJID,  abd'ul-me-jed^  ( 1823- 
ei).  Sultan  of  the  Ottoman  Empire  from  1S39 
to  1861.  He  succeeded  his  father,  Mahmud  II., 
at  a  time  when  the  Turkish  Empire  was  threat- 
ened by  the  ambition  of  the  great  Viceroy  of 
Egypt,  Mehemet  Ali.  The  army  had  been  de- 
feated and  dispersed  by  the  Egyptians  in  the 
battle  of  Nisib,  June  24,  1839,  and  there  was 
nothing  txj  hinder  the  victorious  Ibrahim  Pasha 
from  advancing  on  Constantinople,  where  a  large 
party  was  favorable  to  the  elevation  of  Mehemet 
Ali  to  the  sultanate.  The  intervention  of  the 
Christian  Powers  saved  the  house  of  Osman. 
The  treaty  of  July,  1840,  from  which  France 
kept  aloof,  rescued  the  young  Sultan  from  sure 
destruction.  Mehemet  Ali  had  to  submit,  No- 
vember 27,  1840,  to  the  restriction  of  his 
power  to  Egypt;  and  the  treaty  of 'July,  1841, 
to  which  France  subsequently  adhered,  settled 
the  future  dependent  relation  of  Egypt  to  Tur- 
key. The  Sultan,  though  not  very  energetic  in 
body  or  mind,  proceeded  in  the  path  of  reform 
begun  by  Selim  III.  and  Mahmud  II.  In  this 
he  had  for  his  chief  adviser  Reshid  Pasha,  an 
intelligent  and  humane  Mussulman,  educated  in 
France.  The  aim  of  all  his  measures  was  to 
place  the  Ottoman  population  on  a  footing  with 
the  civilized  inhabitants  of  the  West.  A  proc- 
lamation  of   the   rights   of   all    subjects,    irre- 


21 


A'BECXETT. 


•peetive  of  creed,  was  issucnl  in  the  hatti-aherif 
of  November,  1839.  This  was  followed  by  nu- 
merous reforms  in  all  departments,  and  in  1850 
the  adherents  of  all  religions  were  decreed  equal 
in  the  eye  of  the  law.  The  eood  purpose  of 
these  decrees  was  obstructed  by  the  illiberal 
Moslems,  and  they  remained  practically  a  dead 
letter.  In  1850,  the  Sultan,  in  spite  of  the  men- 
aces of  Russia  and  Austria,  refused  to  give  up 
KoesuUi  and  the  other  Hungarian  refugees.  The 
Sultan  had  a  specially  difficult  part  to  play  dur- 
ing the  war  with  Russia  (1853-50)  and  the 
diplomatic  negotiations  consequent  to  it.  Abd-ul- 
Med j id  was  the  thirty-first  sovereign  of  the  race 
of  Osman.  He  died  June  25,  1801,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  brother,  Abd-ul-Aziz  (q.v.).  See 
OnoiiAif  Emfibe. 

ABD-Xra-RAHMANy  ilbd^vr-ra^m&n  (1778- 
1859).  SulUn  of  Fez  and  Morocco  from  1823 
to  1859.  He  was  the  rightful  heir  to  the  throne 
when  his  father  died  in  1704,  but  was  super- 
seded by  an  uncle,  after  whose  death  he  as- 
cended the  throne.  The  first  four  years  of  his 
reign  were  occupied  in  quelling  insurrections. 
Austria  refused  to  pay  the  tribute  for  safety 
against  pirates;  but  the  Sultan  wisely  adjusted 
the  dispute  by  relinquishing  this  sort  of  black- 
mail, formerly  levied  on  European  ships  in  the 
Mediterranean.  The  war  waged  by  Abd-el-Kader 
(q.T.)  a^inst  the  French  in  Algeria  involved  the 
Sultan  in  its  events.  He  was  overwhelmed  by 
Bugeaud  in  the  battle  of  Isly  (1844),  and  forced 
to  turn  against  Abd-el-Kader.  The  Sultan  was 
a  aealous  Mussulman  without  the  fanaticism 
common  among  his  countrymen;  as  a  ruler  he 
was  strict  and  often  cruel.  He  was  succeeded 
by  his  eldest  son,  Sidi-Mohammed   (1803-1873). 

ABD  -  UB  -  RAHMAN  ('Abd  al-Rahman) 
KHAif,  Hftn  or  kfln  (1830-1901).  Ameer  of 
Afghanistan  from  1880  to  1901.  In  the  confu- 
sion succeeding  the  death  of  his  grandfather, 
Dost  Mohammed  (q.v.)  (1863),  he  supported 
the  pretensions  of  his  father,  Afdal,  against  his 
ancle,  Shere  AH,  who  had  been  named  as  his  suc- 
cessor by  the  late  Ameer.  The  rebellion  was 
at  first  successful,  and  Abd-ur-Rahman  was  in- 
stalled as  Governor  of  Balkh.  where  he  showed 
himself  a  wise  ruler.  In  1868  Shere  Ali  over- 
threw his  rivals  and  Abd-ur-Rahman  took  refuge 
in  Russian  territory,  living  at  Samarcand  upon 
a  liberal  Russian  pension.  In  1879  he  returned 
to  bis  old  province  of  Balkh,  which  had  always 
been  well  disposed  toward  him.  Yakub,  the  son 
of  Shere  Ali,  who  had  been  set  up  as  ameer  by 
the  English,  and  then  left  to  shift  for  himself, 
was  unable  to  maintain  order,  and  a  new  war 
wiUi  the  English  was  followed  by  his  deposition. 
Abd-ur-Rahman,  in  July,  1880,  was  recognized  as 
ameer  by  the  leading  chiefs  and  was  confirmed 
by  the  Anglo-Indian  Government,  from  whom 
he  received  a  subsidy  of  £160,000  a  year  and 
much  in  the  way  of  military  equipment.  It  had 
been  feared  from  his  previous  relations  with 
Russia  that  he  would  be  favorable  to  Russian 
designs;  but  he  at  once  resumed  the  pro-English 
policv  of  his  grandfather,  and,  by  a  firm  and 
skillful  control  of  the  tribes  of  his  realm,  he 
preserved  the  integrity  of  Afghanistan  and 
maintained  peaceful  relations  with  his  powerful 
neighbors.  In  1893  the  mountainous  district  of 
Kafiristan,  in  the  Hindu  Rush,  was  ceded  to  him 
by  the  Anglo-Indian  Government,  and  in  1896 
he  completed  the  subjugation  of  the  tribes  in- 


habiting it.  He  was  an  intelligent,  well-meaning 
ruler,  of  a  masterly  habit,  which  stood  him  in 
good  stead  in  dealing  with  his  half-barbarous 
people.  He  was  made  by  the  British  Govern- 
ment a  Grand  (Commander  of  the  Bath  and  also 
of  the  SUr  of  India.  He  died  October  3,  1901, 
after  a  brief  illness,  and  was  succeeded  by  his 
eldest  son,  Habib  UUah  Khan,  who  for  some 
time  had  borne  an  active  part  in  the  govern- 
ment and  shown  much  administrative  ability. 
See  Afghanistan.  Consult:  J.  A.  Gray,  At  the 
Court  of  the  Ameer  (London,  1895) ;  Wheeler, 
The  Ameer  Abdurrahman  (London,  1895) ;  Mo- 
hammed Khan  (Mir  Munshi  Sultan),  The  Life 
of  Ahdur  Rahman,  Ameer  of  Afghanistan  (Lon- 
don, 1900). 

ABEAM^    See  Bearing. 

ABECEDARIANS,  a'bd-s6-daM-anz  (Lat. 
ahecedariua,  pertaining  to  the  alphabet,  with 
reference  to  the  first  four  letters).  Follower^  in 
1522  of  Nikolaus  Storch,  a  clothmaker  of  Witten- 
berg, a  disciple  of  Luther,  who  imbibed  enthusi- 
astic views  commonly  called  Anabaptist.  They 
believed  it  was  best  not  to  know  how  to  read, 
since  the  Holy  Spirit  would  convey  knowledge  of 
the  Scriptures  directly  to  the  understanding,  and, 
as  education  might  be  a  hindrance  to  salvation, 
they  encouraged  pupils  to  leave  the  schools  and 
universities  and  learn  trades. 

A'BECEa>ABT  CIB^CLES.  Rings  of  let- 
ters described  around  magnetized  needles,  by 
looking  at  which  friends  at  a  distance  were  sup- 
posed to  be  able  to  communicate  with  each  other. 

A'BECK^T,  Thomas.    See  Beckbt,  Thoicas. 

A'BECEXSTT,  Arthur  William  (1844—), 
son  of  Gilbert  Abbott  A'Beckett.  An  English 
journalist,  novelist,  and  dramatist.  He  was  born 
in  London,  and  edited  various  comic  periodicals 
and  monthly  magazines.  In  the  Franco- Prus- 
sian War  he  was  special  correspondent  for  the 
London  Standard  and  Globe.  In  1874  he  became 
a  member  of  the  stafiT  of  Punch,  and  in  1896 
editor  of  the  Naval  and  Military  Magazine.  He 
is  the  author  of  several  novels  and  dramas. 

A'BECKETT,  Gilbert  Abbott  (1811-56). 
An  English  humorous  writer,  born  in  London. 
He  became  a  lawyer,  and  during  the  last 
seven  years  of  his  life  was  a  metropolitan  police 
magistrate,  in  which  office  he  displayed  marked 
ability.  He  also  devoted  much  of  his  time  to 
literature;  was  the  founder  of  Figaro  in  Lon' 
don,  the  precursor  of  Punch,  and  became  one  of 
the  original  staff  of  the  latter.  He  wrote  more 
than  sixty  plays,  and  with  Mark  Lemon  drama- 
tized The  Chimes  and  other  works  of  Charles 
Dickens  at  his  request.  He  was  the  author  of  the 
Comic  History  of  England;  Comic  History  of 
Home;  Comic  Blackstone,  and  Quizziology  of  the 
British  Drama, 

A'BECKETT,  Gilbert  Arthur  (1837-91). 
An  English  journalist  and  dramatist,  son  of 
Gilbert  Abbott  A'Beckett  (1811-56).  He  was 
born  in  London  and  studied  at  Westminster 
School  and  Christ  Church,  Oxford.  He  wrote 
many  successful  songs  and  the  librettos  of  Can- 
terbury Pilgrims  and  SaronaroUit  operas  by  Dr. 
Villiers  Stanford,  and  was  joint  author,  with 
Herman  Merivale,  of  the  poetic  drama  entitled 
The  White  Pilgrim.  During  the  last  twelve 
years  of  his  life  A'Beckett  was  one  of  the 
best-known  contributors  to  Punch, 


22 


ABEL. 


ABEEL,  &-b«F,  David,  DJ>.  (1804-46).  An 
early  missionary  to  China.  He  was  bom  in 
New  Brunswick,  N.  J.,  June  12,  1804;  gradu- 
ated from  the  theological  seminary  of  the  Re- 
formed Dutch  Church  in  his  native  town,  and 
became  pastor  in  Athens,  Greene  County,  N.  Y., 
1826.  Failing  health  compelled  his  resignation 
after  two  years  and  a  half;  in  1820  he  went  to 
China  as  chaplain  in  the  employ  of  the  Seamen's 
Friend  Society;  in  1830  was  transferred  to  the 
American  Board  of  Commissioners  for  Foreign 
Missions.  He  traveled  extensively  through  the 
Far  East,  and  on  his  way  home  invalided  he 
went  over  Europe  and  excited  great  interest  in 
missions  there,  as  he  did  later  in  America  ( 1833- 
36).  Again  thinking  himself  well  enough  for 
service,  he  returned  to  China  in  1838,  but  was 
compelled  by  his  increasing  debility  to  return 
home  (1845)  and  died  in  Albany,  N.  Y.,  Sep- 
tember 4,  1846.  As  one  of  the  earliest  and  most 
devoted  of  missionaries  he  is  still  remembered. 
His  addresses  in  London  led  to  the  formation  of 
the  Undenominational  Society  for  Promoting 
Female  Education  in  the  East  (1834)  ;  in  1844 
be  founded  the  Amoy  Mission,  now  under  the 
Reformed  Dutch  Church  Foreign  Mission  Board. 
He  published  Journal  of  a  Residence  in  China 
(New  York,  1834;  second  edition,  1836);  The 
Missionary  Convention  at  Jerusalem,  or  An  Ex- 
hibition of  the  Claitns  of  the  Word  of  the  Oospel 
(1838).  For  his  biography,  consult  G.  R.  Wil- 
liamson (New  York,  1848). 

ABEILLE,  &'bfty  or  &'bftK,  Jonas  (1809—). 
A  French  military  surgeon.  He  was  born  at  St. 
Tropez  and  was  educated  at  Montpellier.  As  the 
chief  physician  of  the  military  hospitals  of  Paris 
he  was  one  of  the  principal  promoters  of  the 
method  of  treating  cholera  with  strychnine. 
After  1857  he  devoted  himself  more  particularly 
to  private  practice  and  to  scientific  research. 
His  publications  include:  M^moires  sur  les  in- 
fections iod^es  (1849;  honored  with  a  gold 
medal  by  the  Medical  Society  of  Toulouse)  ; 
Etudes  cliniques  sur  la  paraplegic  ind^pendante 
de  la  my6lite  (1854;  prize  awarded  by  the  Medi- 
cal Academy  in  1865)  ;  Chirurgie  conservative 
(1874)  ;  Traitement  des  maladies  chroniques  de 
la  matrice  (second  edition,  1878). 

A^EL  (Heb.  hehdl,  perhaps  kindred  to 
Babyl.  ahlu,  son).  According  to  Genesis 
(iv  :  2),  the  name  of  the  second  son  of  Adam 
and  Eve.  In  contrast  to  his  brother  Cain,  who 
is  an  agriculturist,  Abel  is  a  shepherd.  At  the 
close  of  the  year,  Cain  offered  up  of  the  fruits  of 
the  field  as  a  sacrifice  to  Jehovah,  while  Abel 
brought  the  firstlings  of  his  flock.  The  latter 's 
gift  was  regarded  with  greater  favor  by  Jehovah, 
in  consequence  of  which  Cain's  jealousy  was 
aroused  and  he  slew  his  brother  Abel.  (See 
Cain.)  The  story  of  Abel  and  Cain  has  been 
interpreted  as  expressing  the  superiority  of  the 
pastoral  over  the  agricultural  life.  Abel,  the 
shepherd,  is  a  representative  of  the  Palestinian 
nomad — ^though  of  the  milder  type — of  which 
the  patriarchs,  Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob  were 
examples;  whereas  Cain  represents  the  Canaan- 
ites,  who,  at  the  time  that  the  Hebrews  entered 
the  country,  had  already  advanced  to  the  agri- 
cultural stage.  The  Hebrews  subsequently  be- 
came agriculturists  themselves,  but,  while  the 
ideial  held  up  in  the  Pentateuchal  legislation  is 
agricultural  life,  still  the  preference  for  the 
older  nomadic  conditions  crops  out  from  time  to 


time,  and  as  late  as  the  days  of  Jeremiah  we 
find  a  party  known  as  the  Rechabites  who  not 
only  eschewed  agricultural  life,  but  continued  tio 
live  in  huts  and  would  not  taste  wine,  which 
was  the  symbol  par  ewcellence  of  agricultural 
pursuits.    The  story  of  Cain  and  Abel  is  con- 
ceived in  the  spirit  of  the  Rechabites,  just  as 
there  is  a  trace  of  the  same  spirit  in  the  implied 
disapproval    of    vine    culture    in  the    tale    of 
Noah's  drunkenness  (Genesis  ix  :  20-21 ) .    In  rab- 
binical theology,  however,  and  under  the  totally 
different  view  that  was  taken  of  early  biblical 
traditions,  Abel  became  the  type  of  the  pious, 
devoted   worshipper    of   Jehovah    who    suffered 
martyrdom  for  his  devotion.    This  view  is  re- 
flected in  the  interpretation  put  upon  the  story 
in   the   New   Testament   where    (e.g.,   Hebrews 
xi  :  4)    Abel's  sacrifice  is  qualified  as  "better'' 
than    Cain's,    and    Abel    himself    becomes    the 
"righteous"  man,  the  possessor  of  true  faith,  in 
contrast  to  Cain  the  wicked  (Matthew  xxiii  :  35; 
Luke  xi  :  51).    The  etymology  of  Abel  is  doubt- 
ful.   The  Jewish  view,  which  gives  to  the  name 
the  force  of  "vanity,"  is  untenable;  but,  on  the 
other  hand,  to  connect  the  name  with  the  Assyr- 
ian aplu  (or  ahlu),  which  means  "son,"  is  also 
open  to  serious  objections,  since  there  are  no 
traces  of  Babylonian  or  Assyrian  influence  in  the 
story  itself. 

ABEL,  Carl,  Ph.D.  (1837—).  A  German 
philologist.  He  was  bom  in  Berlin,  and  after 
studying  at  the  imiversities  of  Berlin,  Munich, 
and  Tfibingen,  acquired  familiarity  with  all 
European  and  several  Oriental  tongues.  He  was 
at  one  time  a  lecturer  at  Oxford,  taught  philo- 
sophical and  comparative  linguistics  at  the  Hum- 
boldt Academy  of  Science  at  Berlin,  and  was 
linguistic  assistant  in  the  German  Foreign  Office. 
His  publications  in  German,  French,  and  English 
are  numerous.  The  works  include  Linguistic 
Essays  (1880),  Slavic  and  Italian  (1881),  and 
Russland  und  die  Lage  ( 1888) . 

ABEL,  Sib  Fbedebig  Augustus,  K.C.B.,  D.C.L. 
(1827-1902).  An  English  chemist.  He  was 
bom  in  London  and  devoted  himself  chiefly  to  the 
science  of  explosives.  He  was  consulting  chem- 
ist to  the  British  War  Department  from  1854 
to  1888,  and  was  knighted  in  1883.  Abel  intro- 
duced important  improvements  in  the  manufac- 
ture of  gun-cotton  and  of  blasting  gelatine.  He 
published:  Oun-cotton  (1866)  ;  The  Modem  His- 
iory  of  Gunpowder  (1866)  ;  On  Explosive  Agents 
(1872);  Researches  in  Explosives  (1876),  and 
Electricity  Applied  to  Explosive  Purposes  (1884). 
He  wrote  also,  in  conjunction  with  Colonel  Blex- 
am,  a  Handbook  of  Chemistry, 

ABEL,  John  (1857 — ).  An  American  physio- 
logical chemist.  He  was  born  in  Cleveland, 
Ohio,  received  his  education  at  the  University 
of  Michigan,  and  studied  medicine  in  Germany. 
On  his  return  to  this  country  he  became  con- 
nected with  the  Johns  Hopkins  University, 
where  he  was  made  professor  of  pharmacology 
in  the  medical  school  and  head  professor  of 
physiological  chemistry.  Dr.  Abel's  researches 
have  formed  valuable  contributions  to  our  knowl- 
edge of  the  fluids  and  tissues  of  the  animal  body. 

ABEL,  il'bel,  Karl  FBm>RiOH  (1725-87).  A 
German  musician,  celebrated  as  a  player  on  the 
viola  da  gamba.  He  was  bom  at  Cdthen,  be- 
came a  pupil  of  Sebastian  Bach,  and  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Royal  Polish  Band  at  Dresden.  He 
went  to  England  in  1750  and  six  years  later  be- 


ABEL. 

came    chamber.  moBician    to    Queen    Charlotte. 
He  also  won  considerable  distinction  as  a  com- 


23 


A  BET.  A  TIP. 


I,  &^1,  Niels  Hexcrik  (1802-20).  One 
of  the  most  brilliant  mathematicians  of  the  first 
part  of  the  nineteenth  century.  He  was  bom 
at  Finds,  Norway.  After  a  course  of  study  at 
the  UniTersity  of  Christiania,  he  spent  two  years 
in  Paris  and  Berlin,  and  in  1827  was  made  in- 
structor at  the  university  and  at  the  school  of 
engineering  in  Christiania.  He  was  the  first  to 
demonstrate  with  rigor  the  impossibility  of 
solving  by  the  elementary  processes  of  algebra 
mieral  equations  of  any  degree  higher  than  the 
fourth.  His  chief  contributions  were  made  to 
the  theory  of  functions,  of  which  he  was 
one  of  the  founders.  An  important  class  of 
elliptic  functions  (see  Funotionb)  are  known 
as  Abelian,  from  their  discoverer.  There  are 
also  Abelian  groups  and  bodies.  The  Binomial 
Theorem  (q.v.),  proved  by  Newton  and  Euler, 
received  at  the  hands  of  Abel  a  wider  generaliza- 
tion, including  the  cases  of  irrational  and  im- 
ai^inary  exponents.  Abel's  works,  in  two  vol- 
nmes,  were  published  by  the  Norwegian  Govern- 
ment (Christiania,  first  edition,  1830;  second 
edition,  1881). 

ABlfriATlT)  (Engl.  Ab^M&rd;  Fr.  klAlViT^), 
PnatBE  (1070-1142).  A  scholastic  philosopher 
and  theologian,  the  boldest  thinker  of  the  twelfth 
century.  His  name  is  commonly  given  in  the 
French  form,Ab4lard  or  Abailard;  in  Latin,  Abai- 
lardus  or  Bajolardus.  But  these  are  epithets  of 
uncertain  meaning,  the  latter  form  perhaps  from 
hafulus,  "teacher,"  the  former  from  aheille,  a 
bee.  He  had  properly  the  single  name  Peter, 
Petrus,  to  which  was  added  de  Palais,  from  the 
place  of  his  birth,  Le  Pallet,  or  in  Latin  form 
Palatinus,  a  village  eight  miles  southeast  of 
Nantes,  Brittany,  western  France.  He  was  born 
in  1079.  His  father  was  the  knight  Berengar, 
lord  of  the  village;  his  mother  was  Lucia,  and 
they  both  later  on  entered  monastic  orders.  An 
irrepressible  thirst  for  knowledge  and  a  special 
pleasure  in  scholastic  logic  moved  Ab^lard  to 
resign  his  rights  of  primogeniture  in  favor  of 
his  younger  brothers.  His  first  teacher  was  Ros- 
eeilin,  the  Nominalist,  during  the  latter 's  stay 
at  Vannes.  He  wandered  about  in  search  of 
knowledge  until  he  arrived  in  Paris,  where  he 
became  a  pupil  of  William  of  Champeaux,  the 
Realist,  the  head  of  the  cathedral  school  of  Notre 
Dame  there,  but  soon  incurred  the  hatred  of  his 
master,  whom  he  puzzled  by  his  wonderful  subtle- 
ty.  He  fled  to  Melun,  where  he  started  a  school 
of  his  own,  and  afterward  to  Corbeil,  admired, 
yet  persecuted,  wherever  he  went.  He  then  re- 
turned home  for  the  restoration  of  his  health. 
With  renewed  strength,  he  returned  to  Paris, 
reconciled  himself  with  his  opponents,  and 
molded^  by  his  influence  as  a  lecturer,  some  of 
the  most  distinguished  men  of  his  age,  among 
whom  were  the  future  Pope  Celestine  II.,  Peter 
Lombard,  Berengar,  his  future  apologist,  and 
Arnold  of  Brescia. 

At  this  time,  however,  there  also  lived  in 
Paris  with  her  uncle,  the  canon  Fulbert,  H^lolse, 
the  eighteen-year-old  natural  daughter  of  a  cer- 
tain canon  John,  of  Paris,  already  remarkable 
for  her  beauty,  talents,  and  attainments.  At  Ful- 
bert's  invitation  Ab^lard  made  his  home  with 
him  and  instructed  H^loTse.  She  soon  kindled 
in  the  breast  of  Ab^Iard,  then  thirty-eight  years 


old,  a  violent  and  overwhelming  passion,  which 
was  returned  by  H6l6Ise  with  no  less  fervor. 
The  lovers  were  happy  together  until  Ab^lard's 
ardent  poetical  efl'usions  reached  the  ears  of  the 
canon.  He  sought  to  separate  the  lovers ;  but  it  was 
too  late.  They  fled  together  to  Abglard's  home, 
where,  in  his  sister  Dionysiacs  house,  H^lolse 
gave  birth  to  a  son,  and  was  privately  married 
to  Ab^lard  with  the  consent  of  her  uncle.  Not 
long  after,  H6loIse  returned  to  Fulbert's  house, 
and  denied  the  marriage,  that  her  love  might  be 
no  hindrance  to  Ab^lard's  advancement  in  the 
Church.  Enraged  at  this,  and  at  a  second 
flight  which  she  took  with  Ab^lard  to  the  Bene- 
dictine nunnery  at  Argenteuil,  where  she  had 
been  educated,  a  flight  which  Fulbert  interpreted 
as  showing  Ab^lard's  desire  to  rid  himself  of  his 
wife,  Ful&rt,  in  order  to  make  him  canonically 
incapable  of  ecclesiastical  preferment,  caused 
Ab^lard  to  be  emasculated.  In  deep  humiliation 
Ab^lard  entered  as  a  monk  the  abbey  of  St. 
Denis,  in  Paris,  and  induced  H^lolse  to  take  the 
veil  at  Arffenteuil. 

But  the  lectures  which  he  began  to  give  soon 
after  exposed  him  to  new  persecutions.  The 
synod  of  Soissons  (1121)  declared  his  opinions 
on  the 'Trinity  to  be  heretical.  In  punishment 
he  had  to  throw  the  offending  treatise  into  the 
flre,  to  read  publicly  the  Athanasian  Creed,  and 
to  endure  a  brief  imprisonment.  The  charge  seems 
to  have  been  that  ne  declared  Qod  the  Father 
alone  omnipotent.  But  what  cost  him  more  was 
his  declaration  that  St.  Dionysius,  the  patron 
saint  of  France,  had  been  bishop  of  Corinth,  and 
not  of  Athens,  for  this  stirred  up  court  opposi- 
tion. He  fled  from  St.  Denis  to  the  monastery  of 
St.  Aigulph,  near  Provins,  but  was  brought  back 
and  compelled  to  retract  his  opinions  concerning 
St.  Dionysius.  He  was  then  allowed  to  go,  and 
went  to  Nogent-sur-Seine,  and  there  built  of 
reeds  and  rushes  a  little  chapel  to  the  Trinity, 
and  later,  on  account  of  the  press  of  hearers, 
who  planted  their  huts  about  nim,  a  structure 
of  wood  and  stone,  which  he  called  the  Paraclete, 
the  ruins  of  which  exist  to  this  day.  But  as 
everything  he  did  caused  adverse  criticism,  so 
the  name  that  he  gave  the  building — ^because  it 
brought  into  unusual  prominence  the  Holy  Spirit 
— involved  him  in  fresh  trouble,  and  he  left  the 
Paraclete  and  accepted  the  abbotship  of  St. 
Gildas  de  Rhuys,  on  the  coast  of  Lower  Brit- 
tany. It  was  a  sore  trial  for  him  to  contend 
with  the  unruly  monks.  Meanwhile,  the  con- 
vent at  Argenteuil,  where  H^lolse  was  prioress, 
had  been  broken  up.  Ab4lard  transferred  H^lolse 
and  her  nuns  to  the  Paraclete  and  made  her 
abbess  of  the  nunnery  he  established.  It  was  a 
long  distance  from  St.  Gildas,  but,  as  spiritual 
director,  he  frequently  went  thither.  Naturally, 
he  fell  under  suspicion  of  renewing  his  intimacy 
with  H^loTse,  and  so  the  lovers  finally  restricted 
themselves  to  writing.  The  correspondence  has 
been  preserved.  On  his  part  it  was  sternly  re- 
pressive, to  the  point  of  coldness;  on  her  part 
the  heart  expressed  its  love,  which  was  an  inex- 
tinguishable passion,  both  of  body  and  soul,  and 
tyrannical  in  its  demands  upon  the  monk  who 
had  ceased  to  share  it. 

After  ten  more  years,  Ab^lard,  fearing  an 
attack  upon  his  life,  left  his  monks  and  became 
a  wandering  teacher  again.  Two  men,  Norbert 
and  the  much  more  famous  Bernard  of  Clair- 
vaux,  were  always  on  his  track.  The  Council 
of  Sens,  held  in  1141,  under  the  influence  of  Ber- 


ABELABD. 


24 


ABEN. 


Hard,  condemned  his  teachiiufs.  Ab^lard  ap- 
pealed to  the  Pope,  Innocent  if.,  and  the  latter 
confirmed  the  finding  of  the  council  and  ordered 
his  imprisonment  and  the  burning  of  his  writ- 
ings. Ab^lard  submitted,  reconciled  himself  with 
Bernard,  and  was  on  his  way  to  Rome  to  undergo 
his  punisment,  when  he  came,  worn  out,  to  the 
great  monastery  of  Cluny.  Through  the  friendly 
offices  of  Peter  the  Venerable,  its  noble  abbot,  he 
receiyed  permission  to  retire  thither  and  a  re- 
lease from  the  order  of  imprisonment.  He  had 
not  long  to  live,  but  the  time  was  well  spent  in 
religious  exercises  and  in  occasional  teaching. 
He  had  the  scurvy,  and  when  his  ills  increas^ 
he  was  removed  to  the  priory  of  St.  Marcel  at 
Chalon-sur-SaOne,  where  the  air  was  better,  it 
was  thought.  Hiere  he  died,  on  April  21,  1142. 
His  body  was  brought  to  the  Paraclete.  H^loTse 
died  there  May  16,  1164,  and  was  laid  beside  him. 
In  the  cemetery  of  Pdre-la-Chaise  in  Paris  their 
bones  are  now  united  in  one  tomb,  erected  in 
1817.  The  figure  of  H^lolse  is  really  that  of  a 
lady  of  the  Dormans  family,  and  was  originally 
in  the  chapel  of  the  old  College  de  Beauvais. 

The  loves  of  Ab^lard  and  H^lolse  have  made 
them  immortal,  but  Ab^lard  also  has  importance 
as  a  philosopher.  He  followed  John  -  Scotus 
Erigena,  the  ninth  century  philosopher,  in  his 
rationalism.    He  planted  himself  on  Aristotelian 

f round  (although  all  he  knew  of  Aristotle  was 
erived  from  Latin  quotations ) ,  and  did  much 
to  overthrow  the  prevalent  realism.  His  great 
service  in  the  development  of  ethics  was  in  his 
treatment  of  conscience  by  dwelling  upon  the 
subjective  aspect.  He  also  has  great  importance 
as  the  virtual  founder  of  the  University  of  Paris, 
in  a  sense  the  mother  of  medieval,  and  so  of  all 
modern,  universities.  This  claim  may  be  made 
for  him  because  he  first  established  schools  inde- 
pendent of  the  monastic  and  episcopal  schools. 
In  Melun,  in  Corbeil,  and  then  in  Paris,  at 
Kogent-sur-Seine,  he  had  thousands  of  pupils, 
and  gave  an  extraordinary  impetus  to  learning 
and  speculation.  His  example  as  an  independent 
teacher  was  followed.  Out  of  such  gatherings 
of  students  at  a  later  date  the  universities  were 
evolved.  By  his  appeal  to  reason  instead  of 
authority,  he  showed  the  path  to  intellectual 
freedom,  and  thus  became  the  prophet  of  the 
freedom  of  speech  and  research  for  which  the 
universities  properly  stand.  In  both  these  re- 
spects his  pedagogical  importance  is  great,  and 
so  his  particular  opinions  and  errors  are  of  com- 
paratively small  moment. 

His  works,  all  written  in  Latin,  first  printed  at 
Paris,  1616,  are  in  Migne,  Patrol,  Lat.,  clxxviii. 
(Paris,  1855)  ;  also  as  edited  by  Victor  Cousin: 
Ouvragea  iri^dits  d*Ahilard  (Paris,  1836)  ; 
Opera  (1849-60,  2  volumes);  to  which  should 
be  added  his  Sic  et  Non,  editors,  E.  L.  T.  Henke 
and  G.  L.  Lindenkohl  (Marburg,  1851) ;  Planctus 
Virginum  Israel  super  filia  JeptOB  Galadito!, 
editors,  W.  Meyer  and  W.  Brambach  (Munich, 
1886)  ;  Tractatus  de  Unitaicei  Trinitaie  [discov- 
ered, edited,  and  published  by  R.  Stolzle  under 
title:  Ah^larda  1121  zu  Soiaaona  verurtheilter 
Tractatua,  etc.]  ( Freiburg-im-Breisgau,  1891); 
his  Hymnariua  Paraclitensiuaf  editor  G.M.Dreves 
(Paris,  1891).  The  letters  of  Ab^lard  and 
H^lolse  have  very  often  been  published  and  trans- 
lated, e.g.,  the  Latin  text  and  the  French  trans- 
lation by  Gr4ard  (Paris,  1886)  ;  complete  Eng- 
lish translation  by  J.  Berington,  with  the  Latin 
text.  The  History  of  the  Lives  of  Aheillard  and 


H4U)tse  (Birmingham,  1788),  edited  by  H.  Mills 
(Ijondon,  1860) ;  0.  W.  Wight,  Lives  and  Letters 
of  Ah^lard  and  mioise  (New  York,  1861). 
Consult:  A.  S.  Richardaon,  Ah^lard  and 
H6loxse  (New  York,  1884),  with  selections  from 
their  letters;  H.  Morton,  Love  Letters  of  Ahd- 
lard  and  H4l6%ae  (New  York,  1901),  and  the 
standard  biography  of  Ab^lard  by  C.  de  R^musat 
(Paris,  1865).  For  recent  literature  concern- 
ing him,  consult:  H.  Hayd,  Ahalard  und  seine 
Lehre  im  Verh&ltniaa  zur  Kirche  und  ihrem 
Dogma  (Ratisbon,  1863)  ;  H.  V.  Sauerland. 
Ahalard  und  H^UAae  (Frankfort,  1879)  ;  P.  Tiby, 
Deux  couvena  au  moyen  Age,  ou  Vahhaye  de  Saint 
Gildaa  et  le  Paraclet  au  tempa  d* Ahalard  et 
d'H6lo%ae  (Paris,  1851);  C.  A.  Wilkens,  Peter 
Ahalard  (Bremen,  1851)  ;  C.  de  R^musat,  A&<5- 
lard,  a  drama  (Paris,  1877)  ;  S.  M.  Deutsch, 
Ahalarda  Verurtheilung  zu  Sena,  II4I,  nach  den 
Quellen  kritiach  dargeatellt  (Berlin,  1880)  ;  £. 
Vacandard,  Abilard,  aa  lutte  avec  Saint  Bernard, 
aa  doctrine,  aa  m^thode  (Paris,  1881)  ;  S.  M. 
Deutsch,  Peter  Ahalard,  ein  kritiacher  Theologe 
dea  zwolften  Jahrhunderta  (Leipzig,  1883) ;  A. 
Hausrath,  Peter  Ahalard  (Leipzig,  1893)  ;  G. 
Compayrd,  Ahalard  and  the  Origin  and  Early 
Hiatory  of  Univeraitiea  (New  York,  1893)  ;  F. 
Thaner,  Ahalard  und  daa  canoniache  Recht 
(Gratz,  1900) ;  J.  McCabe,  Peter  Ahalard  (New 
York,  1901). 

ABEL  DE  PUJOL,  kli^V  de  pv'zhdK,  Aijex- 
AKDBE  Denis  (1785-1861).  A  French  historical 
painter.  He  was  born  at  Valenciennes,  and  was 
a  pupil  of  the  famous  David,  whose  classicism 
he  followed.  In  1811  he  won  the  Grand  Prix  de 
Rome  with  "Jacob  Blesses  the  Children  of 
Joseph.''  He  painted  numerous  frescoes  in  St. 
Sulpice  and  other  churches,  in  the  Bourse,  the 
Louvre,  and  Fontainebleau.  In  1835  he  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  Academy  of  Fine  Arts. 
His  other  works  include  "The  Death  of  Britan- 
nicus''  (first  medal,  1814),  "Caesar  on  the  Day 
of  His  Assassination,"  "The  Baptism  of  Clovis" 
(in  the  cathedral  of  Rheims),  and  "Peter  Raises 
the  Dead." 

ABELE,  A-b§K.    See  Poplar. 

ABELIN,  a'be-Un,  Johann  Philtpp  ( ?- 
16337).  A  German  historian.  He  wrote  under 
the  names  Philipp  ArlanibUus,  Abeleus,  and 
Johann  Ludwig  Gottfried,  or  Gothofredus.  He 
produced  a  number  of  works  still  consulted, 
including  the  Arma  Suecica  (1031-34),  and  the 
Inventarium  SuecicB  (1632),  descriptions  of 
military  events  of  the  time.  He  also  founded  the 
Theatrum  EuropcBum  (1635-1738),  a  serial 
work  on  contemporary  history,  for  which  he 
compiled  the  first  two  volumes.  Others  of  his 
publications  are  a  Hiatoriache  Chroniku  (1633) 
and  an  Uiatoria  Antipodum  (1656).  See  Droysen, 
Arlanihaua,  Oodofredua,  Ahelinua    (1864). 

ABELITES,    ft^MU,    or    ABELOIOAKS, 

a'b§l-o'nI-anz.  A  very  small  dThristian  sect  of 
the  fourth  and  fifth  centuries;  found  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Hippo,  in  North  Africa.  Their 
chief  distinction  consisted  in  marrying  but 
abstaining  from  matrimonial  intercourse,  in  or- 
der not  to  propagate  original  sin.  They  kept  up 
their  numbers  by  adopting  children.  They  held 
that  Abel  so  lived,  because  the  Bible  mentions 
no  children  of  his. 

ABEN,  fi^^n.  A  form  used  in  the  translit- 
eration of  Oriental  names  instead  of  the  more 
correct  Ihn   ("son"). 


ABENGEB&AOE& 

ABBHCKKR A  QEB,  A-bto'se-rft^ez;  Bp,  pron. 
A-bte'th&-ra'iiA8.  According  to  legend,  a  noble 
Moorish  race  whose  strugsles  with  the  family 
of  tlie  Zegris  and  tragical  destruction  furnish 
the  material  for  the  historical  romance  Laa  guer* 
ra9  oivilea  de  Granada,  by  Gines  Perez  de  Hita 
(Saragoasa,  1595).  From  this  Chateaubriand 
composed  the  novel  Le  dernier  des  Abenoeragea, 
There  was  actually  a  family  of  Abencerrages, 
powerful  in  the  first  quarter  of  the  fifteenth 
century,  but  their  history  has  been  so  embel- 
lished by  legend  that  it  is  difilcult  to  say  what 
is  true  and  what  is  imaginary. 

ABEK-ES&A,  ft'b^n  i^rk,  properly  Abra- 
ham-ben-Meib-ibn-Eska  (1092-1167).  One  of 
the  most  learned  Jews  of  his  time.  He  was  born 
in  Toledo,  Spain.  He  died  January  23,  1167. 
He  was  master  of  the  Hebrew,  Arabic,  and  Ara- 
maic langfuages;  had  considerable  knowledge  of 
mathematics,  astronomy,  and  medicine;  was  a 
scientific  observer  and  a  poet,  and  generally  dis- 
tinf^ished  himself  as  a  sagacious  thinker.  He 
visited  Lombardy,  Provence,  France,  Egypt,  and 
England,  and  passed  the  later  years  of  his  life 
in  Rome,  everywhere  teaching  grammar,  theology, 
astronomy,  etc.,  besides  writing  works  on  He- 
brew grammar  and  composing  numerous  poems. 
His  Commentaries  on  the  Old  Testament  are  the 
most  important  of  his  works,  though  his  scientific 
method  occasioned  opposition  upon  the  part  of 
the  Talmudists.  He  also  produced  some  treatises 
on  astrolo^,  since  published  in  Latin.  The  schol- 
aatic  writers  mention  Aben-Esra  as  Abenabb  or 
AvcTARO.  An  English  translation  of  his  Isaiah 
has  been  made  by  M.  Friedlander  (London, 
1873),  of  his  Canticles  by  H.  J.  Mathews,  with 
original  text  in  Friedlander,  Miscellany  of  He- 
brew  Literature^  vol.  ii.  (London,  1877). 

ABEVBBEBOy  il^ns-bCrK.  A  town  in  Low- 
er Bavaria,  Germany,  situated  18  miles  south- 
west of  Ratisbon  ( Map :  Grermany,  D  4 ) .  It  has 
warm  springs  and  rums  of  a  castle.  On  April 
20,  1809,  Napoleon  here  defeated  the  Austrians 
and  opened  the  way  for  the  victory  of  EckmQl. 
Pop.,  1900,  2202. 

ABEOKITTA,  ft^ft-A-kU^tA.  A  large  city  in 
Yoruba,  on  the  Slave  Coast,  north  of  Lagos,  with 
which  it  is  connected  by  rail  (Map:  Africa, 
E  4).  It  is  situated  on  an  elevated  plain  and 
is  surrounded  by  a  high  mud  wall.  It  occupies 
an  extensive  area,  but  its  general  appearance  is 
that  of  a  very  large  village.  Abeokuta  was 
founded  about  1825  as  a  result  of  the  Mave- 
hunting  expeditions  of  the  natives  of  Dahomey 
and  IlMdon.  It  was  founded  primarily  on  the 
lines  of  a  confederation  for  mutual  protection, 
each  tribe,  however,  preserving  its  individual 
rights  and  customs.  The  population  is  esti- 
mated at  from  80,000  to  130,000,  and  consists 
of  about  60  different  tribes.  The  inhabitants 
are  chiefly  artisans  and  traders,  and  show  much 
skill   in  their  buildings  and  textiles. 

ftb'er-br6thak.      See 


(Celtic  aher,  confluence  of 
riven  -h  Gael,  cam,  a  conical  heap  of  stones). 
A  town  in  Monmouthshire,  England,  five  and  one- 
half  miles  southwest  of  Pontypool.  It  is  a  pro- 
gressive municipality,  owning  waterworks  and 
cemeteries.  Population,  mostly  engaged  in  coal 
mining,  1891,  10,400;  1901,  12,600. 


25  ABEBCBOMBY. 

ABEBCBOMBIE,  Ayer-krHml)!,  Jaiceb.  See 
Abebgboicbt,  James. 

ABEBCBOMBIE,  JoHzr  (1780-1844).  An 
eminent  Scotch  physician.  He  was  born  at  Aber- 
deen, and  graduated  in  medicine  at  Edinburgh 
in  1803.  He  practiced  his  profession  in  the 
Scottish  capital,  and  soon  became  recognized  aa 
the  first  consulting  physician  in  Scotland. 
Among  the  honors  bestowed  upon  him  were  the 
degree  of  M.D.  from  Oxford,  the  rectorship  of 
Marischal  College,  the  vice-presidency  of  the 
Royal  Society  of  Edinburgh,  and  the  office  of 
physician  in  ordinary  to  His  Majesty  for  Scot- 
land. Besides  his  professional  writings  he  pub- 
lished Inquiries  Concerning  the  Intellectual  Pow- 
ers (Edinburgh,  1830),  and  Philosophy  of  the 
Moral  Feelings  (London,  1833),  both  of  which 
attained  a  remarkable  popularity.  They  cham- 
pioned the  views  of  the  Scotch  school  as  repre- 
sented by  Dugald  Stewart,  but  had  no  origi- 
nality, and  therefore  have  now  little  philosoph- 
ical value. 

ABEBCBOMBY,  ftb^er-krtlml)!,  or  Abeb- 
cbombie,  James  (1706-81).  A  British  soldier, 
born  at  Glassbaugh,  Scotland.  He  entered  the 
army  as  colonel  in  1746,  and  was  raised  to 
the  rank  of  major-general  and  sent  to  Amer- 
ica in  1756,  where  in  1758  he  replaced  Lou- 
don as  commander-in-chief  of  the  British  and 
colonial  forces.  On  July  8,  1758,  at  the 
head  of  15,000  men,  he  attacked  Ticonderoga 
(q.v.),  but  was  repulsed  with  a  loss  of  fully 
2()()0  men.  This  attack  was  the  culmination  of  a 
career  of  incapacity,  and  in  September  he  was 
superseded  by  Sir  Jeffrey  Amherst.  Returning 
(1759)  to  England,  he  became  a  member  of 
Parliament,  and  was  conspicuous  as  an  upholder 
of  George  III.'s  colonial  policy.  For  his  record 
as  an  officer  in  America,  consult:  Parkman, 
Montcalm  and  Wolfe   (Boston,  1884). 

ABEBCBOMBY,  Sib  Ralph  (1734-1801).  A 
distinguished  British  general.  He  was  born  at 
Menstry,  near  Tullibody,  Scotland,  October,  1734. 
He  was  educated  at  Rugby,  and  studied  for  the 
legal  profession  at  Edinburgh  and  Leipzig,  but 
preferred  the  army,  and  a  cornet's  commission 
was  obtained  for  him  in  1756.  In  1758  he  accom- 
panied his  regiment  to  Germany,  where  he  saw 
active  warfare,  and  gained  experience  in  army 
management.  At  the  conclusion  of  peace,  he 
was  stationed  in  Ireland  for  several  years.  He 
married  in  1767,  and  by  1773  had  risen  to  the 
rank  of  lieutenant-colonel.  He  entered  Parlia- 
ment after  a  bloodless  duel  with  his  defeated 
opponent,  and  strongly  opposed  the  American 
war,  a  course  particularly  honorable,  as  he 
desired  active  service.  The  war  with  France 
gave  him  his  opportunity.  Family  influence  and 
his  reputation  procured  his  promotion  to  be 
major-general  of  a  brigade  ordered  to  Flanders, 
where  he  distinguished  himself  so  highly  ap  to 
be  publicly  thanked  by  the  Duke  of  York.  Under 
him  the  Duke  of  Wellington,  then  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Wellesley,  commanding  the  Thirty- third 
Regiment,  received  his  baptism  of  fire.  Aber- 
cromby  was  knighted  on  his  return  to  England  in 
1795,  and  was  surprised  to  find  himself  famous 
as  his  country's  greatest  general.  The  disastrous 
campaign,  however,  had  shown  him  the  deteri- 
oration in  army  discipline,  and  his  energies  were 
devoted  to  the  reorganization  of  the  whole  army 
system.  In  1796  he  conducted  a  successful  expe- 
dition to  the  West  Indies.     In  1797  he  went  to 


26 


ABEBDEEN. 


Ireland  as  commander  of  the  forces.  He  strongly 
condemned  the  governmental  policy  toward  that 
country,  however,  and  this  caused  his  resigna- 
tion ;  but  he  was  at  once  given  a  similar  appoint- 
ment in  Scotland.  In  1799  he  was  placed  in 
command  of  the  expedition  to  Holland  and  began 
it  brilliantly;  but  he  was  superseded  by  the 
Duke  of  York,  and  the  campaign  ended  ignomin- 
iously.  Abercromby  alone  acquitted  himself 
with  credit,  and  the  ministry  wished  to  make 
him  a  peer,  but  he  refused  to  have  his  name 
associated  with  a  failure.  In  1800  he  com- 
manded the  expedition  to  the  Mediterranean,  and 
after  some  brilliant  operations  defeated  the 
French  in  the  battle  of  Alexandria,  March  21, 
1801.  During  the  action  he  was  struck  by  a 
musket-ball  in  the  thigh ;  but  not  until  the  battle 
was  won  and  he  saw  the  enemy  retreating  did  he 
show  any  sign  of  pain.  He  was  borne  from  the 
field  in  a  hammock,  cheered  by  the  blessings  of 
the  soldiers  as  he  passed,  and  conveyed  on  iS^ard 
the  flag-ship  Foudroyant,  The  ball  could  not  be 
extracted;  mortification  ensued,  and  seven  days 
later,  on  March  28,  1801,  he  died.  Abercromby 
was  at  once  gentle  and  brave,  clear-sighted  and 
cool  in  deliberation;  in  action,  prompt  and  dar- 
ing. Apart  from  his  qualities  as  a  soldier,  he 
was  a  man  of  liberal  accomplishments,  free  from 
prejudices,  and  of  sound  practical  judgment. 
The  national  gratitude  to  this  eminent  man  took 
the  form  of  a  peerage  conferred  on  his  widow, 
afterward  enjoyed  by  his  eldest  son,  with  the 
title  of  Baron  Abercrombv.  Consult:  J.  Aber- 
cromby.  Memoir  of  the  Life  of  Sir  R.  Ahercrom- 
hy  (Dublin,  1801)  ;  J.  Abercromby,  Baron  Dun- 
fermline, Memoir  of  Lieutenant-Oeneral  Sir 
Ralph  Abercromby   (London,  1861). 

ABEBDABE,  ftb'er-dilr'.  A  town  in  Gla- 
morganshire, Wales,  on  the  right  bank  of  the 
Cynon,  four  miles  southwest  of  Merthyr-Tydvil. 
It  is  situated  in  a  rich  mineral  district,  having 
extensive  coal,  iron,  and  tin  works  (Map: 
Wales,  C  5).  Aberdare  is  connected  with  the 
coast  by  a  canal  and  railway.  Its  growth  has 
been  remarkable.  From  an  unimportant  village 
of  6500  inhabitants  in  1841  it  has  developed  into 
a  thriving  town  of  38,500  in  1891  and  43,400  in 
1901. 

AB'EBDEEN^  (Celtic  aber,  confluence  of 
waters,  i.e.,  of  the  Don  and  Dee).  The  fourth 
largest  city  of  Scotland,  and  the  capital  of 
Aberdeenshire.  It  is  situated  in  the  southeast- 
ern part  of  the  county,  on  the  North  Sea,  about 
95  miles  north  of  Edinburgh  (Map:  Scotland, 
F  2) .  It  forms  the  chief  part  of  a  parliamentary 
burgh  of  the  same  name,  and  comprises  all  the 
territory  lying  between  the  rivers  Dee  and  Don, 
thus  including  what  was  formerly  known  as 
Old  Aberdeen.  It  has  a  mean  temperature  of 
about  46°  F.,  and  is  about  66  feet  above  the 
sea  level.  Aberdeen  is  a  handsome  city,  largely 
built  of  granite  quarried  in  the  neighborhood, 
and  is  therefore  known  as  the  "Granite  City." 
Its  streets  are  for  the  most  part  regular  and 
well  paved.  Union  Street,  its  principal  thor- 
oughfare, has  been  described  as  one  of  the 
handsomest  streets  in  Europe,  and  contains 
many  of  the  notable  public  buildings.  Chief 
among  them  are  the  municipal  and  county  build- 
ings, an  imposing  structure  in  the  Scotch  baro- 
nial style.  Nearby  is  "Tlie  Cross,"  a  curious  mon- 
ument adorned  with  medallions  of  Scottish  mon- 
archs.    At  the  western  end  of  Union  Street  are 


the  Music  Hall  buildings,  particularly  notable 
in  point  of  architecture,  and  the  Trades'  Hall, 
in  which  are  kept  the  shields  of  the  different 
incorporated  trades.  Several  of  the  bank  build- 
ings are  tasteful  edifices.  The  east  and  west 
churches,  although  comparatively  modern,  are 
interesting  from  the  fact  that  they  are  built  on 
the  site  of  the  ancient  church  of  St.  Nicholas, 
and  are  connected  by  an  old  wooden  tower. 
Among  the  many  other  churches  of  Aberdeen 
the  Roman  Catholic  church  is  notable  for  its 
beautiful  spire,  two  hundred  feet  high,  and  the 
cathedral  of  St.  Machar,  begun  in  1357,  for  its 
severe  simplicity  of  style.  The  River  Dee  is 
crossed  by  four  bridges,  one  of  which,  a  stone 
bridge,  dates  from  1527. 

Among  its  advantages  the  city  has  an  excellent 
harbor  and  immense  fioating  docks,  enabling  it 
to  carry  on  a  large  maritime  trade  in  textile 
goods,  agricultural  products,  and  granite.  It  is 
a  large  manufacturing  centre,  the  chief  indus> 
tries  including  cotton  spinning,  manufacture  of 
cotton,  woolen  and  linen  goods,  iron  foundries 
and  paper  mills.  Granite  cutting  and  shipbuild- 
ing are  also  quite  important,  although  the  latter 
industry  has  diminished  in  importance  since  the 
days  of  wooden  vessels,  when  the  Aberdeen  clip- 
pers were  famous.  Aberdeen's  means  of  com- 
munication are  excellent.  It  is  at  the  junction 
of  three  railway  lines,  and  is  connected  by 
steamer  with  Leith,  Newcastle,  Hull,  and  Lon- 
don. Its  own  shipping  comprises  about  180 
steam  and  40  sailing  vessels,  tonnage  about  100,- 
000.  Annually  3000  vessels,  representing  a  gross 
tonnage  of  nearly  2,000,000,  clear  the  port.  The 
chief  exports  are  fish,  spirits,  cloth  nuinufac- 
tures,  coal  products,  stone,  etc.,  and  t^e  chief 
imports  barley,  wheat  meal,  maize,  oats,  flax- 
seed, sugar,  timber,  paper-making  materials, 
etc.  The  total  value  of  imports  and  exports 
averages  annually  £1,100,000  ($5,500,000).  Aber- 
deen is  the  fourth  port  of  importance  in  Scot- 
land. The  United  States  is  represented  there  by 
an  agent. 

Aberdeen  sends  two  members  to  Parliament,, 
and  is  one  of  the  most  progressive  of  mu- 
nicipalities. It  has  the  usual  authorities,  con- 
sisting of  a  lord  provost,  bailies,  councilors, 
etc.  (See  Great  Britain,  paragraph  on  Oovern- 
ment,)  The  city  owns  and  operates  its  water 
and  gas  works  and  an  electric  light  plant,  as 
well  as  its  electric  tramways,  and  maintains 
public  baths,  markets,  and  two  cemeteries.  It 
IS  one  of  the  few  municipalities  which  have 
taken  up  the  question  of  the  proper  housing  of 
the  working  people,  and  as  a  result  it  has  estab- 
lished a  lodging  house  and  erected  several  work- 
men's dwellings.  Aberdeen's  educational  insti- 
tutions are  very  numerous,  and  include  the  Uni- 
versity of  Aberdeen  (q.v.) ,  established  in  1860  by 
the  consolidation  of  King's  College  of  Old  Aber- 
deen, founded  in  1494,  and  Marischal  College 
of  New  Aberdeen,  founded  in  1593.  In  the  year 
1899-1900  there  were  about  900  students  in 
attendance.  The  university  library  contains 
about  130,000  volumes.  Among  the  other  col- 
leges and  schools  are  Gordon's  College,  which 
receives  a  yearly  grant  from  the  city,  an  art 
school,  a  navigation  school,  an  ancient  grammar 
school  dating  from  1263,  the  Free  Church  Divin- 
ity College,  and  the  Mechanics'  Institution. 
Among  the  benevolent  and  charitable  institutions 
are  the  Royal  Infirmary,  an  epidemic  hospital 
and  one  for  incurables,  a  large  lunatic  asylum. 


ABEBBBEH. 

and  a  poorhouse.  The  city  has  two  fine  public 
parka.  Aberdeen  appears  in  the  twelfth  cen- 
tury as  a  populous  town.  William  the  Lion 
granted  it  a  charter  in  1179  and  Robert  Bruce 
extended  its  privileges.  The  English  burned  the 
town  in  1336,  but  it  was  rebuilt  and  named 
New  Aberdeen.  It  suffered  severely  during  the 
civil  wars  of  the  seventeenth  century.  A  period 
of  great  prosperity  began  in  1818,  with  the 
rediscovery  of  the  art  of  granite  polishing. 
Population  of  royal,  parliamentary,  and  munic- 
ipal burgh,  1891,  123,000;  1901,  163,108,  9386  of 
whom  overflow  into  Kincardineshire. 

ABEBDEEN.  A  city  and  county  seat  of 
Monroe  Co.,  Miss.,  about  130  miles  southeast  of 
Memphis,  Tenn.,  on  the  Tombigbee  River,  and  on 
the  niinois  Central,  the  Kansas  City,  Memphis, 
and  Birmingham,  and  the  Mobile  and  Ohio  rail- 
roads (Map:  Mississippi,  J  3).  It  has  grist- 
mills, lumber-mills,  cotton-gins,  and  other  indus- 
trial establishments,  and  is  principally  engaged 
in  the  cotton  trade.  Pop.,  1890,  3449;  1900, 
3434. 


r.  A  city  and  county  seat  of 
Brown  Co.,  South  Dakota,  280  miles  west  of 
Minneapolis,  Minn.,  on  the  Chicago  and  North- 
western, the  Chicago,  Milwaukee,  and  St.  Paul, 
and  the  Great  Northern  railroads  (Map:  South 
Dakota,  G  4).  It  has  a  public  library  (Car- 
negie) and  is  the  seat  of  a  State  normal  school. 
The  city  has  important  commercial  interests, 
and  manufactures  brooms,  mantels,  patent  medi- 
cines, and  artesian  well  supplies.  Settled  in 
1880,  Aberdeen  was  incorporated  in  1882.  The 
government  is  administered  under  a  charter  of 
1890,  which  provides  for  a  mayor,  elected  bien- 
nially, and  a  city  council  which  exercises  powers 
of  confirmation  in  the  executive's  appointments 
of  the  majority  of  administrative  officials.  The 
water  works  are  owned  and  operated  by  the 
municipality.     Pop.,  1890,  3182;  1900,  4087. 


ff  fourth  Eabl  of,  Gbobge  Ham- 
ilton Gordon  (1784-1860).  A  British  states- 
man. He  was  bom  at  Edinburgh,  January  28, 
1784.  He  was  educated  at  Harrow,  and  in  1804 
took  the  M.A.  degree  at  St.  John's  College,  Cam- 
bridge. In  1801  he  had  succeeded  to  the  earl- 
dom and  made  a  journey  through  Greece,  which 
is  perpetuated  by  Byron's  satirical  distich. 


»• 


Flnt  in  the  oat-fed  phalanx  ehall  be  eeen 
The  traveied  thane,  Athenian  Aberdeen/* 


He  was  elected  a  Scotch  representative  peer  and 
took  his  seat  as  a  Tory  in  December,  1806.  In 
1813  he  was  appointed  Ambassador  Extraordina- 
ry to  Austria,  where  he  gained  the  friendship  of 
Mettemich,  whom  he  considered  a  pattern  of 
diplomacy.  He  signed  the  Treaty  of  Paris,  as 
one  of  England's  representatives,  on  May  30, 
1814.  He  was  raised  to  the  peerage  as  Viscount 
Gordon.  He  was  foreign  secretary  under  Wel- 
lington, 1828  to  1830,  and  under  Peel,  1841  to 
l»ld,  in  1834  and  1835  acting  as  Peel's  war  sec- 
retary. The  general  principle  which  guided  his 
policy  aa  secretary  of  state  for  foreign  affairs 
was  that  of  non-interference  in  the  internal  af- 
fairs of  foreign  states,  which,  joined  to  his  well- 
known  sympathy  with  such  statesmen  as  Metter- 
nicb,  exposed  him — ^not  always  justly — ^to  the 
suspicion  of  being  inimical  to  the  cause  of  popu- 
lar liberty.  His  gradual  abandonment  of  high 
Tory  principles  was  evinced  by  his  support  of  the 
bill  for  the  repeal  of  the  test  and  corporation  acts 


27  ABEBIt>YLE. 

and  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Emancipation  Act, 
The  conclusion  of  the  Chinese  War,  the  Ashburton 
Treaty,  and  the  Oregon  Treaty  were  the  principal 
services  rendered  to  the  country  during  his 
administration  of  foreign  affairs.  In  1852,  on 
the  resi^ation  of  Lord  Derby,  the  extraordinary 
state  of  parties  necessitated  a  coalition,  and 
Lord  Aberdeen  was  selected  as  the  fittest  man 
to  head  the  new  ministry,  which  for  some  time 
was  extremely  popular.  The  feeble  and  vacil- 
lating policy  displayed  in  the  conduct  of  the 
war  with  Russia  gradually  undermined  its 
stability,  and  the  disastrous  mismanagement 
brought  to  light  in  the  winter  of  1854,  in  all 
departments  of  the  public  business  connected 
with  the  war,  filled  up  the  measure  of  popular 
discontent,  and  led  to  his  resignation  in  1855. 
He  died  in  London,  December  14,  1860.  Consult 
Gordon,  Earl  of  Aberdeen  (London,  1893). 

ABERDEEN,  seventh  Eabl  of,  Sib  John 
Campbell  Gobdon  (1847 — ).  A  British  states- 
man. He  was  educated  at  St.  Andrews  and  Uni- 
versity College,  Oxford;  in  1880  was  appointed 
Lord  Lieutenant  of  Aberdeenshire,  and  from  1881 
to  1885  was  lord  high  commissioner  to  the  gen- 
eral assembly  of  the  Church  of  Scotland.  In 
1886  he  was  appointed  Lord  Lieutenant  of  Ireland 
by  Gladstone^  and  from  1893  to  1898  was  Gover- 
nor-General of  Canada.  In  1891  he  became  a 
vice-president  of  the  Royal  Colonial  Institute. 

ABEBDEENy  Univebsity  of.  A  university 
founded  in  1494  by  the  Bishop  of  Aberdeen, 
William  Elphinstone.  In  1505  the  College  of 
St.  Mary,  later  King's  College,  was  founded 
within  the  university.  In  1593  Marischal  Col- 
lege was  founded  by  George  Keith,  Earl  Mari- 
schal of  Scotland.  In  1860  these  two  were 
united  by  act  of  Parliament  into  the  University 
of  Aberdeen.  Tlie  students  retain  the  old  divi- 
sions into  four  nations.  Mar,  Buchan,  Moray, 
Angus.  The  officers  are  a  chancellor,  lord  rector, 
vice-chancellor  and  two  secretaries.  There  are 
a  large  number  of  bursaries  or  scholarships,  ag- 
gregating over  £8000.  The  students  number 
about  900.  There  are  faculties  of  arts,  science, 
theology,  law,  and  medicine,  with  about  thirty 
professors  and  many  assistants.  The  University 
of  Aberdeen  has  a  library  of  over  130,000  vol- 
umes and  several  museums. 

AB'EBDEEN'SHIBE.  A  maritime  province 
in  the  northeast  division  of  Scotland;  bounded 
north  by  Banffshire  and  the  North  Sea;  east,  by 
the  North  Sea;  south,  by  Kincardine,  Forfar, 
and  Perth  shires;  west,  by  Inverness  and  Banff 
shires  (Map:  Scotland,  F  2).  Its  greatest 
lenfifth  is  102  miles;  its  greatest  breadth,  50 
miles,  with  60  miles  of  sea-coast,  and  an  area  of 
1956  square  miles.  It  is  popularly  divided  into 
five  districts.  Mar,  Strathbogie,  Garioch,  For- 
martin  and  Buchan.  The  principal  towns  are 
Aberdeen,  the  capital,  Peterhead,  Fraserburgh, 
Huntly,  Kintore,  Inverurie,  and  Turriff.  The 
chief  industries  are  connected  with  agriculture 
and  sea  fisheries.  Pop.,  1801,  121,100;  1851, 
212,000;  1891,  284,036;  1901,  304,400.  Consult 
A.  Smith,  History  of  Aberdeenshire  (Aberdeen, 
1875). 

AB^BBEVINE'  (origin  unknown).  A  bird- 
dealer's  name  for  the  English  goldfinch;  also 
ahadavine.    See  Siskin. 

AB'EBFOYLE'.  A  village  in  Perthshire, 
Scotland,  a  few  miles  south  of  the  Trossachs. 


ABEBFOYLE. 


It  and  the  neighboring  Lake  of  Menteith  are  the 
floenes  of  incidents  in  Scott's  Rob  Roy, 

ABEBGAVENNY,  ftb'?r-g&n^nl,  or  &b'Sr-g&- 
y§n^nl  (the  Roman  Cfohannium) .  A  market 
town  of  Monmouthshire,  England,  13  miles  west 
of  Monmouth,  beautifully  situated  in  the  valley 
of  the  Usk  (Map:  England,  D  5).  The  town  is 
regularly  and  compactly  built,  and  many  im- 
provements have  of  late  years  been  made.  It  was 
incorporated  in  1899.  St.  Mary's  Church,  which 
was  once  a  fine  cruciform  structure,  and  contains 
many  interesting  monuments,  has  been  spoiled  by 
restorations.  The  castle,  built  by  Hammeline  de 
Baladun,  soon- after  the  Conquest,  is  now  a  ruin. 
There  are  collieries  and  iron  works  in  the  neigh- 
borhood.    Pop.,  1891,  7700;  1901,  7800. 

AB^BNE'THY.  A  village  in  Perthshire, 
Scotland,  on  the  Tay,  about  six  miles  southeast  of 
Perth  (Map:  Scotland,  E  3).  It  is  believed  to 
have  been  the  capital  of  the  Picts,  and  for  many 
years  in  the  ninth  century  was  the  seat  of  the 
only  bishopric  in  Scotland.  It  is  chiefly  notable, 
however,  for  its  ancient  round  tower,  like  which 
there  is  only  one  other  in  Scotland.  Pop.,  1901, 
police  burgh,  623;  civil  parish,  1276. 

ABEBNETHY,  James  (1815-96).  A  Scotch 
civil  engineer.  He  was  bom  at  Aberdeen.  In 
1841  he  was  resident  engineer  of  the  Aberdeen 
harbor  works,  and  from  1842  to  1852  was 
surveying  officer  for  the  Admiralty.  He  was  the 
first  to  apply  hydraulic  power  to  the  working  of 
lock-gates,  and  constructed  such  important  works 
as  the  Birkenhead  docks,  the  Hull  docks,  and 
the  Turin  and  Savona  Railway  (Italy).  He 
was  also  the  director  of  the  works  for  the  drain- 
ing of  Lake  Abukir,  Egypt,  by  which  twenty 
thousand  acres  were  reclaimed.  In  1881  he  was 
elected  President  of  the  Institute  of  Civil  Engi- 
neers. 


,  JOHW  ( 1 680- 1 740 ) .  An  Irish 
dissenting  minister.  He  was  bom  at  Colerain, 
Ireland,  the  son  of  a  dissenting  Presbyterian  min- 
ister; was  educated  at  Glasgow  and  Edinburgh, 
and  was  licensed  to  preach  before  he  was 
twenty-one  years  old.  He  was  ordained  at 
Antrim  in  1703;  in  1717  he  was  invited  to 
a  congregation  in  Dublin  and  another  in  Bel- 
fast, while  Antrim  desired  him  to  remain. 
The  synod  was  appealed  to  and  decided  that 
he  should  go  to  Dublin,  but  he  declined  and 
remained  at  Antrim.  This  refusal  to  obey  the 
synod  was  unheard  of  and  was  considered  ecclesi- 
astical rebellion,  and  a  fierce  controversy  en- 
sued, the  parties  dividing  into  "subscribers"  and 
"non  -  subscribers."  Though  himself  strictly 
evangelical,  Abernethy  and  his  associates  were 
remotely  the  occasion  of  the  contest  which  ended 
in  eliminating  Arian  and  Socinian  elements  from 
the  Irish  Presbyterian  Church.  In  1726,  Aber- 
nethy and  all  the  "non-subscribers**  were  turned 
out  with  due  ban  and  solemnity,  but  only  four 
years  afterward  he  was  called  to  a  "regular" 
congregation  in  Dublin.  In  1731,  in  the  con- 
troversy regarding  the  test  act,  Abernethy  took 
broad  ground  "against  all  laws  that,  upon  ac- 
count of  mere  differences  of  religious  opinions 
and  forms  of  worship,  excluded  men  of  integrity 
and  ability  from  serving  their  country."  He 
was  a  century  ahead  of  the  time,  and  had  to 
argtie  against  those  who  denied  that  a  Roman 
Catholic  or  a  dissenter  could  be  a  "man  of  in- 
tegrity and  ability."  Abernethy  was  foremost 
where  unpopular   truth   and   right  were  to  be 


28  ABEBBATION. 

maintained,  and  his  Tra€t8j  collected  after  his 
death,  did  good  service  for  generations.  He  died 
in  Dublin,  December,  1740.  Consult  Drechal, 
Sermons  of  John  Abemetky,  toith  his  Life 
(London,  1748-51). 

ABEBNETHY,  John  (1764-1831).  An  emi- 
nent English  surgeon.  He  was  born  in  London. 
He  was  a  pupil  of  John  Hunter;  in  1787  was 
appointed  assistant-surgeon  of  St.  Bartholomew's 
Hospital,  and  in  1815  chief  surgeon.  Soon  after 
his  appointment  he  began  to  lecture  in  the  hos- 
pital on  anatomy  and  surgery,  and  may  be  said 
to  have  laid  the  foundation  of  its  character  as 
a  school  of  surgery.  His  clear,  simple,  and  posi- 
tive style,  illustrated  by  an  inexhaustible  va- 
riety of  apt  anecdotes,  made  him  the  most  popu- 
lar medical  teacher  of  his  day.  In  1813  he  was 
appointed  surgeon  to  Christ's  Hospital,  and  in 
1814  professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  to  the 
College  of  Surgeons.  His  practice  increased 
with  his  celebrity,  which  the  singular  eccentric^ 
ity  and  occasional  rudeness  of  his  manners  con- 
tributed to  heighten.  Of  his  works,  the  most  im- 
portant are  his  Observations  on  the  Constitu- 
tional Origin  and  Treatment  of  Local  Diseases 
(1806),  and  his  Lectures  on  the  Theory  and 
Practice  of  Surgery  (1830). 

AB'EBBA^nON,  Chbomatic  (from  Lat. 
ab,  away  -f  errare,  to  wander,  and  Gk.  Xpij/m, 
chrCma,  color,  literally  colored  deviation).  A 
phenomenon  observed  when  images  of  an  object 
emitting  white  light  are  formed  by  a  lens  or 
a  prism,  it  being  observed  that  there  is  then 
not  one  white  image,  but  many  colored  ones, 
which  do  not  occupy  the  same  position,  and  which 
are  of  different  sizes,  thus  producing  a  blurred 
image  with  a  colored  border.  It  is  explained  in 
the  article  Light  that  the  sensations  of  different 
colors  are  due  to  waves  in  the  ether  of  different 
wave-number  or  wave-length,  and  that  these 
waves,  in  passing  through  portions  of  trans- 
parent matter,  such  as  glass,  travel  with  different 
velocities,  depending  upon  their  wave-number. 
As  a  consequence  of  this,  in  passing  through 
lenses  or  prisms,  waves  of  different  wave-num- 
ber have  different  paths.  White  light  is  shown 
to  be  due  to  the  reception  by  the  eye  of  waves 
of  different  wave-number;  or,  in  other  words, 
from  a  "white  object,"  or  an  object  "emitting 
white  light,"  waves  of  different  wave-numbers 
proceed  outward.  These  waves  are  such  that 
each  train  of  waves  of  a  definite  wave-number 
would  produce  in  the  eye  a  definite  color-sen- 
sation, e.g.,  blue,  green,  etc.  In  this  sense  we 
may  speak  of  "blue-waves,"  "green- waves,"  etc.; 
and  in  general  white  light  is  due  to  the  recep- 
tion by  the  eye  of  waves  which  correspond  to  the 
"colors  of  the  spectrum" — ^violet,  blue,  green, 
yellow,  orange,  red,  and  all  the  intermediate 
shades.  Therefore,  owing  to  this  difference  in 
path  in  a  lens  or  prism  of  waves  of  different 
color,  if  an  image  of  a  white  object  is  formed 
there  will  be  a  series  of  images  corresponding 
to  the  different  colors,  these  images  differing  in 
position  and  size,  as  well  as  in  color.  This  re- 
sult is  said  to  be  due  to  the  "chromatic  aberra- 
tion" of  the  lens  or  prism.  (There  are,  of 
course,  ether- waves  which  do  not  affect  the  sense 
of  sight;  and  any  prism  or  lens  which  is  trans- 
parent to  them  will  in  general  deviate  waves 
of  different  wave-number  differently,  and  so  have 
this  same  kind  of  aberration,  as  ordinary  glass 
lenses  have  for  visible  waves.)     Mirrors  do  not 


ABEB&ATION.  29 

liave  chromatic  aberration,  as  there  is  no  re- 
fraction of  the  rays.  Moreover,  it  is  possible, 
by  combining  two  or  more  prisms  or  lenses,  to 
diminish  greatly  the  aberration.  (See  Achboma- 
TiSM.)  The  colors  which  are  not  thus  brought 
to  the  same  focus  form  the  "secondary  spec- 
trurn." 

Reference  to  the  diagrams  will  possibly  serve 
to  explain  the  matter  more  fully.     Fig.  1  shows 


ABEB&ATION. 


Fio.  1. 

the  dispersion  (q.v.)  of  a  beam  ^  of  white  light 
on  passing  through  a  prism,  or,  in  other  words, 
its  separation  into  its  constituent  colors. 

In   fig.   2   let   MN   represent  a  convex   lens, 


Fio.  2. 

which  may  be  considered  as  consisting  of  a  num- 
ber of  prisms  and  having  the  same  dispersive 
effect.  Let  A  represent  a  source  of  white  light. 
Considering  a  pencil  which  falls  on  the  lens 
at  c,  where  it  is  refracted,  it  is  found  that 
dispersion  takes  place,  and  the  red  rays  after 
being  deviated  proceed  to  D,  where  an  image  of 
the  object  A  is  formed,  while  the  violet  rays 
which  undergo  greater  refraction  proceed  to 
C,  fnd  there  form  an  image  of  the  object  A. 
Consequently,  if  the  image  at  C  is  examined  with 
an  eye-piece,  or  allowed  to  fall  on  a  screen,  it 
will  be  found  to  have  a  red  border,  while  that 
at  D  will  be  seen  surrounded  by  violet.  When 
correction  is  made  for  chromatic  aberration,  the 
purpose  for  which  the  lens  is  designed  must  be 
considered.  (See  Texesgope.)  For  photographic 
work  the  violet  rays  are  required,  and  any  correc- 
tion (see  AcHBOMATiSM)  should  aim  to  bring 
them  to  the  desired  focus.  For  a  visual  telescope 
or  microscope  the  yellow  rays  must  be  considered, 
and  such  a  combination  of  lenses  made  that  they 
are  brought  to  the  same  focal  plane.  The  chap- 
ters on  optics  in  MQller-Pouillet's  Lehrbuch  der 
Pkjftik  (Brunswick,  1807)  treat  the  subject  most 
fully,  as  does  Glazebrook's  Physical  Optica  (Lon- 
don, 1898).  The  correction  of  this  evil  in  photo- 
graphic lenses  is  extensively  treated  from  the 
theoretical  standpoint  in  S.  P.  Thompson's  trans- 
lation of  Lummer's  Photographic  Optics  (London, 
1900). 

ABKBRATIOMT,  Sphebical.  A  term  used  in 
geometrical  optics  (see  Light)  to  express  the 
dlfferenoe  in  path  and  effect  of  rays  of  light 
incident  perpendicularly  and  obliquely  upon  a 
mirror  or  upon  a  surface  separating  two  portions 
of  transparent  matter,  e.g.,  upon  a  surface  of 


water.  If  a  source  of  light  is  very  small,  it  can 
be  called  a  "point-source,"  and  can  be  considered 
as  sending  out  "rays  of  light"  in  all  directions, 
like  the  radii  of  a  sphere.  If  one  of  these  rays 
is  perpendicular  to  the  surface  of  the  mirror  or 
to  the  surface  of  separation  of  the  two  media, 
the  rays  near  this  will  form  a  small  cone  or 
"pencil  of  rays;"  and  in  optics  it  is  shown  that 
such  a  perpendicular  pencil  of  rays  always  gives 
rise  by  reflection  or  refraction  to  another  pencil 
of  rays  which  meet  in  a  point  called  the  "image" 
or  "focus"  of  the  point-source.  If,  however,  a 
small  cone  or  pencil  of  rays  be  chosen  around 
a  ray  which  falls  obliquely  on  the  mirror  or  sep- 
arating surface,  it  will  give  rise  by  reflection  or 
refraction  to  rays  which  do  not  form  a  cone 
and  therefore  do  not  have  a  point  as  a  focus, 
except  in  the  case  of  a  plain  mirror,  such  as  an 
ordinary  looking-glass.  If  the  incident  pencil 
is  narrow,  the  reflected  or  refracted  rays  will 
have  two  foci,  in  the  form  of  two  short,  straight 
lines,  some  distance  apart  and  perpendicular  to 
each  other.  These  are  called  "focal  lines;"  and 
in  between  them  the  rays  come  the  closest  to 
forming  a  point  focus,  producing  what  is  called 
the  "circle  of  least  confusion."  If  instead  of 
considering  a  narrow  pencil  of  rays,  we  study  the 
whole  bundle  of  rays  falling  on  the  entire  reflect- 
ing or  refracting  surface,  it  is  evident  that  the 
rays  are  brought  to  a  focus  on  a  surface  which 
can  be  thought  of  as  due  to  the  combined  effect 
of  the  short  focal  lines  produced  by  the  indi- 
vidual pencils  of  which  the  bundle  of  rays  is 
composed,  and  which  has  a  cusp  or  projecting 
point  ending  at  the  point-focus  due  to  the  per- 
pendicular pencil.  A  section  of  this  "caustic 
surface"  is  often  seen  on  looking  down  on  a  cup 
of  coffee  or  a  glass  of  milk,  if  there  is  a  lighted 
lamp  near;  b^ause  the  projecting  sides  of  the 
cup  or  glass  act  as  a  curved  mirror.  An  imme- 
diate consequence  of  spherical  aberration  is  that 
the  image  formed  of  any  object  by  a  curved 
mirror  or  by  a  lens  or  prism  is  not  "sharp,"  but 
blurred,  unless  care  be  taken  to  exclude  the 
oblique  rays.  This  is  done  ordinarily  by  the 
use  of  diaphragms,  such  as  are  seen  in  opera- 
glasses,  photographic  lenses,  etc.  The  smaller 
the  opening  in  the  diaphragm,  so  much  the 
sharper  is  the  image.    See  Caustic. 

The  accompanying  diagrams  will  show  the 
effect  of  spherical 
aberration  in  the 
case  of  spherical 
and  parabolic  mir- 
rors and  convex 
lenses.  In  fig.  1 
parallel  rays  are 
incident  on  a 
spherical  mirror. 
Those  falling  per- 
pendicularly o  r 
near  the  centre  of 
the  mirror  are  re- 
flected to  the 
point  Q,  which  is 
termed  the  princi- 
pal focus  of  the 
mirror.  The  rays 
which  strike  the 
surface  more 
obliquely  do  not 
meet  at  Q  after  re- 
flection, but  at  points  which  lie  on  the  caustic 
surface    whose    section    is    represented    by   the 


Flo.  1. 


ABEBBATION.  30 

heavy  line  with  a  cusp  at  Q.  In  fig.  2  the  elimina- 
tion of  spherical  aberration  by  the  use  of  a  para- 
bolic mirror  is  shown,  as  here,  by  the  peculiar 
property  of  a  parabola  (q.v.),  all  rays  parallel 
to  the  axis  arc  brought  to  a  point  at  F,  called 
the  focus.    For  this  reason  the  parabolic  mirror 


Fio.  2. 

is  theoretically  the  most  available  for  telescopes 
((].v.),  but  in  practice  the  construction  of  such 
mirrors  presents  great  difficulties,  which  are  but 
rarely  effectually  surmounted.  The  effect  of 
spherical  aberration  in  the  case  of  a  lens  is 
indicated  in  fig.  3,  where  the  rays  passing 
through  the  lens  near  its  circumference  are 
brought  to  a  focus  at  C,  while  those  lying  nearer 
the  axis  AB  meet  at  or  near  F.  Tlie  foci  for 
intermediate  rays  lie  between  that  point  and 
C.  Froni  these  diagrams  the  advantages  obtained 
by  the  use  of  diaphragms  will  be  seen.  The 
oblique  rays,  or  those  which  strike  the  mirror  or 


Fio.  8. 

lens  at  a  distance  from  its  centre,  and  which 
do  not  come  to  a  focus  at  the  same  point  as 
those  passing  through  the  central  portion,  are 
accordingly  cut  off  and  the  image  rendered  more 
distinct.  The  spherical  aberration  of  lenses  can 
be  reduced  by  using  two  or  more  lenses  in  com- 
bination, as  is  done  in  the  case  of  most  photo- 
graphic objectives.  Two  lenses  with  equal  focal 
lengths  can  be  combined,  and  their  effect  is  the 
same  as  a  lens  with  one-half  the  focal  length, 
while  the  spherical  aberration  is  greatly  dimin- 
ished. The  books  of  reference  mentioned  under 
Aberration,  Chromatic,  will  also  supply  ample 
information  on  this  subject. 

ABERRATION  OF  LIGHT.  An  expression 
used  to  describe  the  phenomena  that  arise 
from  the  fact  that  light  requires  appreciable 
time  for  its  transmission  through  space. 
The  motion  of  light  traveling  from  a  star 
or  a  planet  toward  the  earth,  combined  with 
the  earth's  own  motion,  causes  an  apparent 
displacement  of  the  stars  on  the  sky:  they  all 


appear  to  occupy  positions  a  little  different  from 
their  true  ones.  In  explaining  this  phenomenon, 
we  often  use  the  analogy  of  a  man  running  in  a 
rain-storm.  Though  the  raindrops  may  be  fall- 
ing straight  down,  the^  will  seem  to  the  running 
man  to  descend  on  his  face  slantingly.  Light, 
too,  may  be  coming  down,  as  it  were,  vertically, 
but  as  the  earth,  with  the  observer  on  it,  is 
hurrying  through  space,  there  will  be  produced  a 
similar  apparent  slant  of  the  light,  and  we  shall 
see  the  stars  displaced  on  the  sky  in  the  direction 
of  the  terrestrial  motion.  But  since  the  motion 
of  our  planet  takes  place  in  a  closed,  oval  curve, 
the  apparent  displacement  of  the  stars  is  now 
in  one  direction,  and  now  in  another,  corre- 
sponding to  the  earth's  position  in  one  or  the 
other  half  of  its  oval  path.  The  result  is  that 
the  stars  themselves  seem  to  move  each  year 
through  a  small  curve;  and  this  is  a  sort  of 
miniature  reproduction  of  the  earth's  orbit 
around  the  sun.  When  the  celestial  body  under 
observation  is  itself  in  motion  with  respect  to 
our  earth,  as  is  the  case  with  the  other  planets 
of  the  solar  system,  a  further  somewhat  analo- 
gous displacement  is  produced.  Astronomers 
therefore  need  to  correct  all  their  observations 
by  a  process  of  calculation,  so  as  to  reduce  them 
to  what  they  would  be  if  no  such  thing  as  aber- 
ration existed.  Aberration  was  discovered  by 
James  Bradley,  and  was  announced  to  the  Royal 
Society  of  England  in  1729. 

The  Constant  of  Aberration.  From  what 
has  been  said  above  it  may  be  seen  that  the 
quantity  of  apparent  displacement  depends  on 
the  velocities  both  of  light  and  of  the  earth. 
The  nature  of  that  dependence  is  quite  sim- 
ple: the  velocity  of  light  is  known  in  miles 
per  second  from  laboratory  experiments;  the 
amount  of  possible  aberration,  while  inversely 
proportional  to  the  velocity  of  light,  is  large 
in  proportion  to  the  earth's  speed.  If,  there- 
fore, we  could  determine  by  direct  observation 
of  the  stars  just  how  much  they  are  displaced,  it 
would  be  possible  to  calculate  the  earth's  orbital 
velocity  from  the  size  of  the  aberration.  The 
aberration  may  be  determined  by  the  simple 
method  of  observing  a  star  at  intervals  during 
the  year  and  noting  how  much  its  position 
changes.  If  we  select  a  star  most  favorably 
situated  for  this  purpose,  we  find  that  its 
position  throughout  the  year  will  vary  from  the 
average  by  a  little  more  than  twenty  circular 
seconds.  This  number  (more  exactly  20".47) 
is  called  the  constant  of  aberration.  To  meas- 
ure this  constant  w^ith  the  utmost  possible  pre- 
cision has  long  been  the  object  of  very  earnest 
efforts;  and  few  other  astronomical  problems 
have  received  so  much  attention  in  recent  years. 
Its  particular  importance,  as  we  have  seen,  is 
due  to  the  computations  rendered  possible  by  a 
knowledge  of  the  constant.  Combined  with  the 
known  velocity  of  li^ht,  it  gives  us  the  earth's 
orbital  velocity  in  miles  per  second.  From  this 
we  get  the  length  of  the  annual  terrestrial  orbit 
in  miles,  and  then  by  a  simple  calculation  we 
find  its  semi-diameter,  or  tne  distance  from 
the  earth  to  the  sun.  This  last  is  the  funda- 
mental unit  for  astronomical  measures  of  dis- 
tance, and  its  exact  evaluation  is  considered  the 
most  important  of  all  astronomical  problems. 
See  Parallax,  section  Solar  Parallax;  Sun. 

ABEBSYCHAN.  ftb'Sr-sTk'an.  A  town  in 
Monmouthshire,  England,  about  10  miles  north 
of  Newport,  in  the  coal  district  (Map:  England, 


31 


ABIGAIL. 


C  9).    There  are  numerous  collieries  and  iron 
foundries.     Pop.,  1891,  15,300;    1901,  17,800. 

ABLEST,  John  James  (1788-1863).  An 
American  military  engineer.  He  was  born  in 
Sbepherdstown,  Virginia,  and  graduated  at  West 
Point  in  1811,  but  resided  from  the  army  and 
practiced  law  in  Washinffton.  He  served  as  a 
prirate  in  the  battle  of  Bladensburg,  August  24, 
1814.  Later  in  the  same  year  he  joined  the  corps 
of  engineers,  and  in  1838  had  become  colonel  in 
command  of  the  topographical  bureau.  He  was 
retired  in  1861.  Colonel  Abert  exercised  an  im- 
portant influence  in  the  development  of  the 
earlier  engineering  works  of  the  Government. 


A  town  in  Monmouth- 
shire, England,  four  and  one-half  miles  northwest 
of  Pontypool.  Population,  chiefly  engaged  in 
coal-mining,  1801,  10,850;  1901,  22,000. 

ABEBT8TWITH,  ftb'gr-lst^wlth.  A  favorite 
wstering-place  and  summer  resort  in  Cardigan- 
shire, VVales,  on  Cardigan  Bay,  about  50  miles 
north-northeast  of  Swansea  (Map:  Wales, 
B  4).  On  a  hill  above  the  town  stand  the  ruins 
of  an  old  castle  erected  by  Gilbert  de  Strong- 
bow.  Adjoining  it  is  the  University  College  of 
Wales,  established  in  1872.  Pop.,  in  1891,  6700; 
1901,  8000. 

ABEBT8TWITH,  Univebsitt  College  of. 
See  Wales,  Uni^'ebsitt  of. 

ABES^BA.  A  damsel  in  Spenser's  Faerie 
Queene  ( I.  iii. ) ,  who  personified  abbeys  and  eon- 
vents.  When  Una,  in  search  of  the  Red  Cross 
Knight,  called  out  to  her,  Abessa,  frightened  at 
the  lion,  ran  into  the  house  of  Blind  Supersti- 
tion and  closed  the  door,  which  the  lion  broke 
open.  The  meaning  is,  that  when  Truth  came, 
the  abbeys  and  convents  were  alarmed  and  barred 
her  out,  but  Henry  VIII.  (the  lion)  broke  in  the 
door. 

ABBT'AKCE  (O.  F.  abeiance,  from  a,  Lat.  ad, 
at  -f  O.  F.  beer,  Fr.  bayer.  Middle  Lat.  btuiare, 
to  gape,  to  expect).  A  legal  term  importing  that 
the  title  to  real  or  personal  property,  a  dignity  or 
oiBoe  is  not  vested  in  any  one,  but  is  in  expectation 
or  suspended  until  the  true  owner  appears  or  the 
right  thereto  is  determined.  Strictly  speaking, 
there  could  be  no  abeyance  of  a  freehold  at  com- 
mon law.  In  l^gal  contemplation,  there  must 
always  be  some  one  in  whom  is  vested  a  present 
estate  or  interest  in  the  land.  This,  however, 
did  not  apply  to  future  estates  which  might  be 
in  abeyance.  Thus,  when  one  man  holds  land  for 
life,  with  remainder  to  the  heir  of  another,  the 
latter  being  alive,  the  remainder  is  in  abeyance, 
since  the  heirs  of  that  other  remain  undetermined 
while  he  is  alive.  Titles  of  power  are  said  to 
be  in  abeyance  when  it  is  uncertain  who  shall 
enjoy  them.  Thus,  under  the  English  law,  when 
a  nobleman  leaving  a  title  descendible  to  his 
heirs  general  dies,  leaving  daughters  and  no  male 
issue,  the  king,  by  his  prerogative,  may  grant 
the  title  to  any  one  of  the  daughters.  Until  the 
king  exercises  his  prerogative,  the  title,  which 
is  thus  suspended,  is  said  to  be  in  abeyance. 
See  the  authorities  referred  to  under  the  article 
on  Pbopebtt. 

AB'OAJL  A  common  name  or  title  of  several 
kings  of  Edessa  in  northwestern  Mesopotamia. 
One  of  them  is  known  from  an  alleged  corre- 
spondence with  Christ.  The  account  given  by  Euse- 
bius  {Bccletiastioal  History,  xiii.,  i.)  states  that 
he  sent  a   letter  to  Christ   requesting  him   to 


come  to  Mesopotamia  and  heal  him.  To  this 
Christ  made  a  replv  that  although  unable  himself 
to  come,  he  would,  after  his  ascension,  send  a 
disciple.  Both  of  these  letters  Eusebius  claims 
to  have  found  in  the  archives  of  Edessa  and  be- 
lieves to  be  genuine.  Other  versions  add  that 
Christ  sent  to  the  king  a  portrait,  now  displayed 
at  both  Rome  and  Genoa.  Consult:  R.  A.  Lip- 
sius,  Die  Edesaenische  Ahgar  Sage  (Brunswick, 
1880). 

ABHOB^BEBS.  In  English  history,  the 
name  given  to  the  Tor^  element  that  expressed 
abhorrence  of  the  petitions  presented  to  Charles 
II.  for  the  reassembling  of  Parliament  (1680), 
and  that  upheld  the  King  in  his  efforts  to  con- 
trol public  opinion.  Their  opponents  were  called 
Petitioners.  Consult:  A  List  of  Ahhorrera,  etc. 
(London,  1682)  ,  A.  A.  Cooper,  First  Earl  of 
Shaftesbury,  About  Abhorrera  and  Addreaaera 
(London,  1682). 

ABFATHAB  (Heb.  father  of  plenty).  The 
high  priest  whose  father,  Ahimelech  (I.  Sam- 
uel xxii  :  20),  was  slain  at  the  command  of  Saul 
for  having  received  and  helped  the  fugitive 
David  (I.  Samuel  xxii:  9-10).  The  statement 
(II.  Samuel  viii  :  17;  also  I.  Chronicles  xviii  :  16, 
where  for  Ahimelech  we  must  read  Abimelech) 
that  Ahimelech  was  the  son  of  Abiathar  must  be 
inverted  in  accordance  with  I.  Samuel  xxii  :  20. 
Abiathar  also  was  a  strong  adherent  of  David, 
and  showed  his  friendship  especially  during  Ab- 
salom's rebellion  (II.  Samuel  xv:29).  Later 
on,  Abiathar  favored  Adonijah  (I.  Chronicles 
i  :  7),  and  for  this  Solomon  deprived  him  of  his 
priesthood  and  banished  him  to  Anathoth  (I. 
k-ings  ii  :  26-33).  With  his  deposition,  the  di-  '^ 
rect  high  priest  by  line  of  Eleazar  comes  to  an 
end,  and  the  place  is  taken  by  Zadok  and  his 
descendants  (I.  Kings  ii  :  36.  See  Ezekiel  xl  : 
46;  xliii  :  19;  xliv  :  15).     See  Ahimelech. 

A^IB.  The  older  biblical  name  for  the  first 
month  of  the  Jewish  ecclesiastical,  and  the  sev- 
enth of  the  civil,  year.  In  this  month  the  feast 
of  Passover  is  celebrated  (Exodus  xiii  :  4; 
xxxiv  :  18) .  In  the  later  books  of  the  Bible  rep- 
resenting the  period  when  the  Babylonian  names, 
together  with  the  Babylonian  calendar,  were 
adopted  by  the  Hebrews  (Nehemiah  ii  :  1 ; 
Esther  iii  :  7),  the  month  is  called  Nisan,  and 
this  name  is  used  at  the  present  time  in  the 
official  calendar  of  the  Jewish  Church. 

ABICH,  a^lK,  Wilhelm  Hermann  (1806- 
86).  A  German  geologist  and  traveler.  He 
was  born  in  Berlin.  He  studied  at  the  university 
there,  in  1842  became  professor  of  mineralogy  in 
Dorpat,  and  in  1853  member  of  the  St.  Petersburg 
Academy  of  Sciences.  He  explored  the  Cau- 
casus, Russian  Armenia,  northern  Persia  and 
Daghestan,  and  published  several  books  on  the 
geology  and  mineralogy  of  those  regions,  among 
which  may  be  mentioned:  Ueber  die  Natronaeen 
auf  der  Araxesebene  (1846  and  1840);  Sur  la 
structure  et  la  g^ologie  du  Daghestan  ( 1862) . 

ABIES,  a^I-$z.    See  Fib. 

ABIGAIL  (Heb.,  my  father  is  joy,  or  father 
of  joy).  The  wife  of  King  David,  famed 
for  her  beauty  and  discretion.  Abigail  was 
originally  the  wife  of  Nabal,  and  gave  food  to 
David  during  his  flight  from  Saul,  after  her 
husband  had  refused  to  do  so.  "About  ten  days 
later"  Nabal  died,  and  David  took  Abigail  to 
wife    (I.   Samuel   xxv:2-42).     The   Amalekites 


ABIOAHi.  82 

oaptured  Abigail  during  a  raid  (I.  Kings  xxz  : 
5),  but  David  recovered  her  (I.  Samuel  xxx  : 
18 ) ,  and  she  bore  him  a  son,  Chileab  ( II.  Samuel 
iii  :  3 ) ,  or  Daniel  ( I.  Chronicles  iii  :  I ) .  Another 
Abirail  was  a  sister  of  David,  and  became  the 
mother  of  Amasa  (II.  Samuel  xvii:25).  In 
modem  usage  Abigail  is  employed  as  a  general 
name  for  a  waiting-maid  or  a  lady's-maid. 

ABFJAH  (Heb.,Yahweh  is  father), or  ABF- 
JAM.    The  name  of  several  Bible  characters. 

1.  King  of  Judah,  a  son  of  Rchoboam  and 
Maacah,  the  daughter  of  Abishalom  (I.  Kings 
XV  :  2 ) .  He  suc^eded  his  father  and  reigned 
about  three  years  (936-934?  B.C.),  during  wnich 
time  there  was  war  between  him  and  Jeroboam  I. 
(I.  Kings  XV  :  7 ) .  Abijah  probably  gained  a  vic- 
tory over  Jeroboam  near  Zemaraim  (II.  Chroni- 
cles xiii),  but  the  number  of  combatants,  1,200,- 
000,  is  greatly  exaggerated. 

2.  A  son  of  JeroSdam  I.  of  Israel  (937-915? 
B.C.),  who  died  in  his  childhood  (I.  Kings  xiv: 
1-18).  The  Greek  version  brings  in  the  story  of 
his  illness  and  his  mother's  visit  to  the  prophet 
Ahijah  immediately  after  the  death  of  Solomon, 
consequently  before  Jeroboam  ascended  the 
throne. 

ABILDGAABB,  iin>IldgArd,  Nikolai  Abba- 
HAM  (1743-1809).  A  Danish  historical  painter. 
He  was  born  at  Copenhagen,  and  first  studied  at 
the  Academy  there.  He  went  to  Rome  in  1772, 
was  appointed  a  professor  in  1777  and  in  1789 
a  director  of  the  Academy.  His  most  important 
work,  a  series  of  ten  pictures  in  the  castle  of 
Christiansborg,  was  burned  with  the  castle  in 
1794.  He  also  painted  scenes  from  Shakespeare 
and  Ossian,  and  four  from  the  Andria  of  Terence. 
He  was  one  of  Thorwaldsen's  early  instructors. 

AB'ILE^NE.  A  district  referred  to  in  Luke 
iii  :  1  ("Lysanias  being  tetrarch  of  Abilene"). 
It  was  a  fragment  of  the  earlier  kingdom  of 
Iturea,  the  capital  of  which  was  Chalcis  in  the 
plain  of  Massyas,  between  the  Lebanon  and 
Anti-Lebanon  mountains.  When  the  Romans 
took  possession  of  this  region  the  Iturean  king- 
dom became  broken  up  into  four  tetrarchies,  of 
which  Abilene  was  one.  This  took  place,  prob- 
ably, between  36  and  23  B.C.  The  Lysanias 
referred  to  by  Luke  was  the  second  of  that  name, 
the  first  Lysanias  having  been  ruler  of  the  still 
undivided  territory.  The  district  of  Abilene  was 
BO  named  from  its  chief  town,  Abila,  on  the 
Abana  or  Barada,  the  stream  on  which  Damascus 
is  situated.  Abila  was  on  the  eastern  slope  of 
the  Anti-Lebanon  range,  just  where  the  Abana 
breaks  through  the  mountains.  Near  its  site  are 
an  old  cemetery  and  the  ruins  of  a  small  temple, 
both  belonging  to  Roman  times.  In  37  a.d.,  Cali- 
gula gave  Abilene  to  Agrippa  I.,  who  died  in  44. 
In  53  it  was  given  by  Claudius  to  Agrippa  II. 
(mentioned  in  Acts  xxv),  who  ruled  it  until  his 
death  in  100,  when  it  became  a  part  of  the  Roman 
province  of  Syria.  Consult  Schttrer,  Eistory  of 
the  Jewish  People,  I.  ii.  325-344. 

ABILENE,  ab^-len.  A  city  and  county  seat 
of  Dickinson  Co.,  Kan.,  163  miles  west  of  Kansas 
City,  on  the  Smoky  Hill  River,  and  on  the  Union 
Pacific,  the  Chicago,  Rock  Island,  and  Pacific, 
and  the  Atchison,  Topeka,  and  Santa  Fe  rail- 
roads (Map:  Kansas,  E  3).  It  is  primarily 
a  residential  and  commercial  place,  contains 
Mount  Saint  Joseph  Academy;  manufactures 
merry-go-rounds,  creamery  products,  etc.  The 
water   supply   is    obtained    from    near-by   sand 


ABINGDON. 

springs.  Settled  about  1860,  Abilene  was  incor- 
porated in  1869,  the  charter  of  that  date  bein^ 
still  in  operation,  and  providing  for  an  annually 
elected  mayor  and  a  municipal  council.  Pop., 
1890,  3547;  1900,  3507. 

ABILENE.  A  city  and  county  seat  of  Taylor 
Co.,  Tex.,  160  miles  west  by  south  of  Fort  Worth, 
on  the  Texas  and  Pacific  Railroad  (Map:  Texas, 
E  3).  It  is  in  a  region  devoted  principally  to 
agriculture  and  stock-raising,  and  has  a  grain 
elevator,  fiour,  grist,  and  planing  mills,  cotton 
gins,  etc.    Pop.,  1890,  3194;  1900,  3411. 

ABUCELECH,  &-bIm^«-lek  (Heb.  my  father  is 
king,  or  Moloch).  The  name  of  four  persons  in 
the  Old  Testament,  two  of  whom  appear  promi- 
nently in  the  narratives. 

1.  A  son  of  Gideon  (Judges  viii  :  31),  c.1200 
B.C.,  and  reckoned  as  one  of  the  judges  by  the 
narrative  in  Judges  x:l.  Upon  the  death  of 
his  father,  who  refused  to  take  the  title  of  king 
either  for  himself  or  children,  Abimelech  set  out 
to  claim  the  sovereignty,  slew  seventy  of  his 
brothers,  and  was  declared  king  (Judges  ix  : 
1-6).  Three  years  afterward  the  Shechemites 
under  the  leadership  of  Gaal  made  an  unsuc- 
cessful attempt  to  throw  off  his  rule  (Judges 
xxii  :  41 ) .  After  capturing  Shechem  and  burn- 
ing the  temple  of  £l-berith,  Abimelech  went 
against  Theb^z,  and  here,  while  besieging  the 
place,  he  was  struck  on  the  head  by  a  piece  of 
millstone  thrown  from  the  wall  by  a  woman. 
To  avoid  an  ignominious  death,  he  ordered  his 
armor-bearer  to  run  him  through  (Judges  ib.  43- 
57).  His  reign  is  the  first  attempt  to  establish 
a  monarchy  in  Israel. 

2.  A  king  of  Gerar  mentioned  both  in  the 
biblical  narrative  about  Abraham  (Genesis  xx 
and  xxi:  22-32),  and  about  Isaac  (Genesis 
xxvi  :  7-11;  26-33).  The  story  in  both  cases  is 
pretty  much  alike.  Abimelech  takes  Sarah  into 
his  harem,  after  Abraham,  for  fear  that  he 
should  be  killed,  declared  Sarah  to  be  his  sister. 
In  a  dream,  the  true  relation  between  Abraham 
and  Sarah  is  revealed  to  Abimelech,  who  forth- 
with returns  Sarah  to  her  husband  and  loads 
the  latter  with  presents  of  cattle  and  sei-vants.. 
Similarly  Isaac  declares  to  the  men  of  Gerar, 
among  whom  he  has  settled,  that  Rebekah  is  his 
sister.  Abimelech,  however,  discovers  the  true 
relationship,  and  reproaches  Isaac  for  having 
almost  been  the  cause  of  bringing  a  "great  sin*' 
upon  Abimelech  and  the  men  of  Gerar.  In  view 
of  this  similarity,  it  is  generally  supposed  by 
modern  critics  that  the  two  stories  are  but  dif- 
ferent versions  of  one  and  the  same  tale. 

3.  A  king  of  Gath,  according  to  the  title  of 
Psalm  xxxiv,  though  here  it  is  possible  that 
Abimelech  has  by  an  error  been  introduced  for 
Achish  (I.  Samuel  xxi  :  20). 

4.  A  priest  according  to  I.  Chronicles  xviii  r  16, 
where,  however,  the  reading  must  be  corrected 
to  Abimelech,  as  we  find  the  name  written  in 
II.  Samuel  viii  :  17  and  elsewhere  in  Samuel. 
See  Ahimrlech. 

AB^INGDON.  A  city  in  Knox  County,  HI., 
incorporated  in  1867,  on  the  line  of  the  Chicago, 
Burlington  and  Quincy  and  the  Iowa  Central 
railroads;  10  miles  from  Galesburg,  and  85  miles 
northeast  of  Quincy  (Map:  Illinois,  B  3).  It 
is  the  seat  of  Hedding  College  (Methodist  Epis- 
copal) and  of  the  Abingdon  Normal  College.  Ab- 
ingdon has  wagon  works,  an  animal- trap  factory, 
said  to  be  the  largest  in  the  world,  and  other  manu- 


ABINGDON. 


33 


faetures  of  less  extent.  The  city  was  first  settled 
in  1828,  and  is  governed  by  the  charter  of  1859. 
The  mayor's  term  is  one  year,  and  the  city  coun- 
cil is  composed  of  five  members.  Pop.,  1890, 
1321;  1900,  2022. 

ABINQDOK.  A  town  and  county  seat  of 
Washinfi:ton  Co.,  Va.,  140  miles  west  by  south 
ef  Lynchburg,  on  the  Norfolk  and  Western  Rail- 
road (Map:  Virginia,  C  5).  It  is  the  seat  of 
the  Martha  Washington  College  (Methodist 
Episcopal,  South),  established  in  1858,  and  the 
Stonewall  Jackson  Institute  (Presbyterian), 
opened  in  1869  (both  for  young  ladies),  and  con- 
tains Abingdon  Academy.  The  industries  are 
dgar  and  wagon  factories  and  planing  mills. 
Abingdon  was  settled  about  1730  and  was  incor- 
porated in  1778.    Pop.,  1890,  1674;  1900,  1306. 

ABTNQTOJX,  A  manufacturing  town  in  Ply- 
mouth Co.,  Mass.,  20  miles  southeast  of  Boston, 
on  the  New  York,  New  Haven  and  Hartford  Rail- 
road (Map:  Massachusetts,  F  3).  It  was  set- 
tled about  1680,  and  incorporated  as  a  colonial 
town  1712.  The  town's  affairs  are  administered 
by  the  town  meetings,  at  which  all  questions  af- 
fecting the  interests  of  the  town  are  discussed 
and  settled.  The  town  owns  and  operates  its 
water-works.  Pop.,  1890,  4260;  1900,  4489.  Con- 
sult: B.  Hobart,  History  of  the  Town  of  Ahvng- 
ion  (Boston,  1866). 

ABOrCKTOK,  Frances  (1737-1815).  A  fa- 
mous English  actress.  She  was  the  daughter  of 
Barton,  a  common  soldier.  As  an  errand-girl, 
she  acquired  French  from  a  milliner.  She  be- 
came a  fiower-girl  at  the  theatres,  and  made  her 
first  appearance  at  the  Haymarket  in  London 
(1775)  as  Miranda,  in  The  Busybody.  She  was 
married  to  Abington,  her  music  teacher,  from 
whom  she  soon  separated.  The  headdress  she 
wore  was  adopted  by  the  women  of  fashion,  and 
the  ''Abington  cap"  became  famous.  Returning 
to  England  in  1765,  at  the  invitation  of  (Warrick, 
she  played  at  Drury  Lane  for  eighteen  years, 
and  later  at  C^vent  Garden.  She  was  the  orig- 
inal representative  of  Lady  Teazle  in  1777,  and 
played  many  Shakespearean  parts.  After  the  re- 
tirement of  Mrs.  Pritchard  and  Kitty  Clive,  she 
had  no  rivals  on  the  London  stage,  and  became 
the  first  comic  actress  of  the  period.  Her  last 
appearance  was  on  April  12,  1799. 

ABIOGEN^SIS.    See  Biogenesis. 

ABIPONE,  a'b«-pd'n&.  A  South  American 
Indian  tribe  of  Guaycuran  stock,  which  formerly 
wandered  over  the  Gran  dJhaco  region,  west  of 
the  Paraguay  River,  from  the  headwaters  of  the 
Bio  Grande '  in  Bolivia  southward  to  the  Ver- 
mejo  in  Argentina.  Their  traditions  pointed  to 
a  more  northern  origin.  They  obtained  horses 
about  the  year  1640,  and  soon  developed  into 
bold  riders  and  implacable  foes  of  the  Spaniards. 
They  were  of  splendid  physique,  and  lived  en- 
tirely by  hunting.  The  women  tattooed,  and  the 
men  practiced  the  couvade.  Their  weapons  were 
the  bow,  the  lance,  and  the  shield.  The  Jesuits 
established  missions  among  them,  but  owin«;  to 
constant  wars  with  the  Spaniards  and  with  other 
tribes,  and  also  to  the  custom  among  the  women 
of  killing  all  but  two  children  born  to  a  family, 
the  tribe,  which  about  1780  was  estimated  at 
5000,  dwindled  rapidly  and  is  now  supposed  to  be 
entirely  extinct. 


&b-Kfi's^ft. 


A    district    of 


Asiatic  Russia  on  the  Black  Sea,  included  in  the 


gOTemment  of  Kutais.  It  is  separated  by  the 
lofty  ridge  of  the  Caucasus  from  Circassia,  and 
is  bounded  on  the  southeast  by  Mingrelia  (Map: 
Russia,  F  6).  It  derives  its  name  from  the 
Abkhasians.  The  country  is  mountainous,  with 
well-watered  valleys,  and  has  rich  woods  of  oak, 
walnut  trees,  etc.  Area,  about  2800  square  miles. 
The  northern  part  has  a  mild  and  healthful  cli- 
mate, while  in  the  south  it  is  hot  and  unhealth- 
ful.  Its  population,  numbering  about  50,000, 
mainly  Mingrelians  and  Abkhasians,  is  engaged 
in  agriculture,  cattle-raising,  and  trade  in  lum- 
ber. This  country  was  subdued  by  the  Emperor 
Justinian,  who  introduced  the  Christian  religion. 
Subsequently  Persia,  Georgia,  and  Turkey  ruled 
in  succession,  the  latter  suppressing  Christianity 
and  establishing  Moslemism.  In  1810,  the  Khan 
of  Abkhasia  embraced  Christianity  and  swore  al- 
legiance to  Russia,  reserving  to  himself  and  his 
heirs  the  right  of  governing  the  district.  The 
chief  town  in  this  region  is  Sukhumkale.  The 
people  speak  a  Circassian  dialect,  and  are  phys- 
ically akin  to  that  stock,  although  typically 
ruder  and  less  graceful.  Their  folk-life  is  also 
more  primitive.  As  a  result  of  the  Russian  oc- 
cupation, a  great  part  of  the  tribe  emigrated  into 
Turkish  territory.    See  Circassians. 

ABOLjATIVE  case.    See  Declension. 

ABLAUT,  ai/lout;  Ger.  pron.  ftplout,  or 
Vowel  Gbadation.  The  name  given  by  Ger- 
man scholars,  and  in  common  use  in  English,  to 
a  change  in  the  root  vowel  in  different  forms  of 
the  same  word.  While  ablaut  appears  in  other 
Indo-European  languages  and  in  other  parts  of 
speech  in  the  Teutonic  languages,  it  has  become 
the  essential  feature  in  the  strong  conjugation  of 
the  verbs.  (See  0)NJUGATION.)  Ablaut  is,  there- 
fore, not,  like  umlaut,  a  specifically  Teutonic 
change,  though  its  application  to  the  verbal  con- 
jugation is  such.  Through  various  causes  ablaut 
has  been  obscured  in  modem  English,  but  in  Old 
English  six  classes  or  grades  of  ablaut  can  be  ob- 
served. Ablaut  appears  also  in  connection  with 
the  reduplicating  verbs.  For  a  complete  list  of 
the  strong  verbs  arranged  according  to  the  classes 
of  ablaut,  see  any  Old  English  (Anglo-Saxon) 
grammar.    See  Phonetic  Laws. 

AB^LEGATE  (Lat.  ah,  away,  from,  oflf  -f  Zc- 
gare,  to  send  with  a  commission).  A  papal  en- 
voy or  emissary,  a  special  commissioner,  deputed 
by  the  papal  court  at  Rome  to  carry  the  hat  and 
red  biretta  to  a  newly  appointed  cardinal.  His 
official  duties  are  completed  when  the  latter  has 
received  the  insignia  of  his  office.  The  so-called 
apostolic  ablegates  are  of  higher  rank  than  those 
termed  pontifical, 

ABLUTION.    See  Purification. 

ABNAKI,  &b-ntl'k6  ("Easterners").  A  con- 
federacy of  Algonquian  tribes,  including  the  Pas- 
samaquoddies,  Penobscots,  Norridgewocks,  and 
others,  formerly  occupying  what  is  now  Maine 
and  southern  New  Brunswick.  On  the  northeast 
their  territory  adjoined  that  of  the  Micmacs, 
while  on  the  southwest  it  merged  into  that  of  the 
Pennacooks.  In  consequence  of  King  Philip's 
War  (see  Wampanoag),  they  attached  themselves 
to  the  French  side  and  maintained  unceasing  hos- 
tility against  the  encroachment  of  the  English, 
until  the  destruction  of  their  principal  town  at 
Norridgewock  and  the  killing  of  their  mission- 
ary Rasle  in  1724,  after  which  the  greater  por- 
tion removed  to  Saint  Francis,  Canada,  whither 
other  refugees  from  the  New  England  tribes  had 


34 


ABOLITIONISTS. 


already  preceded  them.  Those  who  remained 
afterward  entered  into  an  arrangement  with  the 
English  by  which  they  were  confirmed  in  pos- 
session of  a  small  part  of  their  ancient  inher- 
itance. They  are  now  represented  by  the  Amal- 
ecites  on  Saint  John  River,  New  Brunswick  and 
Quebec  (820),  the  Passamaquoddies  on  the  bay 
of  that  name  in  Maine  (300),  the  Penobscots  at 
Oldtown,  Maine  (400),  and  the  Abnakis  at  Saint 
Francis  and  B^ancour,  Quebec  (430).  Their 
language  is  preserved  in  the  monumental  dic- 
tionary of  Rasle. 

AB'NEB  (Heb.  father  of  light).  The  son 
of  Ner,  and  cousin  of  Saul,  and  commander  of 
his  army  ( I.  Samuel  xiv  :  50) .  After  SauVs  death 
the  tribe  of  Judah  recognized  David,  while  Ab- 
ner  prevailed  upon  the  other  tribes  to  recognize 
Saul's  son,  Ishbosheth  (II.  Samuel  ii:8-ll).  Da- 
vid sent  his  army,  under  Joab,  into  the  field,  and 
at  the  pool  of  Gibeon  the  followers  of  Abner,  who 
was  in  control,  suffered  defeat  {ibid.,  verses 
12-17) .  In  his  flight,  Abner,  being  hotly  pursued 
by  Asahel,  turned  and  reluctantly  slew  him 
{ibid.,  verses  19-23).  Afterward  Abner  had  a 
quarrel  with  Ishbosheth  and  went  over  to  David 
(II.  Samuel  iii  :  7-11,  17-21)  ;  but  the  death  of 
Asahel  produced  a  blood  feud  between  Joab  (Asa- 
hel's  brother)  and  Abner,  which  ultimately  led  to 
Abner's  death.  In  consequence  of  a  quarrel  be- 
tween Abner  and  his  master,  Ishbosheth,  who  ac- 
cused him  of  having  designs  upon  the  throne, 
Abner  espoused  David's  cause.  While  being  hos- 
pitably entertained  by  David  at  Hebron,  Abner 
was  treacherously  killed  by  Joab  with  the  conni- 
vance of  his  brother  Ablshai  ( II.  Samuel  iii  :  22- 
27).  The  murder  called  forth  general  indig- 
nation, and  the  King  himself  acted  as  chief 
mourner.  He  ordered  a  public  mourning,  and  a 
portion  of  an  elegy  is  preserved  (II.  Samuel  iii  : 
33-34),  said  to  have  been  composed  by  David  in 
memory  of  Abner. 

AB'NEYy  Sir  William  db  Wiveleslie 
(1844 — ).  An  English  astronomer  and  physi- 
cist. He  was  born  at  Derby,  and  was  educated 
at  the  royal  Military  Academy,  Woolwich.  He 
was  made  a  lieutenant  in  the  Royal  Engineers 
in  1861  and  a  captain  in  1871.  From  1893  to 
1895  he  served  as  president  of  the  Royal  Astro- 
nomical Society,  and  in  the  latter  year  lie  became 
president  of  the  Physical  Society  of  London. 
Subsequently  he  was  appointed  the  principal 
assistant  secretary  of  the  Science  and  Art  De- 
partment of  the  Board  of  Education.  He  is 
well  known  for  his  researches  in  photography 
and  spectroscopy,  and  has  published  a  num- 
ber of  important  books  on  these  subjects, 
including  Instruction  in  Photography  (1870)  ; 
Treatise  on  Photography  (1875)  ;  Colour  Vision, 
Colour  Measurement  and  Mixture  (1893)  ; 
Thebes  and  its  Five  Great  Temples  (187C)  ;  and, 
with  C.  D.  Cunningham,  The  Pioneers  of  the 
Alps  (1888).  Captain  Abney  was  knighted  in 
1900  in  recognition  of  his  scientific  work. 

ABO,  a'bd.  The  most  ancient  city  and  former 
capital  of  Finland,  now  the  chief  town  of  the 
Russian  Government  of  Abo-BjSrneborg,  situa- 
ted on  the  River  Aurayoki,  near  its  embouchure 
ill  the  Gulf  of  Bothnia,  128  miles  west  by  north 
f rom  Helsingfors  (Map:  Russia,  B  2).  Its  streets 
are  broad  and  lined  with  rathef  low  stone  build- 
ings. Owing  to  its  antiquity,  Abo  has  a  number 
of  buildings  of  historical  interest,  among  them 
the  cathedral,  containing  a  magnificent  sarcopha- 


gus erected  in  1865  for  the  unfortunate  Queen, 
Catharine  Monsdotter,  who  died  in  1512.  In 
one  of  its  suburbs  is  the  spring  of  St. 
Henry,  in  which,  according  to  tradition,  the 
first  Finns  embracing  Christianity  were  bap- 
tized. It  is  in  regular  steamship  communication 
with  St.  Petersburg,  Stockholm,  and  other  ports 
on  the  Baltic,  visited  annually  by  some  700 
vessels,  whose  aggregate  tonnage  reaches  about 
200,000  tons.  Shipbuilding  is  an  important 
industry  here,  many  of  the  Russian  warships 
having  been  constructed  in  this  city.  The  great 
Crayton  works  supply  the  Russian  fleet  with 
torpedo  boats.  It  has  a  number  of  cotton  mills, 
tobacco  factories,  sugar  refineries,  and  machine 
shops.  Of  its  educational  institutions,  the 
School  of  Navigation  and  the  School  for  Deaf* 
mutes  deserve  special  attention.  In  addition  to 
these  it  has  a  number  of  gymnasiums,  a  technical 
institute,  a  commercial  school,  and  a  normal 
training  school.  The  United  States  is  repre- 
sented by  a  consular  agent.  Population,  1838, 
27,000;  1897,  35,000,  54%  being  Finns  and  nearly 
42%  Swedes.  The  town  grew  up  around  a  castle 
(which  is  still  in  existence,  and  is  used  as  a 
prison  at  present)  founded  in  1156  by  Eric  IX., 
and  became  an  important  place  in  the  following 
century.  It  was  repeatedly  attacked  and  de- 
stroyed by  the  Russians  in  their  many  wars 
with  the  Swedes,  and  finally  fell  into  their 
hands  in  1808;  since  then  it  has  remained 
a  Russian  possession.  It  was  the  capital  of 
Finland  until  1819.  In  the  year  1827  a  great 
part  of  the  town,  including  the  university  build- 
ings, was  destroyed  by  fire,  and  the  university 
was  removed  to  Helsingfors,  now  the  capital. 
The  Peace  of  Abo  (1743),  between  Sweden  and 
Russia,  gave  Russia  control  of  the  southern  part 
of  Finland  as  far  as  the  Kymen  River  and  put  an 
end  to  the  war  commenced  by  Sweden,  under 
French  instigation,  in  1741. 

AbO-BJUBNEBOBG,  A'bd-bySr^ne-bGrg.  A 
government  in  southwest  Finland.  Area,  9336 
square  niiles.  Its  topography  is  like  that  of 
the  rest  of  Finland.  Among  the  mountain 
ranges  of  granite  crossing  it  there  are  about 
one  hundr^  and  fifty  lakes  and  numerous 
marshes.  The  southern  section  is  more  hilly  than 
the  northern,  and  along  the  seashore  has  many 
safe  havens  for  sea-going  vessels.  Except  the 
River  Kumo,  Abo-Bjomeborg  has  no  navigable 
rivers.  It  has  a  temperate  and  healthful  climate, 
and  the  principal  industries  are  agriculture  and 
the  raising  of  cattle,  and  fishing.  There  is  a 
flourishing  mining  industry,  the  chief  products 
being  granite,  black  marble,  iron,  and  clay. 
Abo-Bjorneborg  is,  moreover,  the  foremost  manu- 
facturing province  of  Finland,  the  chief  branches 
of  industry  being  wood  and  metal  working,  distill- 
ing, brewing,  manufacture  of  leather,  paper,  and 
tobacco.  Population,  1897,  419,300,  of  whom 
about  one-seventh  lived  in  to\i'ns  and  villages; 
in  1888  there  were  380,500  people.  About  83  %  of 
the  population  are  Finns,  less  than  17  %  Swedes. 


t'OLI^IONISTS  (Lat.  abolitio,  an  annul- 
ling, from  abolere,  to  check  the  growth).  The 
term  used  in  the  United  States,  after  1835  and 
until  the  Civil  War,  for  those  opponents  of  slav- 
ery who  were  the  most  intense  in  their  desire  to 
secure  the  immediate  emancipation  of  the  blacks. 
Others  avowed  their  "anti-slavery"  opinions,  but 
these  advocated,  by  all  the  means  they  could 
command,    immediate    "abolition."     Their   posi- 


ABOLITIONISTS. 


35 


ABORTION. 


lion  was  weakened,  and  their  reputation  for 
aobriety  was  damaged,  by  their  steadfast  refusal 
to  recognize  the  binding  force  of  any  human  laws 
which  recognized  human  slavery,  and  even  of 
the  constitution;  and  their  extreme  demands 
and  radical  methods  repelled  the  sympathy  of 
many  conservative  men  who  desired  that  the 
abolition  of  slavery  should  be  secured,  althou|^h 
by  expedient  and  legal  means.  Although  dis- 
credited in  many  quarters,  the  abolitionists  were 
in  the  end  successful,  from  one  point  of  view, 
in  making  slavery  a  national  issue  and  in  hasten- 
ing the  time  of  final  decision  as  to  its  contin- 
uance. Among  the  most  conspicuous  leaders  of 
the  abolitionists  were  William  Lloyd  Garrison, 
a  vigorous  and  fearless  writer,  Wendell  Phillips, 
the  famous  orator,  Gerrit  Smith,  a  generous 
philanthropist,  Arthur  Tappan,  William  Goodell, 
and  Lucretia  Mott.  The  biographies  of  most  of 
these  Imders  have  been  written^  and  the^  afford 
ample  illustrations  of  the  spirit  by  which  they 
were  governed.  See  A  nti- Slavery  Societt; 
Garrison,  William  Lloyd;  GiDDmos,  Joshua 
R.;  and  Parker,  Theodore. 

ABOIiinON  07  SliAV^BY.  See  Slavery. 


(Portug.)-  A  boa.  The  term  is 
widespread  in  tropical  America,  but  lately  has 
been  more  especially  applied  to  the  Central 
American  thick-headed  or  singed  boa  {Epicratea 
eenehria),  which  is  of  gigantic  size,  and  is  dark 
yellowish-gray,  having  a  row  of  dark  brown  rings 
along  the  back,  and  the  sides  marked  with  dark 
blotches,  each  inclosing  a  lighter  crescent.  See 
Boa  and  Plate  of  Boas. 


',  a'bA-mft'.  The  capital  of  Daho- 
\  West  Africa,  situated  about  60  miles  inland, 
in  7*  N.  lat.  and  2*  4'  E.  long.  (Map:  Africa, 
E  4).  It  is  surrounded  by  a  wall  built  of  mud 
and  a  deep  trench.  The  houses  are  also  built  of 
mud  and  are  unpretentious  in  appearance. 
There  are  several  royal  palaces,  once  the  scenes 
of  religious  rites  and  barbaric  orgies.  Before 
the  French  occupation,  Abomey  was  an  important 
slave  market,  but  at  present  the  traffic  is  con- 
fined to  ivory,  palm  oil,  and  gold.  The  town 
was  captured  by  the  French  in  1892.  The  pop- 
ulation is  estimated  at  about  20,000. 

ABOBIGINES,  ftb'6-rlj^-nez  (Lat.  ab,  from 
-^arigo,  origin).  Properly,  the  earliest  inhab- 
itants of  a  country.  The  corresponding  term 
used  by  the  Greeks  was  autochthones  (q.v.).  The 
Roman  and  Greek  historians,  however,  apply  the 
name  to  a  special  people,  who,  according  to 
tradition,  had  their  original  seats  in  the  moun- 
tains about  Reate,  now  Rieti;  but,  being  driven 
out  by  the  Sabines,  descended  into  Latium,  and, 
in  conjunction  with  a  tribe  of  Pelasgi,  subdued 
or  expelled  the  Siculi  and  occupied  the  country. 
The  aborigines  then  disappeared  as  a  distinct 
people,  they  and  their  allies,  the  Pelasgi,  having 
taken  the  name  of  Latini.  The  non-Pelasgic 
element  of  the  Roman  population  is  supposed 
to  represent  these  aborigines,  who  would  thus 
belong  to  the  Oscans  or  Ausonians. 

ABOB^nON  (Lat.  ahortiOy  from  ah,  away  -f 
i>riri^  to  riae).  The  expulsion  of  the  offspring 
from  the  womb  of  its  mother  before  it  is  capable 
of  living  independently.  Abortion  occurring  in 
a  woman  before  the  sixth  month  of  pregnancy 
is  generally  called  a  miscarria^.  If  the  fcetus 
leaves  the  womb  after  it  is  viable,  and  before 


the  proper  end  of  pregnancy,  the  occurrence  is 
termed  a  premature  delivery.  Hegar  considers 
that  there  is,  in  women,  one  abortion  to  every 
ten  normal  pregnancies;  Devilliers  states  the 
ratio  as  one  in  three  or  four.  Whitehead  states 
that  80%  of  all  abortions  take  place  between 
the  second  and  fourth  months  of  pregnancy. 
It  is  therefore  important  that  a  mother  should 
have  special  care  during  the  early  months  of 
gestation.  Microscopical  examination  is  re- 
quired to  determine  the  fact  of  an  abortion  oc- 
curring within  four  weeks  of  conception.  After 
the  first  month  the  foetus  commences  to  assume 
a  recognizable  shape. 

Causes  of  Abortion.  Abortion  may  be  due  to 
disease  of  the  father,  to  morbid  changes  in  the 
ovum,  to  morbid  changes  in  the  placenta,  or  to 
maternal  causes.  (1)  Of  the  diseases  of  the 
father  that  may  cause  abortion,  syphilis  is  the 
most  important.  Habitual  abortion  leads  to  the 
suspicion  of  S3rphilitic  taint,  although  other 
causes  may  bring  about  this  condition.  Old  age, 
tuberculosis,  or  kidney  disease  of  the  father  may 
so  affect  the  vitality  of  the  germ  at  conception 
that,  although  pregnancy  may  occur,  there  is  not 
enough  strength  to  complete  the  development. 
(2)  Causes  due  to  disease  or  death  of  the  ovum 
itself,  apart  from  other  causes,  are  rare.  They 
are  usually  associated  with  some  defect  in  the 
formation  of  the  yoimg  embryo.  (3)  Placental 
causes  are  frequent.  If  the  placenta  does  not 
have  a  sufficient  area  from  which  to  draw  a  blood 
supply  for  the  fcetus,  the  latter  may  die;  or  if 
the  placenta  is  fastened  low  in  the  uterus,  hem- 
orrhage and  abortion  are  very  liable  to  occur. 
(4)  The  causes  which  are  due  to  disease  or  in- 
jury of  the  mother  are  the  most  frequent.  Dis- 
eases of  the  decidua  of  the  uterus  and  of  the 
other  generative  organs,  such  as  tumor  of  the 
ovary,  distention  of  the  Fallopian  tubes,  inflam- 
matory adhesions  about  the  uterus,  and  badly 
formed  pelvic  organs,  are  among  the  local  causes. 
Certain  constitutional  diseases  may  also  cause 
abortion,  as  syphilis.  Alcoholic  excesses  are 
almost  as  pernicious.  Poisoning  with  metals, 
as  lead  or  mercury,  with  phosphorus  and  -othcfr 
poisons,  as  coal  gas  and  many  volatile  oils,  and 
some  of  the  acute  diseases,  pneumonia,  yellow 
fever,  smallpox,  and  peritonitis,  have  brought 
about  abortion.  Shock  and  injury  are  very  im- 
portapt  causes.  Excessive  muscular  fatigue,  bi- 
cycle riding,  horseback  riding,  lawn  tennis,  use 
of  the  sewing-machine,  and  swimming  are  espe- 
cially to  be  avoided.  Lack  of  hygiene  is  also 
responsible  for  numerous  cases.  Insufficient  food, 
contaminated  air,  change  in  climate,  and  tightly 
laced  corsets,  all  interfere  with  the  proper  nour- 
ishment of  the  foetus  and  thus  induce  abortion. 
After  abortion  has  once  taken  place,  others  are 
very  likely  to  occur,  even  in  comparatively 
healthy  women.  A  normal  healthy  mental  atti- 
tude is  a  saving  grace  from  this  accident. 

Symptoms.  The  cardinal  symptoms  are  pain 
and  hemorrhage  from  the  uterus,  these  varying 
greatly,  according  to  the  completeness  of  the 
process.  Early  symptoms  may  be  a  sensation  of 
weight,  with  distress  or  slight  pain  in  the  back, 
increased  by  standing  or  walking,  followed  by 
oozing  or  a  menstrual  fiow,  or  a  sudden  large 
hemorrhage.  This  may  occur  intermittently, 
sometimes  lasting  several  days,  with  small  dis- 
charges of  blood,  with  pain,  and  then  a  cessation 
of  all  the  symptoms  for  a  few  hours  or  more.  In 
later  abortions,  the  liquor  amnii,  in  which  the 


ABORTION.  36 

foetus  is  suspended,  may  either  ooze  away  or 
come  away  in  a  gush. 

The  pain  is  rarely  continuous;  at  times  it 
resembles  the  intermittent  pains  of  a  colicl^ 
diarrhoea.  It  is  caused  by  the  contraction  of  the 
uterine  muscle  trying  to  eject  a  foreign  body. 
With  each  muscular  contraction  there  is  oozing, 
or  more  copious  bleedinjg,  or  the  expulsion  of 
the  product  of  conception.  If  the  pains  are 
comparatively  weak  and  occur  at  long  intervals, 
it  may  be  possible  to  prevent  the  a^rtion.  If 
they  are  strong  and  come  closely  one  after  the 
other,  the  chances  of  stopping  the  process  are 
less. 

Treatment.  Healthy  physical  and  mental  ex- 
ercise is  one  of  the  best  preventives  of  this 
accident.  In  families  where  the  mother  or 
grandmother  aborted  frequently,  special  care  of 
diet,  exercise,  and  clothing  should  be  taken. 
Constipation  should  be  avoided  by  the  use  of 
water  and  the  green  vegetables.  Should  the 
symptoms  mentioned  occur,  the  woman  should 
lie  down,  absolutely  quiet,  on  her  back  and  call 
her  regular  medical  attendant. 

There  are  occasional  cases  (as  where  the  out- 
let of  the  pelvis  is  very  contracted)  in  which  it 
is  necessary  for  physicians  to  induce  abortion. 
It  cannot  be  too  generally  known  that  all  at- 
tempts at  procuring  criminal  abortion,  either  by 
the  administration  of  powerful  drugs  or  the  ap- 
plication of  instruments,  are  accompanied  with 
extreme  danger  to  the  pregnant  woman.  It  can- 
not be  too  earnestly  impressed  upon  the  mind  of 
those  who  are  tempted  to  procure  a  criminal 
abortion  by  means  of  drugs  that  the  danger  of 
causing  death  is  very  serious.  Many  so-called 
emmenagogues  (q.v.),  which  induce  the  menstrual 
flow  in  a  woman  who  is  not  pregnant,  but  is 
merely  suffering  from  amenorrhoea,  or  suppres- 
sion of  the  menses,  are  abortifacients  only  when 
given  in  such  doses  as  to  endanger  life,  or  to  set 
up  violent  internal  inflammations.  Among  these 
are  the  various  preparations  of  ergot  of  rye 
(q.v.),  savin  (the  most  powerful  of  all  emmena- 
gogues), borax,  rue,  tansy,  cantharides,  etc.  In 
the  South,  among  the  ignorant  negroes,  concoc- 
tions of  pennyroyal  and  cotton-root  bark  are 
used  for  the  same  purpose.  The  milder  emmena- 
gogues, such  as  iron,  aloes,  etc.,  have  no  abortive 
tendency,  except  in  the  case  of  those  women  who 
are  predisposed  to  abort.  Violent  purgatives,  in 
cases  where  they  have  caused  abortion,  have  not 
done  so  because  they  directly  exercise  an  ecbolic 
effect  on  the  uterus,  but  only  as  a  secondary  con- 
sequence of  the  excessive  intestinal  irritation 
which  they  cause. 

Abortion,  or  Miscarriage,  in  Law.  The 
courts  in  this  country  are  not  agreed  as 
to  the  nature  of  the  crime  at  common  law.  In 
a  number  of  States  there  are  decisions  or  dicta 
to  the  effect  that  "to  produce  an  abortion  on  a 
woman,  before  she  is  quick  with  child,  and  with 
her  consent,"  is  not  to  commit  the  common- 
law  crime  of  abortion.  On  the  other  hand,  it 
has  been  judicially  declared  in  Pennsylvania  that 
"it  is  not  the  murder  of  a  living  child  which 
constitutes  the  offense  of  abortion,  but  the  de- 
struction of  gestation  by  wicked  means  and 
against  nature,"  and,  consequently,  that  one  who 
intentionally  causes  the  miscarriage  of  a  woman, 
even  with  her  consent  and  before  the  foetus  has 
quickened,  is  indictable  at  common  law.  This 
appears  to  be  the  correct  view,  and  it  has 
been  approved  by  several  courts.    Modern  stat- 


ABOBTION. 

utes,  as  a  rule,  have  given  effect  to  this  view. 
At  present  the  crime  is  generally  defined,  with 
much  particularity,  by  statute,  and  may  be  com- 
mitted by  one  of  three  classes  of  persons.  First, 
by  the  pregnant  woman  who  takes  any  drugs  or 
submits  to  any  treatment  with  intent  to  produce 
her  miscarriage,  unless  that  is  necessary  to  save 
her  life  or  the  life  of  the  child.  Second,  by  a 
person  prescribing,  supplying  or  administering 
any  substance  to  a  woman,  or  treating  her,  with 
intent  to  cause  her  miscarriage,  unless  that  is 
necessary  to  save  her  life  or  the  life  of  the  child. 
Under  some  statutes,  such  a  person  may  be  guilty 
of  the  offense,  whether  the  woman  is  pregnant 
or  not;  the  gist  of  his  crime  consisting  in  the 
intention  with  which  his  act  was  done.  Third, 
by  a  person  manufacturing,  giving  or  selling  an 
instrument  or  substance  with  intent  that  it 
may  be  unlawfully  used  in  procuring  the  mis- 
carriage of  a  woman.  Acts  done  in  procuring  an 
abortion  may  subject  the  actor  to  punishment  for 
another  crime  also,  as  assault  (q.v.),  or  homi- 
cide (q.v.).  Consult:  Wharton,  Criminal  Law 
(Philadelphia,  1896)  ;  Harris,  Principles  of  the 
Criminal  Lata  (London,  1899). 

Abortion  in  Animals.  In  general,  two  forms 
of  abortion  are  recognized  by  veterinarians, 
the  non-contagious  and  the  contagious.  There 
are  a  number  of  conditions  which  may  produce 
non  -  contagious  abortion.  A  general  cachexia 
or  anasmia  may  be  among  the  predisposing 
causes  of  abortion;  and  among  other  conditions 
and  causes  which  may  lead  to  abortion  mention 
should  be  made  of  acute  diseases  of  the  vital 
organs,  contagious  fevers,  chronic  diseases  of 
the  abdominal  organs,  diseases  of  the  ovaries, 
kidneys,  or  bladder,  diarrhoea,  fatty  degeneration 
of  the  heart;  ingestion  of  large  quantities  of 
cold  water,  various  forms  of  indigestion,  espe- 
cially those  which  are  accompanied  by  the  forma- 
tion of  gas  in  the  stomach;  imprudent  feeding 
with  succulent  forage  in  large  quantities,  such 
as  roots,  potatoes,  apples^  pumpkins,  ergotized 
grasses,  sweaty  or  rusty  grains  and  grasses; 
standing  in  stalls  with  too  great  a  backward 
slope,  nervous  excitement,  and  muscular  strain. 
Contagious  abortion  is  most  frequent  in  cows. 
It  occurs  also  in  sheep,  goats,  horses,  swine,  and, 
perhaps,  in  the  dog  and  cat.  It  appears  in  an 
enzootic  or  epizootic  form.  The  disease  is  per- 
petuated in  the  herd  or  transmitted  from  one 
herd  to  another  by  means  of  contagion.  If  an 
aborting  cow  is  placed  in  a  herd  which  has 
hitherto  been  healthy,  an  outbreak  of  abortion 
may  occur.  Bulls  that  have  served  aborting 
cows  mav  transmit  the  disease  to  other  cows. 
In  general,  the  micro-organisms  to  which  the 
disease  is  due  are  found  in  the  male  and  female 
genital  organs,  and  on  the  afterbirth  from  abort- 
ing animals. 

In  cows,  abortion  seldom  occurs  before  the 
fourth  month  of  pregnancy,  but  may  occur  at 
any  time  after  that  period.  The  symptoms  of 
the  disease  are  not  prominent  or  characteristic. 
Cows  which  are  affected  with  the  disease  may  re- 
main apparently  healthy  until  abortion  takes 
place.  The  foetus  is  expelled  with  ease,  and  is 
usually  dead  at  birth.  If  abortion  occurs  at  the 
end  of  six  months  the  young  may  be  alive,  but 
lives  only  a  few  hours.  Mares  abort  between 
the  fourth  and  the  seventh  month  of  gestation. 
The  premonitory  symptoms  of  abortion  in  mares 
are  enlargement  of  the  mammary  glands  and  a 
white  mucous  or  sometimes  purulent  discharge 


ABOBTIOK. 

from  the  vagina  three  or  four  days  before  the 
expulsion  of  the  foetus.  The  treatment  for  this 
disease,  which  has  ffiven  satisfactory  results,  is 
the  application  of  thorough  antisepsis.  In  case 
of  an  outbreak  of  abortion,  the  fcetus  and  foetal 
membranes  from  aborting  animals  should  be 
burned  or  deeply  buried,  the  posterior  parts  of 
the  animals  should  be  washed  in  some  antiseptic 
solution,  repeated  antiseptic  vaginal  douches 
should  be  given,  and  the  stable  should  be  thor- 
oughly disinfected.  In  order  to  prevent  the  pos- 
sible spread  of  the  infection,  the  posterior  parts 
of  other  cows  or  mares  in  the  same  stable  should 
be  carefully  washed  with  a  solution  of  creolin, 
potassium  permanganate,  or  corrosive  sublimate. 
Contagious  or  epi20<>tic  abortion  has  been  known 
in  all  parts  of  ICurope  since  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury. The  disease  also  prevails  in  Australia 
and  in  all  parts  of  the  United  States.  Many 
extensive  outbreaks  are  recorded  in  different  lo- 
calities. Consult:  Turner's  "Infectious  Abor- 
tion in  Mares,"  American  Veterinarian  Review 
(1894);  Report  United  States  Department  of 
Agriculture,  1893,  Division  of  Animal  Industry, 
Bulletin  3,  D.  E.  Salmon ;  Special  Report  on  Mis- 
eellaneous  Investigations  Concerning  Infectious 
and  Parasitic  Diseases  of  Domesticated  Animals 
(Washington,  1893). 

Adoktion  IV  Plants.  That  kind  of  arrest 
in  development  by  which  an  organ  appears  in  its 
early  stages,  but  fails  to  develop  to  its  normal 
form  or  size.  For  example,  in  many  flowers  cer- 
tain stamens  are  aborted,  their  primordia  having 
appeared,  but  having  failed  to  develop  into  func- 
tioning stamens.  The  abortion  may  be  of  any 
degree  between  the  first  appearance  of  the  organ 
and  its  complete  maturity.  A  very  closely  re- 
lated term  is  "suppression,"  in  which  not  even 
the  beginning  of  an  expected  organ  appears.  The 
phenomenon  is  chiefly  observable  in  connection 
with  the  flower  (q.v.). 

ABOTJ  BEK  ADHEK  (ftO)^  b$n  ad^h«m) 
AHD  THE  AKOEL.  A  short  narrative  poem 
by  Leigh  Hunt,  the  significance  of  which  appears 
in  the  line, 

"  Wrltfe  me  as  one  that  loves  bis  fellowmen." 

ABOJTKXR,  H'biSS-k^T^,    See  Abukib. 

ABOXJUA,  ft-bSx^I-ft.     See  under  Insanttt. 

ABOUT'.    See  Tackino. 

ABOUT,  &'bo9^,  Edmond  (1828-85).  A  bril- 
liant, witty,  but  uneven  French  journalist,  nov- 
elist, and  writer  of  social  and  political  essays. 
He  was  born  at  Dieuze,  completed  his  studies  in 
Paris,  won  honors,  and  was  sent  in  1851  to  the 
French  School  at  Athens,  where  he  studied  lit- 
tle, but  ol»erved  much  in  a  desultory  way.  The 
nterary  result  of  his  two  years*  stay  in  Greece  is 
7x1  Gr^oe  contemporaine  (1854),  and  Le  roi  des 
montagnes  (1850),  both  full  of  humor  and  irony. 
They  were  popular,  often  translated,  and  had 
inflnence  on  what  passed  for  political  thought. 
In  1855  he  published  Tolla,  a  story  of  Italy,  bor- 
rowed in  part,  and  without  due  acknowledg- 
ment, from  an  Italian  novel,  Vittoria  Savorclli 
(1841).  In  1856  he  essayed  the  stage  without 
sueoeas,  but  won  popularity  by  short  stories  col- 
lected under  the  titles  Les  mariages  de  Paris 
(1856)  and  Les  mariages  de  province  (1868). 
His  most  popular  stories  ara  L*homme  d  Voreille 
vassie  fl861)  and  Le  nez  du  notaire  (1861), 
both  often  translated.  He  had  a  gift  of  facile 
narration,  but  he  did  not  take  his  talent  seri- 


37 


ABBACADABBA. 


ously,  and  ceased  writing  fiction  with  the  fall  of 
the  Second  Empire,  of  which  he  was  a  spoiled 
child.  To  politics  during  these  years  he  had 
contributed  La  question  romaine  (1859),  Rome 
contemporaine  (1861),  La  Prusse  en  1860,  La 
nouvelie  carte  de  V Europe  (I860),  and  Le 
progr^s  (1864).  After  the  fall  of  the  Empire 
he  became  editor  of  Le  XIX.  Siicle,  and  published 
a  bitter  book  on  Alsace  ( 1872) .  He  was  made  an 
academician  in  1885.  The  general  character- 
istics of  his  work  are  a  kindly  humor,  a  keen 
irony,  a  cleanly  taste,  and  a  rather  shallow  skep- 
ticism. 

ABOVILLE,  A'bd'v^y*  or  k'h6\^V,  Fran- 
gois  Marie  (1730-1817).  A  French  general 
of  artillery.  He  was  born  at  Brest.  During  the 
war  of  the  American  Revolution  he  commanded 
Rochambeau's  artillery  at  Yorktown.  In  1792  he 
commanded  the  armies  of  the  North  and  of  Ar- 
dennes, and  in  1809  was  appointed  Governor  of 
Brest. 

ABOZ^    See  Box  Hauuno. 

A^BA.  ( I )  A  character  in  Prior's  poem  Solo- 
mon on  the  Vanity  of  the  World,  She  appears 
in  tiie  second  part  of  the  poem  as  an  ob^ient 
concubine  of  the  King,  and  finally  captivates 
him.  (2)  A  character  in  the  mediieval  romance  of 
Amadis  of  Greece.  She  is  a  sister  of  the  Sultan 
of  Babylon,  and  secures  his  throne  after  he  is 
killed  by  her  lover,  Lisnarte. 

ABBABANEL,  A-bra'B&-nel^  ABABBANEL, 
ft-Bttr'bA-neK,  or  ABBAVANEL,  A-bra'v&-n$K, 
Isaac  ben  Jehuda  (1437-1508).  A  Jewish 
scholar  and  statesman.  He  was  bom  in  Lisbon, 
and  claimed  descent  from  King  David.  He 
was  treasurer  of  Alfonso  V.,  but  after  that 
king's  death  was  banished  from  Portugal  and 
his  property  confiscated.  In  Spain  he  made 
a  fortune  as  a  merchant,  and  was  in  high 
favor  with  Ferdinand  and  Isabella  in  1487, 
but  the  decree  of  1492  baliished  all  Jews  from 
Spain,  and  Abrabanel  fled  to  Naples,  where  he 
found  royal  favor,  but  was  again  obliged  to  fly 
when  Naples  surrendered  to  the  French  in  1495. 
He  settled  last  at  Venice.  He  was  one  of  the 
ablest  men  of  his  time,  and  was  learned  in  bibli- 
cal exegesis  and  philosophy.  His  most  celebrated 
work  is  his  Herald  of  Salvation  (1526),  an  elab- 
orate presentation  of  the  Jewish  doctrine  of  the 
Messiah. 

AB'BACADAB^BA.     A    word    probably   de- 
rived from  the  same  root  as  Abraxas,  and  used 
by  the  Gnostics  of  the  sect  of  Basilides  in  the 
Orient  (second  century  and  later)  as  a  magical 
formula  by  which  the  assistance  of  good  spirits 
was  invoked  against  all  evils 
or  maladies.    Inscribed  upon     ABRACADABRA 
gems   it  formed   a   class   of      ABRACADABR 
the  so-called  Abraxas  stones,        ABRACADAB 
and  was  concealed  about  the  ABRACADA 

person.     With  the  spread  of  ABRACAD 

magical    practices    it    came  ABRACA 

into  use  outside  the  Gnostic  ABRAC 

sect.    The  Gnostic  physician  ABRA 

Sammonicus    describes    how  ABR 

it   can    be    made   eflicarious  AB 

against     fevers,     especially  A 

agues.    It  should  be  written 
several  times,  each  time  on  a  separate  line  and 
each  time  dropping  a  letter,  the  letters  arranged 
so  as  to  form  an  inverted  triangle  and  to  read 
across  the  base  and  up  the  right  side.    This 


ABRACADABRA.  38 

amulet  was  to  be  folded  and  worn  on  the  bosom 
for  nine  days,  then  flung  backward  before  sun- 
rise into  a  stream  flowing  eastward.  See  Abrax- 
as; Amulet. 

AB'BADA^AS.  A  king  of  Susa,  who  at  first 
fought  against  Cyrus  the  Great,  but  who  after- 
ward, in  consequence  of  the  latter's  kindness  to 
Panthea,  his  wife,  who  had  been  captured 
by  the  Persians,  yielded  to  Cyrus  and  became 
his  ally.  Abradatas  perished  in  the  war  against 
Croesus  the  Lydian.  The  story  of  his  romantic 
affection  for  Panthea  and  her  suicide  after  his 
death  appears  in  the  fifUi  book  of  Xenophon's 
Cyropcedia. 

ABRAHAM.  The  Father  of  the  Hebrews, 
whose  story  is  given  in  Genesis  xi-xxv.  It  con- 
sists of  a  series  of  incidents  in  the  patriarch's 
life,  put  together  in  a  consecutive  narrative 
and  emanating  from  different  literary  sources. 
In  Genesis  xi  :  10  the  genealogy  of  the  Shemites 
(or  sons  of  Shem)  is  taken  up,  leading  up  to 
Terah,  the  father  of  Abram,  Nahor,  and  Haran. 
The  home  of  Terah  and  his  sons  is  Ur  of  the 
Chaldees — a  place  commonly  identified  with  the 
site  of  the  mound  Mugheir,  in  southern  Baby- 
lonia— but  after  the  death  of  Haran  the  Tera- 
hites  journey  northward  to  Haran  and  take  up 
their  settlements  at  that  place.  Terah  dies  in 
Haran,  and  Abram,  accompanied  by  his  wife 
Sarai  and  his  nephew  Lot  (the  son  of  Haran), 
quits  Babylonia  by  divine  command  and  pro- 
ceeds by  a  circuitous  northern  route  via  Damas- 
cus to  Canaan.  He  halts  at  various  places,  nota- 
bly Shechem  and  Bethel,  where  he  erects  altars 
to  Yahweh  (chap.  xii.).  Leading  a  pastoral  life, 
we  next  find  him  in  Egypt,  whither  he  has  been 
driven  in  consequence  of  a  famine  in  Palestine. 
Serai's  beauty  attracts  the  attention  of  the 
Pharaoh,  and  but  for  Yahweh's  intervention 
Abram  would  have  been  obliged  to  give  up  his 
wife,  whom  he  had  represented  to  be  his  sister. 
Pharaoh  obliges  Abram  to  leave  Egypt,  and  he 
accordingly  returns  to  Bethel  with  Lot.  At  this 
juncture  the  separation  between  Abram  and  Lot 
takes  place  in  consequence  of  quarrels  between 
the  followers  of  the  two  chiefs.  Lot  chooses  for 
himself  the  rich  pasture  land  of  the  Jordan  Val- 
ley, while  Abram  remains  in  Canaan  proper, 
though  removing  to  Hebron.  He  becomes  in- 
volved in  a  war  with  the  kings  of  the  Jordan 
Valley  in  order  to  rescue  liot,  who  had  been 
taken  captive.  He  not  only  succeeds  in  this  en- 
terprise, but  aids  in  restoring  the  kings  of  Sodom 
and  Gomorrah  to  power  and  magnanimously  re- 
fuses any  compensation  for  his  services  (chap, 
xiv) .  At  the  time  that  Abram  left  Haran  he  was 
seventy-five  years  old.  At  Damascus  he  is  joined 
by  Eliezer,  who  becomes  his  trusted  servant,  and 
on  whom  the  succession  to  Abram's  property 
would  fall  in  the  event  of  Abram  remaining 
childless.  This  contingency  is  eliminated  by  the 
birth  of  Ishmael,  a  son  by  Hagar,  a  concubine 
of  Abram,  and  an  Egyptian  maid- servant  of 
Sarai.  Subsequently,  however,  when  Abram  is 
ninety-nine  years  old  and  Sarai  ninety,  a  son, 
who  is  called  Isaac,  is  born  to  them  (chap,  xvii), 
and  who  becomes  the  heir  of  Abram  in  preference 
to  Ishmael.  At  the  time  that  this  son  is  prom- 
ised to  Abram  and  Sarai,  through  the  appearance 
of  Yahweh  himself  to  Abram,  the  names  of  the 
patriarch  and  his  wife  are  changed  by  the  Lord 
to  Abraham  and  Sarati^  respectively,  the  former 
being  interpreted  as  embodying  the  promise  that 


ABRAHAM 

the  patriarch  will  become  "the  father  of  a  mul- 
titude  of  nations."    The  promise  of  a  son  to  be 
born  to  Sarah  is  confirmed  by  a  visit  of  Yahweh 
accompanied   by   two   angels',   all   three   in   hu- 
man form,  who  partake  of  Abraham's  hospitality 
and   make  a   similar  announcement.    The    two 
angels  proceed  to  Sodom  and  Gomorrah,  while 
Yahweh  remains  behind  and  reveals  to  Abraham 
the  intended  destruction  of  the  cities  of  the  plain 
because  of  the  wickedness  and  corruption  pre- 
vailing there.    Abraham  pleads  with  Yahweh  to 
save  the  cities  for  the  sake  of  the  righteous,  and 
Yahweh  agrees  to  do  so  provided  only  ten  right- 
eous men  are  found  in  the  district.    As  a  matter 
of  fact,  the  cities  are  destroyed  and  only  Lot  and 
his  family  are  permitted  to  escape  (chap.  xvii). 
Before  Isaac  is  actually  born,  Abraham  is  rep- 
resented as  proceeding  to  the  extreme  south  of 
Palestine,  known  as  the  Negeh,  and  at  Grerar  en* 
counters  the  King  ( Abimelech ) ,  who  takes  into  his 
harem  Sarah,  whom  Abraham  again  passes  off 
as  his  sister,  Jehovah  warns  Abimelech,  and  Sarah 
IS  released  (chap.  xx).    The  birth  of  Isaac  is  re- 
counted in  the  21st  chapter.     Eight  days  after 
his  birth  he  is  circumcised— an  act  which  is  re- 
garded as  symbolizing  the  covenant  established 
between  Jehovah  and  those  descended  from  Abra- 
ham   (Genesis  xvii:  23-27).     Some  years  later 
the  faith  of  Abraham  is  put  to  a  severe  trial  by 
the  divine  command  to  sacrifice  his  beloved  son 
(chap.  xxii).     Abraham  proceeds  to  carry  out 
the  decree,  but  is  withheld  from  doing  so   by 
Jehovah  himself,  who,  satisfied  with  the  test, 
accepts  a  ram  which  providentially  makes  its 
appearance.    The  last  three  chapters  of  the  nar- 
rative are  taken  up  with  the  account  of  Sarah's 
death,  her  burial  in  the  cave  of  Machpelah  at 
Hebyon,    purchased   by   Abraham    from    Ephron 
the  Hittite,  the  marriage  of  Isaac  and  Rebekah, 
and  the  death  of  Abraham,  which,  however,  does 
not  take  place  until  his  marriage  to  Keturah, 
by  whom  two  sons  are  bom  to  him.    The  death  of 
Abraham  takes  place  when  he  has  reached  the 
age  of  one  hundred  and  seventy-five  years,  and 
he  is  interred  by  the  side  of  Sarah  at  Machpelah. 
Many  modem  Bible  critics  regard  this  cycle  of 
Abrahamic  stories  as  embodying  a  mixture  of 
early  and  late  traditions,  a  recast  with  a  view  of 
presenting  Abraham  as  a  type  of  the  pious,  ob- 
servant Jew.    Besides  the  biblical  stories,  other 
tales  were  current,  or  became  current  among  the 
Jews  of  post-exile  days,   many  of  which  were 
taken  up  into  that  portion  of  rabbinical  literature 
known  as  the  Midrash.    In  this  way  the  biblical 
narrative  was  supplemented  by  incidents  in  the 
early  career  of  Abraham,  on  which  Genesis  has 
nothing  to  say.     These  stories  bring  Abraham 
into  association  with  Nimrod.     The    historical 
kernel  in  the  Genesis  chapters  is  quite  insignifi- 
cant.    The  genealogical  lists  are  fictitious,  the 
names  representing  in  most  cases  not  individuals 
but  clans,  of  whom  some  faint  traditions  have 
survived.    There  is,  however,  no  reason  to  doubt 
the  existence  of  an  ancient  hero   whose  name 
was  preserved  in  two  forms,  Abram  and  Abra- 
ham, the  former  representing  perhaps  a  contrac- 
tion or  dialectical  variation  of  the  latter,  and 
to  whom  as  a  popular  personage  various  sto- 
ries that  had  come  down  from  various  periods 
were  attached.     Of  the  "historical"  Abram  or 
Abraham  hardly  anything  more  can  be  asserted 
than  that  his  home  appears  to  have  been  Hebron. 
The  wanderings  of  the  Terah ites,  among  whom 
Abram  is  reckoned,  reflect  the  faint  recollection 


ABRAHATMT. 


of  the  origin  of  the  Hebrews,  or  of  some  of  the 
clans  who  siubsequently  formed  part  of  the  coali* 
tion  known  aa  Hebrews  from  the  Mesopotaroian 
district.  The  story  of  the  wanderings  of  the  Te- 
rahites  along  the  Euphrates  and  thence  into 
Palestine  is  ty]pical  of  the  manner  in  which 
nomadic  bands  m  the  early  and  the  late  days 
of  Babylonian  history  proceeded  from  the  Arab- 
ian desert,  and,  attracted  by  Babylonian  cul- 
ture, skirted  the  western  borders  of  this  culture, 
some  making  more  or  less  permanent  settlements, 
while  others  pass  on  to  the  north.  A  significant 
passage  in  Deuteronomy  (xxvi  :  5)  designates 
the  ancestors  of  the  Hebrews  as  "nomadic  Ara- 
nueans."  Aram  here  is  a  designation  for  Mesopo- 
tamia, and  the  chief  value  of  the  story  of  Abra- 
ham's Avanderings  lies  accordingly  in  thus  pre- 
serving a  picture  of  conditions  prevailing  at  the 
earliest  period  of  which  any  recollection  survived 
among  the  people. 

BiBLiOGBAPBT.  For  the  rabbinical  legends  and 
traditions  about  Abraham,  consult :  Beer,  Das  Le- 
hen  Ahrakams  in  Lehensgemdlden  hibliwher  Per- 
9onen  nach  Auffassung  der  judiachen  Sage  (Leip- 
zig, 1859)  ;  GrUnbaum,  Neue  Beitrage  zur  aemi' 
tiacKen  Sagenkunde  (Leipzig,  1893),  which  also 
eontaina  the  Mohammedan  legends  about  Abra- 
ham. For  archceological  aspects,  see  Tomkins's 
StudicM  on  the  Times  of  Abraham  (London, 
1878) ;  Sayoe,  Patriarchal  Palestine  (Utrecht, 
1895)  (to  be  used  with  caution),  as  well  as  the 
early  chapters  in  histories  of  the  Hebrews  by 
Stade,  Kittel,  Guthe,  Piepenbring,  as  well  as  the 
commentaries  on  Genesis  by  Gimkel,  Dillmann, 
Delitzsch,  etc. 

AB&AHAH  -  A  -  SANCTA  CLABA,  ft^rft- 
h&m  k  B&ok^U  klftr'A  (1644-1709).  A  popular 
German  preacher  and  friar.  His  real  name 
was  Ulrich  Megerle,  but  he  is  generally  known 
by  the  name  given  to  him  when  he  joined  the 
Augustinians.  He  was  provincial  prior  of  the 
Augustinians  and  court  preacher  at  Vienna. 
Uncouth  puns,  coarse  expressions,  and  strange 
freaks  of  humor  marked  his  sermons.  He  lashed 
the  follies  of  all  classes  of  society  and  in  partic- 
ular exposed  the  vices  of  courtiers  and  court  life. 
He  was  an  honest,  faithful,  and  devoted  priest, 
as  was  proved  by  his  self-sacrificing  conduct 
during  the  plague  in  1679.  His  collected  works 
aggregate  twenty-one  volumes  (1835). 

ABBAHAXITE8,  a^rft-h&m-Its,  or  BOHE- 
ICIAH  DEISTS.  The  name  under  which  a 
number  of  Bohemians,  trusting  to  the  edict  of 
toleration  issued  by  Joseph  II.,  avowed  them- 
selves (1782)  as  believers  of  the  doctrine  alleged 
to  have  been  held  by  Abraham  before  his  circum- 
cision. As  early  as  the  ninth  century  a  sect  of 
the  aame  name  had  arisen  in  Syria,  and  had 
denied  the  divinity  of  Christ.  But  the  Bohe- 
mian deists  professed  to  be  followers  of  John 
Huss,  though  they  held  no  Christian  doctrine 
beyond  that  of  the  imity  of  God,  and  accepted 
nothing  of  the  Bible  save  the  Ten  Command- 
ments and  the  Lord's  Prayer.  As  they  would 
join  neither  Jewish  nor  Christian  sects,  the 
Emperor  refused  to  tolerate  them,  and  in  1783 
expelled  them  from  their  native  land,  and  scat- 
t«:red  them  in  various  parts  of  Hungary,  Tran- 
sylvania, and  Slavonia,  where  many  were  made 
converts  to  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  while 
others  died  clinging  to  their  simple  creed. 

A^&AHAH-MEN'.    A  class  of  sturdy  beg- 
gars   in    England    who    feigned    lunacy,    and 


39  ABBASIVES. 

wandered  about  the  country  in  a  disorderly 
manner.  They  were  common  in  Shakespeare's 
time,  and,  it  would  seem,  existed  even  as  late 
as  the  period  of  the  Civil  Wars.  The  term 
is  a  cant  one.  ''An  Abram  cove,"  as  Decker, 
in  his  English  Villanies,  calls  one  of  those 
mendicants,  meant  one  who  personated  a 
"Tom  o'  Bedlam."  He  would  "disguise  him- 
self in  grotesque  rags,  with  knotted  hair, 
long  staff,  and  with  many  more  disgusting  con- 
trivances to  excite  pity,"  but  he  did  not  hesitate 
to  live  by  thieving  too;  when  detected  in  pil- 
fering or  in  any  species  of  depredation,  he 
pleaded  the  immunities  of  a  Bedlamite.  This 
word  connoted  originally  an  inmate  of  the  lunacy 
ward  of  Bethlehem  Hospital,  London,  under  the 
patronage  of  the  patriarch  Abraham.  Wearing 
a  badge  for  identification,  such  a  man  was  for- 
mally permitted  to  roam  about  the  country  when 
discharged  and  solicit  alms.  Many  mendicants 
took  wrongful  advantage  of  this  privilej^e  and 
preyed  upon  the  charitable.    The  term  is  still 

Preserved  in  the  slang  phrase  "to  sham  Abra- 


am." 

ABRAHAM'S  BOS^OM.  A  term  used  to 
designate  the  abode  of  bliss  of  the  blessed,  not 
only  among  Jews  but  among  Christians.  Laz- 
arus reclining  in  Abraham's  bosom  was  a  figura- 
tive expression.  In  Byzantine  and  medieval  art 
the  souls  of  the  blessed  are  represented  as  being 
taken  into  Abraham's  bosom  in  the  form  of 
little  children.  Abraham  is  the  central  figure 
in  the  fore-court  of  heaven. 

ABRAHAM  THE  JEW  AND  THE  lEEB^- 
CHANT  THE'ODOBE.  A  medieval  tale  of 
the  conversion  of  a  Jewish  money-lender,  after 
occurrences  in  which  figures  prominently  the 
miracle-working  power  of  the  great  image  of 
Christ  in  the  copper  market  at  Constantinople. 
Theodore,  in  financial  straits,  twice  borrows 
money  of  Abraham  on  the  security  of  his  oath 
before  the  statue,  and  only  after  repeated  losses 
does  he  find,  while  on  a  foreign  shore,  means  to 
repay  the  loan.  For  lack  of  other  mode  of 
transmission  the  merchant  trusts  his  box  of 
money  to  the  sea.  It  is  carried  by  the  waves 
safely  home  to  the  Jew,  who  denies,  however, 
after  the  return  of  Theodore,  that  he  has 
received  it.  The  Christian's  prayer  before  the 
image,  where  he  has  brought  Abraham  to  take 
oath,  leads  the  Jew  to  confession  of  the  Christian 
faith. 

ABBA-IGOBBOTE,  ISL^rk  e'g6rr(/t&,  or 
GuiNAANE.  A  head-hunting  tribe  of  the  prov- 
ince of  Abra,  northern  Luzon.    See  Philippines. 

ABBANTESy  A-brKn'tAs.  An  ancient  town 
in  Estremadura,  Portugal,  situated  on  the 
Tagus,  70  miles  northeast  of  Lisbon  (Map: 
Portugal,  A3).  It  is  strongly  fortified,  being 
surrounded  by  walls  and  protected  by  a  castle. 
It  is  remarkable  for  the  grand  architectural 
features  of  its  monastery.  By  way  of  the  Tagus, 
Abrantes  has  a  brisk  trade  with  Lisbon  in  grain, 
olive  oil,  wine,  and  fruit.  From  this  town  Mar- 
shal Junot  took  his  title  of  Duke  of  Abrantes. 
Pop.,  about  8000. 

AB&ANTESy  &l)r&N'tAs^  Due  d'.  See  Junot. 

ABRANTES,  Duchesbg  d'.    See  Junot. 

AB&A^SIVES  (Lat.  a6,  away  +  radere,  to 
scrape,  scratch).  The  natural  and  artificial 
substances  used  in  the  arts  for  scraping,  grind- 
ing,   and    polishing.     The    principal    abrasives 


40 


now  used  are  corundum,  emery,  garnet,  quartz, 
carborundum,  diatomaceous  earth,  tripoli,  pum- 
ice, rouge,  crushed  steel,  abrasive  stones,  and 
sand.  Corundum  is  a  crystalline  mineral  sub- 
stance, large  deposits  of  which  are  mined  in 
North  Carolina.  The  process  of  manufacturing 
corundum  ore  into  an  abrasive  powder  consists 
in  crushing  and  grinding  it  to  a  powder,  which 
is  mixed  with  water  and  fed  onto  sieves  or 
screens;  the  properly  ground  material  passes 
through  the  screens  and  the  coarser  powder 
remains  on  top  and  is  reground.  The  remain- 
der of  the  process  consists  in  refining  and  sizing 
the  powder  into  eight  or  ten  grades  for  the 
market.  Emery  is  an  impure  grade  of  corun- 
dum, and  is  prepared  for  the  market  by  crush- 
ing, screening,  and  sizing,  like  corundum  proper. 
Emery  is  used  in  the  form  of  powder  for  polish- 
ing plate  glass  and  stones,  as  emery  paper  and 
as  emery  wheels.  Emery  paper  or  emery  cloth 
is  paper  or  cloth  covered  with  hot  glue  and 
dusted  with  powdered  emery.  Emery  wheels 
are  sometimes  solid  emery  stone,  and  sometimes 
wheels  the  faces  of  which  are  coated  with  emery. 
Oamet  occurs  in  segregated  masses  scattered 
through  other  rocks.  Formerly  the  process  of 
production  was  to  separate  the  garnet  masses 
from  the  barren  rock  by  hand  after  the  rock  had 
been  broken  down  by  picks  or  by  blasting.  This 
method  of  separation  resulted  in  the  loss  of  a 
considerable  portion  of  the  garnet  in  the  rock, 
and  a  process  has  recently  been  perfected  by 
which  the  rock  is  crushed  by  machinery  and  the 
garnet  separated  from  the  barren  rock  by  water. 
,  Garnet  is  harder  than  quartz,  and,  unlike  quartz, 
does  not  wear  smooth,  but  by  its  cleavage  pre- 
sents new  cutting  edges.  It  is  used  chiefly  in 
the  form  of  garnet  paper  or  as  a  facing  for  cylin- 
ders, disks,  belts,  etc.,  for  smoothing  and  finish- 
ing wagons,  cars,  carriages,  wooden  parts  of 
bicycles,  furniture,  etc.,  and  in  boot  and  shoe 
manufacture  for  smoothing  and  polishing  the 
heels  and  soles.  Carborundum  is  an  artificial 
product  manufactured  by  a  single  American  com- 
pany whose  works  are  at  Niagara  Falls,  N.  Y. 
The  raw  material  for  carborundum  manufacture 
consists  of  34.2  parts  coke,  54.2  parts  sand,  9.9 
parts  sawdust,  and  1.7  parts  salt.  This  mixture 
IS  smelted  by  electricity  in  special  furnaces  of 
fire-brick  16  feet  long,  5  feet  high,  and  5  feet 
wide.  In  the  centre  of  the  end  walls  are  the 
terminals  or  electrodes,  each  of  which  consists 
of  60  carbon  rods  30  inches  long  and  3  inches  in 
diameter,  into  the  outer  ends  of  which  small 
pieces  of  %  inch  copper  rods  are  fixed.  A  square 
copper  plate  bored  with  60  holes  holds  the  carbon 
electrodes  in  place.  The  carbons  having  been 
put  in  place  from  the  inside  of  the  furnace, 
the  spaces  between  them  are  tightly  packed  with 
graphite,  which  prevents  the  oxidation  of  the 
carbons  and  adds  materially  to  their  durability. 
The  charge  is  next  thrown  into  the  furnace  until 
it  is  a  little  more  than  half  full,  when  a  semi- 
circular trench  about  21  inches  in  diameter  is 
made  the  full  length  of  the  furnace.  Into  this 
trench  the  core  of  coke  is  placed  and  built  up 
to  form  a  cylinder  21  inches  in  diameter.  Around 
this  core  more  material  is  packed  to  the  full 
height  of  the  side  walls,  and  heaped  above  their 
tops,  the  furnace  then  being  ready  for  operation. 
This  consists  of  passing  an  electric  current 
through  the  charge  between  the  two  terminals, 
which  is  maintained  for  thirty-six  hours,  after 
which  the  furnace  is  allowed  to  cool  slowly  for 


twenty-four  hours,  when  the  side  walla  are  torn 
down  and  the  charge  removed.  The  carborun- 
dum forms  a  layer  about  10  or  12  inches  thick 
around  the  coke  core.  This  is  crushed  and 
treated  with  dilute  sulphuric  acid  for  three  days 
at  a  temperature  of  100**  C.  to  remove  the 
iron  and  alumina.  The  clean  material  is  then 
washed  with  water,  dried,  and  graded  according 
to  fineness.  Carborundum  is  used  like  emery 
and  garnet  in  the  manufacture  of  abrading  cloth, 
cylinders,  wheels,  etc.,  and  in  the  form  of  powder 
for  polishing  stones,  steel  balls,  etc.  Diaioma- 
ceoua  or  infusorial  earth  is  a  natural  product 
consisting  of  the  siliceous  framework  of  diatoms, 
which  is  ground  and  used  principally  in  polish- 
ing metals  and  finishing  wood.  Tripoli  is  dis- 
tinguished from  infusorial  earth  by  the  mode  of 
origin,  it  being  the  porous  silica  left  from  a 
siliceous  limestone  from  which  the  lime  has  been 
leached,  leaving  the  silica.  The  natural  product 
is  ground  in  a  mill  and  sifted  for  use  in  polish- 
ing metals,  horn,  shell,  etc.,  and  is  also  cut  out 
into  the  form  of  disks  and  used  in  household 
filters  for  filtering  water.  Rouge  as  usually  sold 
is  made  by  dissolving  iron  in  sulphuric  acid  so 
as  to  form  iron  sulphate;  this  salt  is  heated 
and  the  sulphur  driven  off,  leaving  a  residue 
of  sesquioxide  of  iron,  which  after  washing  is 
known  as  rouge.  Rouge  is  used  for  polishing 
plate  glass.  Crushed  steel  and  steel  emery  are 
manufactured  preferably  from  pieces  of  high 
grade  crucible  steel  heated  to  a  temperature 
of  about  2500^  F.  and  then  quenched  in  a 
bath  of  cold  water  or  other  suitable  hardening 
solution  which  gives  the  steel  a  granular  struc- 
ture. The  pieces  are  then  reduced  to  powder 
by  powerful  hammers  or  crushing  machines, 
after  which  the  steel  particles  are  tempered  in 
the  following  manner :  They  are  placed  in  a  steel 
pan  or  cylinder  and  heated  to  a  temperature  of 
450®  F.;  and  then  cooled  by  being  subjected 
to  cold  air  in  various  ways.  The  final  process 
is  the  grinding  and  sizing  of  the  powder.  Steel 
emery  is  made  exactly  like  crushed  steel  but  is 
given  an  intensely  hard  temper.  Crushed  steel 
ranks  close  to  the  diamond  in  hardness. 
Crushed  steel  and  steel  emery  are  extensively 
used  in  stone  sawing  and  polishing,  in  lens 
grinding,  glass  beveling,  brick  grinding,  and  by 
lithographers,  engineers,  and  plate  glass  manu- 
facturers. Grindstones  are.  cut  from  a  hard 
sandstone  of  a  peculiar  quality,  and  whetstones, 
scythestones  and  oilstones  are  quarried  and  cut 
from  similar  natural  rocks.  Millstones  or  huhr- 
stones  are  cut  down  or  built  up  from  various 
kinds  of  rock;  the  American  buhrstone  is  a 
quartz  conglomerate  which  is  known  under 
various  local  names;  the  German  buhrstone  is 
a  basaltic  lava,  and  that  which  comes  from 
France  and  Belgium  is  a  hard,  porous  material 
consisting  of  small  particles  of  silica  in  a  cal- 
careous cement.  The  foreign  stone  is  brought 
into  the  United  States  in  small  pieces,  which 
are  cut  and  built  up  into  wheels  with  cement, 
but  the  domestic  stone  is  worked  down  from 
quarry  blocks  into  a  solid  wheel  of  the  required 
size.  Millstones  are  used  for  grinding  grains, 
cement,  pigments,  etc.  Sand  is  extensively  used 
as  an  abrasive  in  the  form  of  sandpaper  and 
in  the  sandblast  for  cleaning  castings,  structural 
iron-work,  etc.  Pumice  is  a  volcanic  ash  or 
tufa  which  may  be  ground  into  powder  for 
scouring  and  polishing  or  sold  in  lumps  for 
similar  purposes.    See  Sandpaper;  Sandblast. 


41 


ABB17ZS5I. 


For  a  detailed  description  of  the  occurrence  and 
preparation  of  abrasives,  reference  should  be 
made  to  the  Annual  ReporU  of  the  United  States 
Ototo^fical  Survey,  Mineral  Reeaurcea  of  the 
Vnited  States,  which  also  include  statistics  of 
production  and  importation. 
ABRAVANEL,  A-brft'v&nel^     See  Abbaba- 

KEL. 

ABKAX'AS.  A  term  used  by  the  Gnostic 
sect  of  Basil  ides  to  designate  the  multiform 
manifestation  of  the  Supreme  Deity  in  the  uni- 
\er»e,  because  when  the  word  is  written  with 
Creek  letters,  these  letters,  computed  numerically, 
have  the  value  of  365,  which  equals  the  solar  year 

and    the    number    of    eone   or 
worlds  that  formed  the  total 
Gnostic    universe.    The    word, 
in  harmony  with  the  magical 
tendencies  of  the  East  in  the 
second   century,  was  engraved 
on  precious  stones  and  used  as 
an  amulet.     These  gems  often 
bore  strange  figures  of  Gnostic 
deities,  sometimes  part  lion,  or 
serpent,    or    cock,    some    con- 
nected with  Jewish,  some  with 
Egyptian,      and     some     with 
Ontco-Roman    worship.     They    are    characteris- 
tic   of    the    hybrid    religious    movement    that 
fought    for    supremacy    with    Christianity.     In 
many  cases  the  figure  represented  has  the  head 
of  a  cock,  the  body  of  a  man,  and  two  serpents 
instead  of  legs,  and  is  anned  with  a  whip  and 
shield,  with  the  inscription    lAQ  (tad),  derived 
from  the  Hebrew  name  for  God.     Other  divine 
manifestations   inscribed   or  represented  on  the 
gems  are  Sabaoth,  Adonai,  EloT — Hebrew  names 
lor    God — ^Astaphaios,     laldabaoth,    Chnouphis. 
Others    have    names   or    figures   of   Jewish    trn- 
g^U    (Michael,   Gabriel,    Uriel,    Onoel)  ;    others 
thoMe    of    Egyptian    gods    (Isis,    Osiris,    Phtah, 
Xeith,    Hathor,    etc.)  ;    others    those    of    Greek 
ffod:^    and     heroes     (Zeus,    Hecate,     Aphrodite, 
Hercules).      It    is    a    fact   that    the    Christian 
Church  and  the  Christian  emperors  of  the  fourth 
and   fifth  centuries   found   it  far  more   difficult 
to  stamp  out  magical  beliefs  and  practices  than 
those   of    official    paganism,    and   of   this    these 
stones  are   the  clearest  proofs.      (See  Absaca- 
DABRA  and   Amulet.)      For  futher  information 
consult    Martigny.    Dictionnaire    des    antiquitia 
rhn'tiennee   (Paris,  1877),  and  Kraus,  Real  En- 
efklopedie   der   chriatUchen   AlterhUmer    (Frei- 
burg. 1882-86). 

ABBXAST'.    See  Bearing. 


(0.  F.  ahrigier,  Lat.  ahhre- 
riarf,  to  shorten).  A  condensation  or  abbrevia- 
tion of  a  book  or  treatise.  In  the  law  of  copy- 
right an  abridgment,  when  fairly  made,  is  deemed 
a  new  work,  and  consequently  its  publication  is 
not  an  infringement  of  the  copyright.  An 
ahridgment  is  to  be  distinguished  in  the  law  of 
copyright  from  a  compilation.  The  former  is  a 
condensation  of  the  substance  of  the  copyrighted 
article,  while  the  latter  is  a  reproduction  in 
part,  at  least,  of  the  language  of  the  copyrighted 
article  and  is  held  to  be  an  infringement. 
Ahridgments  of  the  rules  of  law  by  various  writ- 
ers have  been  of  great  importance  in  the  develop- 
ment of  the  English  common  law.  Before  our 
modem  methods  of  reporting  decided  cases,  the 
■bridgmenta  of  Comyn,  Viner,  Bacon,  and 
othen  were  highly  valiied  as  text-books,  and  were 
Vou  L-«. 


the  chief  repositories  of  le^l  learning.  They 
are  still  valuable  as  authorities  as  to  the  rules 
of  the  early  law. 

ABBO<yOMAS    AND    ANTHFA.     One    of 

the  oldest  works  of  Greek  prose  fiction;  also 
known  as  Epheeiaoa,  or  the  Lovea  of  Anthia  and 
Ahrocomaa,  It  was  by  an  otherwise  unknown 
writer  named  Xenophon  of  Ephesus,  of  uncertain 
date,  supposed  to  have  lived  about  the  time  of 
the  Antonines.  It  is  in  simple  narrative  style, 
but  abounds  in  improbable  incidents.  The  story 
is  the  ultimate  source  of  Romeo  and  Juliet, 

AB'BOOA^IOK  (Lat.  ahrogatio,  from  ah, 
away  -f  rogare,  to  ask,  propose  a  law).  In  la*v, 
the  annulling  or  repealing  of  a  former  law  by  an 
act  of  the  legislative  body.  Abrogation  may  be 
accomplished  by  express  provision  of  the  later  act, 
which  in  general  terms  abrogates  all  laws  in- 
consistent with  the  new  one,  or  names  specifi- 
cally the  laws  to  be  abrogated,  in  which  case  the 
abrogation  is  said  to  1^  expreaa.  Abrogation 
may  also  be  implied,  when  the  new  law  is  neces- 
sarily inconsistent  with  earlier  laws.  Also, 
in  England  and  Scotland,  though  not  generally 
in  the  United  States,  when  a  statute  by  lapse  of 
time  becomes  unsuited  to  the  times  and  condi- 
tions, it  is  impliedly  abrogated.  Abrogation  of 
statute  law  revives  any  provision  of  the  comm<m 
law  which  the  earlier  statutes  had  abrogated. 
See  Repeal. 

ABBOLHOSy  A-bryiyte.  A  group  of  islands 
and  sboaK  50  miles  off  the  east  coast  of  Brazil 
and  50  miles  east  of  Caravellas,  forming  part  of 
the  state  of  Bahia.  The  largest  island  of  the 
group,  Santa  Barbara,  is  the  site  of  a  lighthouse 
(Map  :  South  America). 

AMBITS  (Gk.  d/3p^,  hahroay  graceful, 
pretty ) .  A  genus  of  plants  of  the  natural  order 
Leguminosse.  The  only  known  species,  Ahru^ 
precatoriua,  is  a  shrub  originally  belonging  to 
India,  where  it  is  chiefly  found  in  clayey  soils, 
but  now  not  uncommon  in  the  West  Indies  and 
other  tropical  regions.  The  roots  possess  prop- 
erties similar  to  those  of  the  common  licorice. 
The  seeds,  often  called  crab's  eyes,  are  nearly 
spherical,  as  large  as  small  peas,  of  a  scarlet 
color,  with  a  black  scar,  and  are  familiar  to 
most  people  in  England  and  elsewhere,  being 
used  as  beads.  They  are  narcotic.  In  India  and 
Australia  they  are  believed  to  be  poisonous,  and 
a  number  of  criminal  cases  of  cattle  poisoning 
by  this  means  were  reported  by  the  Cattle 
Plague  Commission  in  1870. 

ABBUZZI,  ft-br9?7t's^,  and  M0LI8E,  m6- 
l?'sA.  A  division  {compartimento)  of  central 
Italy,  situated  between  the  Apennines  and  the 
Adriatic  Sea,  and  comprising  the  provinces  of 
Teramo  (Abruzzo  Ulteriore  I.),  Chieti  (Abruz- 
ao  Citeriore),  Aquila  (Abruzzo  Ulteriore  II.), 
and  Campobasso  (Molise)  (Map:  Italy,  H  5). 
The  area  is  6380  square  miles.  It  comprises 
the  wildest  and  loftiest  portion  of  the  Apen- 
nines. The  rent  and  jagged  mountain  groups 
are  very  picturesque  and  reach  in  II  Gran 
Sasso  d'ltalia,  or  "the  great  rock  of  Italy/'  the 
highest  of  the  chain,  the  elevation  of  9600  feet. 
The  highlands  are  clothed  with  luxuriant  for- 
ests and  slope  precipitously  on  all  sides,  but  es- 
pecially toward  the  northeast  shore.  The  rivers 
are  numerous,  but  mostly  very  short,  and.  with 
the  sole  exception  of  the  Pe<»rara,  are  of  little  im- 
portance. The  climate  of  the  Abruzzi  is  raw  in  the 
higher  regions ;  snow  rests  on  the  mountains  from 


ABB17ZZI.  42 

October  to  April,  and  on  some  of  the  peaks  all 
the  year  round.  While  the  mountain  slopes 
provide  ample  pasture  for  the  numerous  herds 
of  cattle  and  swine,  fertile  valleys  yield  olives, 
rice,  saffron,  wine,  and  grains  in  abundance. 
Animal  products  form  the  chief  article  of  ex- 
port. Silk  is  produced  to  some  extent.  In 
former  times  the  district  was  considered  of  much 
strategical  importance,  owing  to  its  inaccessi- 
bility, which  rendered  it  especially  fit  as  a  pro- 
tection for  Naples.  Population  in  1881, 1,317,215 ; 
in  1901,  1,442,365.  The  inhabitants  lead  a  pas- 
toral life.  Consult  A.  de  Nino,  Uai  e  coaiumi 
ahrtuszeai  (Florence,  1879-91). 

ABBXJZZI,  Prince  Luioi  Amaoeo  of  Savoy- 
Aosta,  Duke  of  the  (1873 — ).  An  Italian  trav- 
eler and  Arctic  explorer.  He  is  the  son  of 
ex-King  Amadeus  of  Spain,  was  bom  in  Madrid, 
and  studied  at  the  naval  college  in  Leghorn.  In 
1897  he  attracted  much  attention  by  making  the 
first  ascent  of  Mount  Saint  Elias.  On  June  12, 
1899,  he  set  out  on  his  voyage  toward  the 
North  Pole,  his  plan  being  to  leave  his  ship,  the 
Stella  Polare,  in  harbor,  and  send  northward  a 
series  of  sledge  expeditions.  He  spent  one  winter 
in  the  Bay  of  Teplitz,  and  would  have  remained 
a  second  had  not  a  serious  injury  to  the  vessel 
compelled  his  return.  One  of  his  sledge  parties, 
under  Captain  Umberto  Cagni,  attained  the 
northernmost  latitude  as  yet  reached  (86°  33', 
239.15  statute  miles  from  the  Pole).  On  Sep- 
tember 6,  1900,  he  returned  to  Christiania.  His 
explorations  determined  the  northern  coast  of 
Franz-Josef  Land  and  the  non-existence  of  Peter- 
mann  Land.  The  story  is  told  in  his  book.  On 
the  **Polar  Star"*  in  the  Arctic  £fea  (1903).  Con- 
sult F.  de  Filippi,  La  spedizione  di  Luigi  Amadeo 
di  Savoia  al  Monte  SanV  Elia  (Milan,  1900). 

AB^SALOM  (Heb.,  father  of  peace).  The 
third  son  of  King  David  (II.  Samuel  iii:  3;  I. 
Chronicles  iii:  2),  whose  romantic  career  makes 
him  a  prominent  figure  in  Old  Testament  history. 
Encountering  the  ill  will  of  David  through 
slaying  Amnon,  another  son  of  the  King,  in  re- 
venge for  an  outrage  committed  by  Amnon  upon 
his  sister  Tamar  (II.  Samuel  xiii),  Absalom  was 
banished  from  his  father's  court,  and  more  than 
five  years  elapsed  before  he  was  again  admitted 
into  the  presence  of  his  father  (II.  Samuel  xiv). 
A  complete  reconciliation,  however,  appeared  out 
of  the  question,  and  Absalom  shrewdly  laid  his 
plans  to  ingratiate  himself  in  the  hearts  of  the 
people  (II.  Samuel  xv:  1-6).  When  the  moment 
appeared  ripe  he  organized  a  rebellion  against 
David,  which  soon  assumed  such  dimensions  as 
to  force  the  King  and  his  court  to  leave  Jeru- 
salem and  fiy  for  refuge  to  the  east  of  the  Jordan. 
Absalom  entered  Jerusalem,  and  the  rebellion 
would  probably  have  been  successful  but  for  the 
crafty  intrigues  of  Hushai,  who,  while  pretend- 
ing to  espouse  the  cause  of  Absalom,  ^ave  coun- 
sel which  enabled  David  and  his  adherents  to 
obtain  time  for  gathering  a  following  (II.  Sam- 
uel xv:  17).  A  decisive  battle  was  then  fought 
"in  the  wood  of  Ephraim"  (II.  Samuel  xviii :  6), 
in  which  Absalom  lost  his  life.  According  to 
the  narrative,  Joab,  chief  counselor  of  David, 
sent  three  darts  into  Absalom's  heart  while  he 
was  hanging  from  an  oak,  in  the  branches  of 
which  his  flowing  locks,  while  he  was  riding,  be- 
came entangled.  With  Absalom's  death  the  re- 
bellion came  to  an  end  (II.  Samuel  xviii:  7-17). 
David  is  represented  as  having  been  profoundly 


grieved  at  the  death  of  his  son,  and  this  grief  Is 
a  reflection  of  the  impression  made  upon  the 
people  by  the  romantic  career  of  Absalom.  In- 
stead of  denouncing  him,  the  writer  tells  the- 
story  in  a  manner  calculated  to  arouse  at  least 
partial  sympathy  for  Absalom,  who  is  described 
as  a  youth  of  extraordinary  beauty  and  attrac- 
tiveness (II.  Samuel  xiv:  25-27).  Absalom  was 
buried  near  the  spot  where  he  died,  and  the  grave 
was  marked  by  a  great  heap  of  stones  (II.  Samuel 
xviii:  17).  The  date  of  Absalom's  death  may 
be  flxed  approximately  at  B.c.  980. 

ABSALOM  AND  ACHITOPHEL,  &-k{t'6-fel. 
The  title  of  a  poetical  satire  by  John  Dryden». 
published  in  1681.  Absalom  represented  the 
Duke  of  Monmouth,  illegitimate  son  of  Charles 
II.,  whose  character  is  said  to  have  resembled 
that  of  the  rebellious  son  of  King  David. 
Achitophel,  David's  disloyal  adviser,  stood  for 
the  Earl  of  Shaftesbury,  against  whom  the  satire 
was  directed.  It  was  intended  to  justify  King 
Charles  II.*  as  against  the  Whig  party.  As  a 
political  document  it  was  extremely  effective, 
and  it  has  been  highly  praised  for  its  vigorous 
literary  qualities.  The  second  part,  published 
in  1682,  was  added  by  Nahum  Tate. 

AB8AL0N,  iib^sUlon  (1128-1201).  A  Danish 
ecclesiastic,  statesman,  and  general.  He  was 
educated  at  Paris,  and,  during  the  reigns  of  Val- 
demar  I.  and  Canute  VI.,  served  as  minister 
and  general.  In  1158  he  was  chosen  bishop 
of  Roeskilde,  and  in  1178  became  archbishop 
of  Lund.  Absalon  aided  in  the  formulation  of 
the  code  of  Valdemar,  and  to  his  influence  is 
due  the  Hiatoria  Danica  of  Saxo  Grammaticus. 

AB'SCESS  (Lat.  aft,  aba,  away  +  cedere,  to 
go,  Gk.  dir6<rrrjfUL,  apoatSma,  distance).  A  col- 
lection of  pus  formed  within  some  tissue  or 
organ  of  the  body  where  no  cavity  previously  ex- 
isted, and  due  to  injury,  toxication,  or  septie 
infection  from  bacteria.  An  abscess  is  thus 
formed :  First,  the  capillary  vessels  become  over- 
charged with  blood,  in  consequence  of  inflamma- 
tion. The  fluid  part  of  the  blood,  flowing  very 
feebly,  together  with  some  of  the  white  blood 
corpuscles,  exudes  through  the  walls  of  the 
capillary  vessels  and  becomes  pus.  This  matter 
gradually  disintegrates  the  tissues,  and  so  makes 
for  itself  a  larger  cavity,  and  frequently,  by 
gradual  dissolution  of  the  adjacent  parts,  works 
its  way  either  to  the  surface  or  to  some  natural 
cavity  of  the  body.  Pus  thus  making  its  appear- 
ance in  a  different  part  of  the  body  from  where 
it  was  formed,  constitutes  a  "cold  abscess."  It 
also  occurs  that  when  the  purulent  matter  does 
not  flnd  any  outlet,  either  naturally  or  arti- 
flcially,  it  is  gradually  absorbed.  In  abscesses 
superflcially  seated — either  in  or  close  under  the 
skin — the  early  treatment  consists  chiefly  in 
promoting  the  formation  of  pus  by  the  applica- 
tion of  moist  and  warm  bandages  or  poultices,  or 
limiting  the  process  by  the  application  of  ice. 
The  next  step  is  the  removal  of  the  pus  and  pro- 
vision of  drainage.  When  this  is  too  long  de- 
layed, even  poisoning  may  ensue.  An  abscess 
must  be  regarded  not  as  a  disease  in  itself,  but 
as  the  result  of  disease,  or  as  an  eflfort  of  nature 
to  remove  injurious  matters  from  the  system. 

ABSCHATZ,  ap'shats,  Hans  Asshann.  Frei- 
herr  von  (1646-99).  A  German  poet  of  the 
second  Silesian  School.  He  was  born  at  Wiir- 
bitz,  and  studied  at  Strassburg  and  Leyden.  He 
was  appointed  life  deputy  from  the  principality 


43 


ABSOLUTE. 


of  Liegnitz  to  the  Silesian  Diet  at  Breslau  in 
1679.  Strongly  patriotic  in  tone,  he  was  one  of 
the  best  known  of  German  seventeenth  century 
poets.  He  translated  the  Pastor  Fido  from  the 
Italian  of  Guarini.  His  Poetische  Uebersetz- 
ungen  und  Oedichte  were  published  after  his 
death  (edited  by  Christian  Gryphius,  1704).  Se- 
lections also  appear  in  Volume  Vl.  of  W.  MUller's 
Bihliotkek  deutacher  KUuaiker  des  aiebzehnten 
Jahrhunderta  (1824). 


>>^-r.. ^^  -  ^^ «»^  ^ w^ ^^y    ftp'sh^ts-z^m- 

fA-ne'  (Ger.  "Farewell  Symphony").  A  symphony 
composed  by  Haydn,  dated  1772  on  the  auto- 
graph score.  It  was  written  as  an  appeal  to  the 
Prince  EszterhAzy  to  allow  the  musicians  leave 
of  absence.  One  after  another  stopped  playing 
snd  left  the  orchestra,  and  Havdn's  object  was 
attained  through  this  delicate  hint.    See  Haydn. 

ABSCIS^BA.   See  Analytic  Geometry. 

ABSCONIXINO  (Lat.  aha,  away  -f  condere, 
to  put  up).  In  law,  the  act  of  leaving  the  state 
or  concealing  oneself  therein  for  a  fraudulent 
purpose,  such  as  hindering,  delaying,  or  defraud- 
ing one's  creditors.  It  is  not  a  common-law  of- 
fense for  one  to  go  beyond  the  boundaries  of  his 
country,  nor  to  treat  his  house  as  his  castle, 
that  is^  as  a  place  into  which  an  officer  has  no 
right  to  break  in  order  to  serve  civil  process. 
But  if  a  debtor  went  abroad  or  locked  himself 
in  hi^  house  to  avoid  the  service  of  legal  process, 
or  if  he  was  about  to  do  either  with  like  intent, 
the  creditor  was  entitled,  upon  resorting  to  the 
proper  proceedings,  to  seize  his  property.  The 
rights  of  creditors  against  absconding  debtors 
are  regulated  usually  by  statute.  See  Arrest; 
Attach mekt;  Bankruptcy;  Insolvency;  Limi- 
tation OF  Actions. 


A  capitalist,  especially  a  land- 
owner, who  derives  his  income  from  one  country 
and  spends  it  in  another.  Ireland  offers  the  clas- 
sic example  of  absenteeism  and  its  attendant  eco- 
nomic and  social  evils.  A  large  part  of  the  land 
is  owned  by  members  of  the  aristocracy,  who  ad- 
minister their  affairs  by  agents  and  rarely  visit 
their  possessions.  This  state  of  affairs  dates  in 
the  main  from  the  union  with  Great  Britain  and 
the  transfer  of  Parliament  from  Dublin  to  Lon- 
don. It  has  always  been  a  matter  of  bitter  com- 
plaint. It  is  urged  that  the  system  drains  Ire- 
land of  its  wealth  and  leaves  it  in  poverty.  While 
some  writers,  notably  McCulloch,  have  considered 
this  complaint  fundamentally  wrong,  there  is  a 
general  consensus  of  opinion  that  absenteeism  is 
hurtful  to  the  economic  interests  of  a  region. 
It  removes  from  the  country  its  natural  lead- 
ers, those  whose  wealth  creates  employment,  and 
who^  personal  concern  in  the  upbuilding  of  the 
country  is  essential  to  public  welfare.  It  in- 
tensifies the  struggle  between  classes  and  makes 
cooperation  difficult.  It  is  likely  to  result  in 
misuse  of  the  land  by  owners  more  bent 
upon  securing  maximum  financial  returns  than 
upon  maintaining  and  increasing  its  earning  ca- 
pacity, while  the  management  of  the  paid  over- 
9«r  is  not  tampered  by  the  spirit  of  nohJenae 
ohliffe  which  generally  prevails  when  the  land- 
lord is  a  resident.  The  voluminous  discussion  of 
the  Irish  question  within,  and  out  of  Parlia- 
ment teems  with  references  to  absenteeism. 


ABSINTHE,  fib'slnth  (Fr.,  from  the  Gk. 
a\l>iv6iov,  apainthion,  vformvfood) .  A  bitter  liquor, 
the  base  of  which  is  an  alcoholic  solution  of  cer- 
tain essential  oils  derived  from  a  number  of 
plants.  The  chief  source  is  a  form  of  worm- 
wood, or  absinthium  {Artemiaia  ahainthium). 
(For  illustration,  see  Plate  of  Acanthus.)  The 
leaves  and  tops  of  this  plant,  together  with  por- 
tions of  angelica  root  {Archanffelica  o/ficinalia), 
sweet- fiag  root  {Acorua  calamua),  dittany 
{Cunila  mariana),  star-anise  seeds  {lllicium 
cerum),  and  other  aromatics,  are  macerated  in 
alcohol  for  eight  days  and  then  distilled.  The 
product  is  an  emerald-colored  liquor,  to  which 
anise  oil  is  added,  and  which  constitutes  the  gen- 
uine French  extrait  d'ahainthe.  Other  absinthe 
of  inferior  quality  is  made  from  various  herbs  and 
essential  oils,  and  adulterations  are  numerous 
and  deleterious.  As  adulterants,  turmeric  and 
indigo,  and  in  some  cases  sulphate  of  copper, 
have  been  used,  chiefly  for  the  production  of  the 
green  color  in  the  inferior  grades.  Two  kinds  of 
absinthe  are  known  in  commerce,  common  and 
Swiss;  the  latter,  prepared  from  highly  concen- 
trated spirits,  being  the  more  trustworthy.  The 
chief  places  of  manufacture  are  Neuchfltel  in 
Switzerland  and  Bordeaux  in  France.  The  prod- 
uct is  consumed  mostly  in  France,  though  large 
quantities  are  exported  to  the  United  States. 
Absinthe  was  first  used  by  the  French  soldiers 
in  the  Algerian  War  (1844-1847),  who  mixed  it 
with  their  liquor  as  a  febrifuge,  and  who  later 
introduced  the  habit  in  France.  Absinthe-drink- 
ing has  become  in  France  so  great  an  evil  that 
its  use  has  been  prohibited  in  both  the  army 
and  navy  of  that  nation. 

Absinthe  when  excessively  used  gives  at  first 
a  feeling  of  exhilarated  intoxication.  Later  the 
digestive  organs  are  deranged,  the  appetite  de- 
stroyed, then  thirst,  giddiness,  ringing  in  the 
ears,  hallucinations  of  sight,  heavy  mental  op- 
pression, anxiety,  loss  of  brain  power,  and  idiocy 
may  succeed  each  other.  The  use  of  absinthe  in- 
duces a  condition  of  alcoholic  intoxication  plus 
the  poisoning  by  the  essential  oils,  notably  by 
that  known  as  absinthol,  contained  in  the  worm- 
wood. It  is  doubtful  whether  the  hideous  pic- 
tures frequently  drawn  are  true  to  life;  they 
probably  represent  the  extremes.  Absinthe  is, 
however,  much  more  intoxicating  than  the  or- 
dinary liquors.  Consult  Mew  and  Ashton, 
Brinka  of  the  World  (New  York,  189^).  See 
Liqueur ;  Wormwood;  Artemisia. 

AB'SOLON.  A  character  in  Chaucer's  Miller'a 
Tale,  He  was  a  parish  clerk,  who  fell  in  love 
with  the  jealous  carpenter's  wife,  but  ludicrously 
failed  of  his  suit. 


—■i«^raiw  AXAB,  jLJo^u  A  storv  by  Maria  Edge- 
worth  (q.v.),  published  in  1812.  It  was  one  of 
the  series  called  Talea  of  Faahionahle  Life,  or 
FaaMonahle  Talea, 


rSOLUTE  (Lat.  ahaolutua,  brought  to  a 
conclusion,  final,  complete,  from  ahaolverr,  to 
loosen  from,  bring  to  a  close,  complete) .  A  term 
employed  in  philosophy  and  theology  with  vari- 
ous meanings,  but  in  every  case  in  direct  antithe- 
sis to  the  term  relatire.  Afany  theolojsical  phi- 
losophers speak  of  God  as  absolute,  meaning 
thereby  that  He  need  stand  in  no  relation  to  any- 
thing distinct  from  Himself.  Absolute  means  here 
independent  of  essential  relations  to  other  ob- 
jects. Herbert  Spencer  speaks  of  absolute  ethics, 
meaning  ethic?  dealing  with  a  standard  that  is 
unchanging,  as  opposed  to  the  relative  ethics  of 
any  particular  place  or  time.  With  the  Hegel- 
fans  absolute  means  all-inclusive;  essential  re- 
lation is  included  in  such  a  conception,  hut  mere- 
ly   external     relation     is    excluded:     the    uni- 


ABSOLUTE. 


44 


ABSOBPnON. 


verse,  in  the  sense  of  all  existence,  including  all 
the  relations  binding  everything  to  everything 
else,  is  absolute  in  this  meaning  of  the  word; 
and  the  universe  alone  is  absolute.  Much  of  the 
discussion  about  the  possibility  of  the  absolute 
has  turned  upon  the  ambiguity  of  the  word.  So 
also  with  the  question  whether  there  can  be 
knowledge  of  the  absolute.  If  by  the  absolute  is 
meant  something  that  exists  in  itself  apart  from 
all  knowledge,  and  if  knowledge  is  considered 
as  a  relation  between  two  independent  things, 
the  knower  and  the  known,  then  knowledge  of 
the  absolute  is  impossible.  This  is  Sir  Wil- 
liam Hamilton's  (q.v.)  contention,  and  also 
Spencer's  (q.v.).  If  knowledge  means  exhaustive 
comprehension  of  every  objective  detail  within 
the  unity  of  a  single  consciousness,  and  yet  if 
consciousness  and  its  object  are  not  looked  on  as 
independent  of  each  other,  then  absolute  knowl- 
edge would  be  possible  on  the  supposition  of  the 
existence  of  a  being  that  sustains  all  reality 
within  its  unchanging  consciousness  (T.  H. 
Green).  If  knowledge  is  not  synonymous  with 
exhaustive  knowledge,  and  yet  if  the  object  of 
knowledge  is  regarded  as  essentially  related  to 
the  consciousness  that  knows,  and  if  such  an  ob- 
ject also  stands  in  essential  relation  to  every 
other  object,  then  all  knowledge  is  partial  knowl- 
edge of  the  absolute.  See  Knowledoe,  Theory  of. 

ABSOLUTE,  Captain.  A  leading  character 
in  Sheridan's  The  Rivals,  the  son  of  Sir  An- 
thony Absolute.  He  is  a  young  soldier,  and  the 
lover  of  Lydia  Languish,  to  gratify  whose  unprac- 
tical and  romantic  temperament  he  makes  his 
suit  in  the  assumed  guise  of  a  penniless  Ensign 
Beverley.  He  thus  wins  her  heart,  and  proves 
himself  his  own  sue  lessful  rival. 

ABSOLUTS,  Sir  Anthony.  A  celebrated 
character  in  Sheridan's  comedy  of  The  Rivals, 
He  is  a  choleric  and  apparently  obstinate  old 
gentleman,  who  is,  however,  at  bottom  entire- 
ly kind-hearted.  He  avows  his  excessive  irri- 
tability in  the  first  act:  "No,  no,  Mrs.  Malaprop. 
Jack  knows  that  the  least  demur  puts  me  in  a 
frenzy."  But  when  finally  the  lovers  in  the  play 
are  united,  he  shows  himself  most  jovial  and 
sympathetic. 

ABSOLUTE  VAL^E.  In  the  development 
of  mathematics  se/eral  artificial  number  systems 
have  been  formed,  which  are  used  in  connection 
with  the  primitive  system  of  natural  numbers, 
e.g.,   negative   numbers,   — 1,   — 2,   — 3,    ...., 

imaginary   numbers,    V  —  1.    V  — 2,    . .  . . ,   and 

complex  numbers,  3  -f  V  —  li  2  —  V  — 3.  The 
natural  number  which,  multiplied  by  ( — 1), 
equals  a  given  negative  number,  is  called  the  ab- 
solute value  of  the  negative  number;  thus,  the 
absolute  value  of  — 2,  expressed   | —  2  |,  is  2. 

Similarly,  the  coefficient  of  V  —  1  in  an  imag- 
inary number  is  called  the  absolute  value  of  the 
imaginary  number;  thus,  the  absolute  value  of 

yT^   (or  VT  xT^HL),  expressed  |  \r=l  |,  is 

"vTS.  The  modulus  of  a  cofaiplex  number  (q.v.) 
is  called  its  absolute  value;  thus,  the  absolute 

value  of  3  -f  V^=^,  expressed   |  3  -f  V^^^,   ifl 

4^3*+  (V5)",  a  usage  due  to  Weierstrass. 

ABSOLUTION.  The  remission  of  sin  and  its 
penalties  may  be  divided  into  sacramental  and 
canonical— one  relating  to  the  forum  internum^ 
and  constituting  the  most  important  part  of  the 


sacrament  of  penance ;  the  other  to  the  forum  ex- 
ternum and  devoted  especially  to  the  remission  of 
ecclesiastical  censure.  Their  early  history  is 
closely  connected,  as  in  the  first  ages  of  the 
Church  all  grievous  public  sins  incurred  the 
penalty  of  absolute  separation  from  the  assembly 
of  the  faithful,  and  reconciliation  could  be  ob- 
tained only  by  undergoing  the  penance  imposed 
by  the  Church.  The  bishops  were  the  chief  min- 
isters of  absolution;  but  the  whole  body  of  the 
faithful  were  consulted  as  to  the  term  of  the 
public  penance,  since  they,  as  well  as  God,  were 
injured  by  the  sin.  With  the  gradual  decrease 
of  severity  and  of  public  penances,  absolution  was 
j)ronounced  by  the  priest  immediately  after  con- 
fession, if  he  judged  the  repentance  sincere.  Formal 
excommunication,  however,  could  even  in  later 
days  be  remitted  only  by  public  absolution  by  the 
bishop  or  his  deputy,  and  certain  sins  are  still 
'reserved'  to  the  same  authority  for  judgment. 
The  power  of  judicial  absolution  \j\  the  name  of 
God  is  attributed  by  Roman  Catholics  to  all 
priests,  on  the  basis  of  the  commission  in  Jolm 
XX.  23 ;  the  Protestant  churches  generally  ascribe 
only  a  declarative  power  to  their  ministers, 
though  the  Church  of  England  retains  the  abso- 
lute form  in  the  Order  for  the  Visitation  of  the 
Sick.  The  form  of  absolution,  since  none  was 
given  by  Christ,  has  varied  considerably;  the 
Western  Church  down  to  the  Twelfth  Century, 
with  rare  exceptions,  and  the  Eastern  churches  to 
the  present  time  employing  a  deprecatory  fomi 
("May  Christ  absolve  thee,"  etc.),  for  which  the 
indicative  form,  Ego  dbsolvo  te,  was  definitively 
substituted  bv  the  Council  of  Trent.  The  differ- 
once  in  form,  however,  has  implied  no  change  in 
doctrine.  See  Confession i  Penance;  Disci- 
pline, Ecclesiastical. 

ABSOLUTION,  Day  of.  See  Good  Pridat 
(so  called  from  the  ancient  practice  of  empha- 
sizing forgiveness  upon  that  day). 


I'SOLUTISM  (Lat.  ahsolutus,  complete, 
unrestricted,  from  aft,  away  -f  solvere,  to  loosen, 
free ) .  That  system  of  government  in  which  the 
supreme  power  is  vested  in  a  ruler  unchecked 
by  any  constitution  or  laws.  It  characterized 
all  the  ancient  monarchies  (a  brief  period  in  the 
case  of  the  Roman  Empire  excepted),  and  has 
prevailed  in  all  Oriental  monarchies,  down  to 
Japan  of  a  few  years  ago.  The  barbarian  in- 
vasions replaced  the  absolute  monarchy  by 
feudalism  in  Western  Europe,  but  with  the 
growth  of  towns  and  the  rise  of  the  commercial 
classes  came  the  necessity  for  a  strong  central 
governinent  to  protect  tne  nation  against  the 
feudal  barons,  and  the  absolute  king  once  more 
arose,  master  of  a  regular  army,  uniting  in 
himself  the  different  functions  of  the  national 
life,  religious  as  well  as  political.  A  mild  form 
of  absolute  monarchy  is  familiar  to  the  student 
of  English  history  in  the  House  of  Tudor,  with 
its  monarchs  of  strong  will  and  arbitrary 
methods;  but  a  representative  absolute  monarch 
of  modern  times  is  better  seen  in  Ix)uis  XIV.  of 
France,  with  his  famous  assertion,  L'Stat  c*est 
moi  ("I  am  the  state") .  The  only  absolute  mon- 
archies existing  in  Europe  now  are  those  of 
Russia  and  Turkey. 

ABSORBENTS.       See      Lacteals;      Ltm- 

PHATICS. 

ABSOBP^IOK  (Lat.  ab,  away  -f  sorbere,  to 
swallow).  When  certain  fluids  are  brought 
together  the  molecules  of  one  mix  intimately 


ABSOBPnON. 

with    tboae   of   the   other   and   diffusian   takes 

Slace.  If  certain  solids  containing  fluids  are 
roQfffat  in  contact  with  other  liquids,  some  of 
the  Uquid  passes  into  the  solid  and  absorption 
takes  place.  Gases  may  also  be  absorbed  simi- 
larly. Diffusion  acting  through  an  animal  or 
vegetable  membrane  is  called  oamoaia.  Much 
of  what  is  termed  absorption  in  physiology  is 
really  osmosis.  Most  of  the  tissues  of  living 
bodies  have  the  power  of  absorbing  fluids — a 
property  that  often  continues  after  death  and 
until  decomposition.  Animal  substances  differ  in 
absorbing  power  according  to  differences  in  the 
liquid,  notably  if  they  differ  in  specific  gravity 
and  if  the  fluids  in  the  substances  brought  in  con- 
tact  are  miscible.  The  following  table  from  Chcv- 
reul  shows  the  amounts  of  liquid  absorbed  by 
substances  in  twenty-four  hours: 


WOl'^arUqf 


GarUlage   

Tendon    

Elastic  ligament   

Cartilaginous  ligament. . . 

Cornea 

Dried  fibrin 


Parts  of 
Water. 


Salins 
Solution. 


231 
178 
148 
319 
461 
301 


125 

114 

30 

370 
154 


OU, 


8.6 
7.2 
3.2 
9.1 


Activity  of  absorption,  or  osmosis,  varies  with 
tbe  freshness  of  the  membrane,  being  great  soon 
after  separation  from  the  principal  parts;  and 
varies  also  with  pressure,  motion,  and  tempera- 
ture. Absorption  of  oxygen  by  the  blood  in 
the  lungs  is  apparently  instantaneous,  the 
change  in  color  from  dark  red  to  bright  red  as 
soon  as  it  arrives  at  the  pulmonary  vessels, 
showing  the  action  of  the  gas  it  has  taken  from 
the  atmosphere.  This  rapidity  of  absorption  is 
due  to  the  fact  that  in  the  circulation  of  the 
lungs  the  blood  is  spread  out  in  the  fine  capil- 
laries over  a  very  large  area,  and  to  the  inces- 
sant motion  of  the  blood  in  the  capillaries. 
Claude  Bernard  found  that  if  a  solution  of 
iodide  of  potassium  were  injected  into  the  duct 
of  the  parotid  gland  on  one  side  of  a  living 
animal,  the  saliva  discharged  by  the  correspond- 
ing gland  on  the  other  side  almost  instantly 
afterward  contained  iodine.  In  a  measureless 
instant,  therefore,  the  iodine  was  taken  up  by 
the  glandular  membrane  on  one  side,  absorbed 
by  Uie  blood,  carried  to  the  heart,  absorbed 
from  the  blood  by  the  glandular  membrane  on 
the  other  side  and  furnished  to  the  saliva.  It 
is  by  this  process  of  absorption  that  the  elements 
of  nutrition  are  taken  from  the  intestines  and 
conveyed  to  the  tissues  they  are  to  nourish; 
the  bones  absorb  much  calcareous  matter  from 
the  blood,  cartilages  less,  and  muscles  less  still; 
the  brain  takes  more  water  than  does  muscle, 
and  muscle  more  than  bone.  The  active  prin- 
dples  of  drugs  and  poisons  are  dissolved  by  the 
juices  in  the  stomach,  and  by  osmosis  pass, 
unchanged  or  slightly  modified,  into  the  circu- 
Istion.  (See  Lacteals;  Ltmphatics.)  Opium 
dissolved  by  the  liquids  of  the  stomach  is 
abfiorbed  by  the  membranous  lining,  taken  away 
by  the  blood  and  distributed  well  through  the 
body;  at  the  brain  it  acts  on  the  brain  cells 
and  produces  sleep  or  narcotism  or  insensibility. 
The  quidmess  of  absorptive  action  is  shown  in 
using   hypodermic   injections;    a   few  moments 


45  ABSOBPTIOK. 

after  the  syringe  has  punctured  the  skin  of  the 
forearm  a  severe  pain  in  the  foot  is  sensibly 
relieved. 

ABBOiKBTlOYty  in  Plants.  The  process  bv 
which  substances  are  taken  into  the  body.  A 
few  plants  only,  being  devoid  of  any  external 
cover  to  the  protoplasm,  are  able  to  engulf  par- 
ticles of  food,  which  may  then  be  digested.  The 
most  prominent  of  these  are  the  Myxomycetes 
(q.v.),  or  slime  molds,  which  in  the  period  of 
their  vegetative  activity  consist  of  a  mass  of 
naked  protoplasm  (called  a  Plasmodium),  some- 
times as  large  as  one's  two  hands.  These  Plas- 
modia, like  huge  Amoebae  (q.v.),  creep  about 
and  envelop  particles  of  decaying  organic  matter, 
etc.,  on  which  they  feed.  The  zoospores,  or 
reproductive  bodies,  of  some  Algse  and  Fungi 
are  also  microscopic  bits  of  naked  protoplasm, 
but  they  probably  do  not  ingest  solid  food  during 
this  period.  Inasmuch  as  the  protoplasm  of 
most  plants  forms  on  it9  surface,  as  the  first 
step  of  development,  a  thin  jacket  of  cellulose 
or  some  similar  material,  the  taking  up  of  solid 
substances  is  thereby  absolutely  prevented. 
Whether  the  body  consist  of  one  cell  or  many, 
it  presents  to  the  surrounding  medium  a  contin- 
uous membrane  with  no  visible  openings. 
Through  these  cell-walls,  therefore,  neither  solid 
nor  gaseous  substances  can  pass  without  pre- 
viously undergoing  solution.  The  materials 
whose  absorption  is  to  be  explained  are  (1) 
dissolved  substances  or  solutes,  and  (2)  the 
solvent,  water. 

(1)  Solutes.  The  protoplasm  itself  and  its 
surrounding  membrane  (the  cell-wall)  contain 
a  large  amount  of  water  (50  to  98%).  This 
water  may  be  conceived  of  as  lying  between  the 
particles  of  which  the  substances  named  are 
composed,  much  as  it  stands  between  the  close- 
set  stalks  of  plants  in  a  marsh.  Since  water 
always  pervades  the  structures  of  plants,  sub- 
stances m  order  to  enter  the  plant  body  must 
be  soluble  in  water.  When  so  dissolved  they 
behave  essentially  as  gases;  their  molecules, 
being  then  free  to  move  apart,  tend  to  distribute 
themselves  equally  throughout  the  solvent.  But 
the  diffusion  of  solutes  is  greatly  retarded  by 
the  molecules  of  the  water,  so  that  it  is  mucn 
slower  than  the  similar  diffusion  of  gaseous 
bodies.  It  is  also  retarded  somewhat  by  the 
particles  of  cell-wall  when  these  also  are  encoun- 
tered in  the  water.  But  the  distances  between 
the  particles  of  the  cell-wall  are  relatively  so 
great  that  most  solutes  are  able  to  pass  freely 
between  them.  The  structure  of  the  protoplasm, 
however,  is  such  that  many  substances  cannot 
readily  pass  through  it.  Consequently,  some 
materials  which  can  enter  the  plant  body  may 
travel  only  through  the  cell-walls  and  may  never 
enter  the  living  protoplasm.  The  protoplasm 
permits  at  some  periods  substances  to  pass 
through  it  which  at  other  times  are  excluded; 
probably  due  to  ability  to  alter  its  structure 
on  occasion.  Such  substances  as  can  pass 
through  the  invisible  spaces  in  cell-wall  and 
protoplasm  are  therefore  free  to  travel  to  any 
part  of  the  plant  body.  If  any  such  substances 
be  removed  from  solution  through  use  or  storage, 
they  will  continue  to  be  supplied  from  the 
regions  of  greater  abundance,  and  consequently 
of  greater  pressure,  to  the  regions  of  lesser 
pressure,  i.e.,  where  they  are  being  used.  The 
fact  that  different  amounts  of  a  given  compound 
enter  plants  growing  in  the  same  soil  is  explio- 


ABSOBPnOK. 


46 


ABSTBACnOK. 


able  mainly  on  this  basis.  Thus,  wheat  and 
clover  may  grow  side  by  side;  the  ash  of  the 
wheat  will  contain  67.5%  of  silica,  while  that 
of  the  clover  contains  only  2.5%.  This  selective 
absorption  must,  however,  be  in  part  referred 
to  the  power  possessed  by  protoplasm  of  regulat- 
ing the  admission  of  solutes. 

(2)  Water.  Entrance  of  water  into  the  plant 
to  supply  losses  by  evaporation  or  consumption 
depends  upon  similar  factors.  In  a  living 
mature  cell,  the  protoplasm  usually  lies  in  a 
thin  layer  dose  to  the  cell-wall  and  envelops  a 
water-filled  space,  the  vacuole.  (See  Growth.) 
Many  substances  are  constructed  by  plants  which 
cannot  ordinarily  pass  through  the  protoplasm, 
and  remain  dissolved  in  the  water  of  the  vacuole 
or  cell-sap.  These  substances  exert  upon  the 
surrounding  layer  of  protoplasm  a  definite  pres- 
sure. If  they  were  in  gaseous  form  this  would 
be  their  gas  pressure.  As  they  are  dissolved, 
it  is  called  their  osmotic  pressure.  The  osmotic 
pressure  of  solutes  in  the  water  outside 
the  plant  is  usually  less  than  that  of  eolutes 
in  the  cell-sap.  As  the  solvent  moves  toward  the 
region  of  higher  osmotic  pressure,  i.e.,  from  a 
place  where  there  is  a  greater  number  of  water 
molecules  in  unit-space,  to  a  place  where  there 
are  fewer,  water  usually  enters  the  plant.  But 
if  at  any  time  the  conditions  are  reversed,  the 
solutes  outside  the  plant  having  higher  osmotic 
pressure  than  those  inside,  water  will  leave  the 
plant.  This  happens  in  nature  sometimes,  and 
it  is  this  condition  that  makes  possible  the 
destruction  of  weeds  by  common  salt.  Gases 
are  absorbed  in  the  same  manner  as  solids;  the 
apparent  difference  in  their  absorption  by  land 
plants  is  due  to  the  fact  that  they  mostly  become 
dissolved  (and  so  fitted  for  absorption)  only 
when  they  come  into  contact  with  the  water 
saturating  the  cell-wall.  This  condition  among 
the  larger  land  plants  exists  only  in  the  walls 
of  cells  bordering  intercellular  spaces.  (See 
Aeration.)  While  land  plants  absorb  gases 
chiefly  from  the  atmosphere,  doubtless  some  ab- 
sorb them  by  the  roots,  notably  the  oxygen  re- 
quired for  their  own  respiration. 

ABSOBPTION,  Electrical.  A  phenomenon 
observed  in  electrical  condensers  (q.v.),  in  which 
the  dielectric  or  insulating  material  between  the 
conductors  is  non-homogeneous,  e.g.,  a  piece  of 
glass.  It  is  noted  that  if  such  a  condenser  is 
charged,  then  discharged  and  allowed  to  stand 
for  a  short  time,  there  will  appear  another  charge. 
If  this  is  discharged,  another  charge  will  soon 
appear.  These  secondary  charges  are  said  to  be 
due  to  electrical  absorption.     See  Electricity. 

ABSOBPTION  OF  Gases.  The  phenom- 
enon of  the  taking  up  or  absorbing  of  gases  by 
liquids  and  solids.  Tlie  number  of  cubic  centi- 
meters of  a  gas  which  can  be  absorbed  by  one 
cubic  centimeter  of  a  given  liquid  at  15**  C. 
is  called  the  ''absorption  coefficient"  of  the  liquid 
for  the  gas.  The  absorption  coefficient  of  water 
for  ammonia  is  756;  for  carbon  dioxide,  1.0; 
for  chlorine,  2.4.  The  mass  of  the  gas  absorbed 
varies  directly  as  the  pressure:  so,  if  a  gas  is 
forced  into  a  liquid  under  high  pressure,  and  if 
the  pressure  is  afterward  released,  the  gas  will 
be  evolved.  This  is  what  happens  in  the  case 
of  beer  and  aerated  waters.  The  absorption  of 
gases  by  solids  is  called  occlusion.  The  most 
conspicuous  illustration  of  this  is  the  power  of 
palladium  to  occlude  nine  hundred  times  its  own 
volume  of  hydrogen. 


ABSOBPTION  OF  Waves.  Waves  of  any 
kind  in  any  medium  carry  energy  with  them; 
and,  if  the  energy  decreases,  the  medium  is  said 
to  absorb  it  or  to  exhibit  "absorption."  Thus, 
if  white  light  falls  upon  red  glass,  i.e.,  if  ether- 
waves  which  affect  the  normal  human  eye  with 
the  sensation  ''white"  are  incident  upon  glass 
which  appears  red  to  the  same  eye,  all  the  waves 
except  those  which  produce  the  sensation  red 
are  absorbed  by  ths  glass,  while  the  others  are 
transmitted.  Bodies  differ  greatly  in  the  qual- 
ity and  quantity  of  their  absorptive  power;  but 
it  is  a  general  law  that  the  absorptive  power  of 
a  body  equals  its  emissive  power  under  the  same 
conditions.  (See  Radiation.)  Absorption  is 
due  to  the  presence  in  the  pure  medium  carrying 
the  waves  of  some  portions  of  matter  whose  own 
natural  period  of  vibration  is  the  same  as  that 
of  the  period  of  the  waves;  and,  therefore,  these 
portions  of  matter  are  set  in  vibration  by  ''reso- 
nance" (q.v.).  Thus,  if  a  person  sings  a  pure 
note  near  a  piano  it  may  be  observed  that  the 
particular  string  of  the  piano  which  of  itself 
gives  the  same  note  is  set  in  vibration  by  the 
air-waves  sent  out  by  the  singer. 

If  air-waves  of  any  length  fall  upon  a  soft 
body,  such  as  a  cushion  or  a  curtain,  there  is 
absorption,  as  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  the  re- 
flected waves  are  much  less  intense  than  the 
incident  waves.  The  energy  thus  absorbed  is 
not  spent  in  emitting  other  waves,  but  is  dis- 
sipated  throughout  the  body  producing  heat 
effects.  Similarly,  if  ether-waves  fall  upon  an 
absorbing  body,  the  energy  absorbed  is  dissi- 
pated in  general  throughout  the  smallest  par- 
ticles of  the  body  producing  heat  effects.  See, 
however.  Fluorescence. 

ABSTINENCE.    See  Fast. 

ABSTINENCE  S0CI1STIE8.  Associations 
to  promote  total  abstinence  from  alcoholic 
liquors  as  beverages.     See  Temperance. 

ABSTBAC^ION  (Lat.  a6«,  away  -f  irahere, 
to  draw).  In  logic,  the  process  by  which  the 
mind  separates  out  marks  or  characteristics 
which  are  similar  in  various  objects,  and  disre- 
gards the  marks  or  characteristics  by  which  the 
objects  differ.  It  also  occurs  where  characteris- 
tics of  particular  objects,  or  classes  of  objects, 
are  replaced  by  a  more  general  characteristic. 
An  instance  of  the  first  kind  is  the  formation  of 
the  class  '*biped"  by  the  inclusion  of  all  two- 
legged  animals.  An  instance  of  the  second  type 
is  the  substitution  of  the  general  mark  "repro- 
duction" for  the  more  special  marks,  "vivipa- 
rous," "oviparous,"  "fissiparous,"  etc.  The  re- 
sult of  this  process  is  also  called  an  abstraction, 
or,  if  it  appears  as  a  word,  a  concept.  The  psy- 
chology of  abstraction  consists  in  describing  the 
way  in  which  the  attention,  in  passing  from  one 
object  to  another,  fastens  upon  an  element  com- 
mon to  all  and  dissociates  it  from  its  context. 
Abstraction  is  carried  out  in  a  state  of  active 
attention  (see  Attention),  as  when  the  phi- 
lologist searches  out  common  or  allied  roots  in 
different  languages,  or  when  the  geologist  iden- 
tifies strata  in  different  localities  and  forms  the 
abstraction  of  a  single  epoch  in  which  they  were 
laid.  The  process  is,  however,  facilitated  by 
the  sheer  decay  of  mental  complexes;  a  decay 
which  obliterates  small  differences  and  reduces 
mere  similarity  to  indistinguishableness.  It 
thus  comes  about  that  we  form  sketchy,  "ab- 
stract" images — as  of  "pen,"  "house,"  or*"book" 


ABSTSACTIOir.  47 

— ^from  similar  things,  and  that  one  of  these 
schematic  images  is  sufficient  to  call  up  a  large 
number  of  more  concrete  (unobliterated)  ideas 
wheneyer  an  appropriate  incentive  in  tnyen. 
(See  Association  of  Ideas.)  Consult:  R.  H. 
Lotae,  Logic  (Oxford,  1888) ;  W.  James,  Princi- 
pies  of  Psychology  (New  York,  1890). 

AB^STBACT  OF  TI^TLB.  A  brief  and  or- 
derly statement  in  writing  of  the  successive  con- 
reyances  and  other  events  through  which  a  per- 
son claiming  to  own  a  parcel  of  land  derives  his 
title.  A  purchaser  or  mortgagee  of  real  prop- 
erty is  entitled — by  law  in  England,  by  custom 
in  the  United  Stat^ — ^to  receive  such  an  abstract 
from  the  vendor  or  mortgagor  in  advance  of  the 
consummation  of  the  transaction,  and  it  there- 
upon becomes  the  basis  of  the  examination  of 
title  (q.v.),  which  it  is  the  duty  of  the  solicitor 
or  attorney  of  the  purchaser  to  make.  A  perfect 
abstract  should  furnish  a  complete  history  of  the 
title  sought  to  be  transferred,  showing  not  only 
the  origin  and  nature  of  the  vendor's  interest, 
but  also  all  incumbrances  and  other  interests — 
such  as  mortgages,  easements,  recorded  judg- 
ments, trusts,  etc. — ^which  affect  his  title.  In 
England,  where  the  practice  of  recording  deeds 
does  not  generally  obtain,  the  abstract  is  based 
upon  the  title  deeds  (q.v.),  which  are  carefully 
preserved  and  transmitted  with  each  transfer  of 
the  estate;  while  in  the  United  States  the  pub- 
lic records  of  conveyances  are  the  principal,  but 
not  the  exclusive,  source  of  the  information  upon 
which  the  maker  of  the  abstract  proceeds.  (See 
Rboobding  of  Deeds.)  Consult:  Warvelle,  A 
Practical  Treatise  on  Abstracts  and  Examina- 
tions of  Titles  to  Real  Property  (Chicago,  1892) ; 
and  also  War\*elle,  A  Treatise  on  the  American 
Law  of  Veruior  and  Purchaser  of  Real  Property 
(Chicago,  1902) ;  Comyns,  On  Abstracts  of  Title 
<  London,  1895). 

ABSUB^ITM,  Reductio  ad  (Lat.  a  reduc- 
in|^  to  an  absurdity).  The  method  of  proving  a 
truth  by  showing  that  to  suppose  the  proposition 
untrue  would  lead  to  a  contradiction  or  absur- 
ditv. 


ABU-HASSAN. 


»> 


(Gk.  'AfpvproCy  Apsyrtos), 
In  the  legend  of  the  Argonautic  expedition  (see 
Abgoxauts),  the  younger  brother  of  Medea. 
She  carried  him  off  with  her  when  she  fled 
with  Jason  from  Colchis,  and,  according  to  the 
common  version  of  the  story,  deterred  her  pur- 
suing parent,  /Eetes,  by  cutting  the  boy  in  pieces 
and  scattering  his  body  on  the  sea  for'his  father 
to  gather  up. 

ABT,  Spt,  Fbanz  (1819-85).  A  German  song 
writer  and  musical  conductor.  He  was  bom  at 
Eilenburg  and  sent  to  the  Thomasschule  at 
Leipzig  to  be^  educated.  Here  he  met  Men- 
delssohn, who  is  said  to  have  persuaded  him  to 
follow  a  musical  career.  He  was  appointed 
kapellmeister  at  the  court  theatre  of  Bernburg 
in  1841,  but  soon  relinquished  this  position  for 
a  similar  one  at  Zttrich,  where  he  remained  for 
eleven  years,  obtaining  great  popularity  as  a 
teacher,  composer,  and  leader  of  singing 'socie- 
ties. He  was  called  to  Brunswick  in  1852  as 
second  musical  director  at  the  court  theatre. 
wwM  appointed  court  kapellmeister  in  1855.  and 
pensioned  in  1881.  He  came  to  the  United 
States  in  1872  at  the  invitation  of  several 
choral  societies,  and  everywhere  met  with  a  cor- 
dial reception.  Abt  was  a  prolific  composer,  and 
jLt  the  time  of  his  death  had  published  nearly  600 


books  (Hefte),  some  of  them  containing  from 
twenty  to  thirty  numbers.  He  belongs  to  that 
group  of  composers  which  includes  Truhn, 
Kttcken,  and  Gumbert.  His  vocal  compositions 
are  remarkable  for  their  simplicity  and  clearness 
of  melodic  construction.  Among  these  may  be 
mentioned:  Wenn  die  SchuxUben  heimuiarts 
eich'n  ("When  the  Swallows  Homeward  Fly")  ; 
Oute  Nacht,  du  mein  herziges  Kind  ("Good 
Night,  My  Child") ;  Schlaf*  wohl,  du  sUsser  Engel 
("Sleep  Well,  Sweet  Angel")  ;  Leuchtendes  Aug< 
("Marie,  or,  When  I  Am  Near  Thee"). 

ABXJy  ll'b^SS.  One  of  the  AravuUi  mountains 
(q.v.),  India,  over  5000  feet  high.  It  is  held 
in  high  esteem  bv  the  Jainas  and  is  celebrated 
for  its  two  magnificent  temples  of  white  marble, 
supposed  to  have*  been  built  in  the  twelfth  and 
thirteenth  centuries,  and  considered  the  finest 
specimens  of  Indian  architecture. 

ABU,  a'bes.  The  Arabic  word  for  "father," 
which  in  modem  Arabic  often  becomes  abbrevi- 
ated to  Bu,  It  is  prefixed  to  many  Arabic  proper 
names,  as  the  equivalent  syllable  A  6  is  prefixed 
to  Hebrew  names.  Example:  Abu-bekr,  or  more 
properly,  Abu-bakr,  the  'fatber  of  Bakr.'  But  Abu, 
like  the  Hebrew  A 6,  often  is  not  to  be  interpreted 
literally,  but  signifies  possessor,  or  is  used  to  in- 
dicate even  more  generally  the  notion  of  fullness, 
largeness,  and  the  like ;  as  in  Abulfeda,  "possessor 
of  devotion,"  "the  devoted  one;"  Abner,  "the  bril 
liant  one."  literally  "father  or  possessor  of  light. 

ABXT-BEKB,  ft'b^-bek^'r  (his  original  name 
was  'abd  al-Ka<bah  ibn  Abi  KuhAfah)  (570-634). 
The  first  caliph,  father-in-law  of  Mohammed. 
He  was  a  man  of  great  influence  in  the  Koreish 
tribe.  In  632,  when  Mohammed  died,  he  was 
made  caliph,  or  successor  of  the  Prophet.  After 
defeating  his  enemies  in  Arabia,  and  warring  suc- 
cessfully against  Persia  and  the  Byzantine  Em- 
peror Heraclius,  Abu-bekr  died  (634  a.d.)  and 
was  buried  at  Medina,  near  the  remains  of  Mo- 
hammed and  the  Prophet's  wife  Ayeshah  (q.v.). 

ABXJ-BEXB  MOHAMMED  IBN  TO- 
PHAIL,  a'b<55.b€k"r  m6-hflm'm6d  'b'n  to'fA-Sl 
(1100-85).  A  famous  Arabic  physician,  mathe- 
matician, poet,  and  philosopher.  He  was  bom 
in  Andalusia  and  died  in  Morocco.  His  chief 
extant  philosophical  work  is  entitleci  Eai  ibn 
Yakzdn,  "the  Living,  the  Son  of  the  Awake."  It 
depicts  the  natural  progressive  development  of 
the  human  faculties  in  a  Robinson  Crusoe  bom  on 
an  island  till  nature  and  God  are  known.  To 
secure  this  communion,  positive  religion  is  valu- 
able for  the  vulgar,  but  religious  doctrines  are 
only  exoteric  presentations  of  the  mystic  truth. 
The  name  of  the  hero  and  the  subject  are  bor- 
rowed from  Ibn  Sina  (Avicenna),  with  this  dif- 
ference, that  while  Ibn  Sina's  hero  possesses  a 
supernatural  intellect,  that  of  Ibn  Tophail  per- 
sonifies a  man  of  ordinary  faculties.  Later 
translations:  Francisco  Pons  Bsigues  (Saragos- 
sa,  1900),  and  \X^n  Gautier  (Algiers,  1900). 

ABU-BEKB   MOHAMMED   AL-RAZI,    %1 

ra'z^.    See  Rhazes. 

ABXT-HASSAN,  li'b^SiJ-hfis'&n,  sumamed  The 
Wag.  The  hero  of  The  Sleeper  Aioakened,  one 
of  the  stories  of  the  Arabian  Nights.  He  wn« 
a  citizen  of  Bagdad  who  entertained  the  Caliph 
unawares  and  as  a  result  met  with  several  inter- 
esting experiences,  finally  becoming  the  trusted 
friend  and  favorite  of  the  Caliph. 


ABXJ-JAAFAB  IBN  MOHAKMED.         48  ABUIi  SU'TID. 

ABU  JAAFAB  IBIT  MOHAMKE]),  Ik^bSS        ABUXFARAJ,  ^n^Uk-rliy,     See  Bab  He- 


jS'fllr     'b'n     xnd-h&m'niM,     called     El     Sadik, 
^The  Righteous"    (699-765).    A  caliph,  one  of 


NtJKUS. 

ABUIiFAZL,    ftlMRn-fft'El,    MX7BABAK-r 

the  twelve  imams  of  the  Arabians.    He  wrote  a  AIiLAMI  (sixteenth  century).    ViEier  and  his- 

work  on  alchemy,  augury,  and  omens;  and  one  toriographer  of  Akbar   (q.v.),  the  great  Mongol 

of  his  pupils,  Abu  Musa  Jabir  ibn  Haiyan  of  emperor.  His  chief  work  is  in  two  parts :  the  first 

Tarsus,  compiled  a  work  of  two  thousand  pages,  part    {Akhar  Ndmah,  or  Book  of  Akbar)    is  a 

m  which  he  inserted  five  hundred  of  the  prob-  eompletie  history  of  Akbar's  reign,  and  the  second 

lems  of  his  master.    Abu  Jaafar  is  the  principal  half  {AyU^ Akhar,  or  Institute  of  Akbar)  gives 

Arabian  representative  of  the  pretended  art  of  an  account  of  the  religious  and  political  oonsti- 

prophesying  from  cabalistic  tablets,  and  all  the  tution  and  administration  of  the  empire.     The 

superstitious  disciplines  of  the  Arabs  are  usually  style  is  excellent,  and  the  second  part  is  of  unique 

ascribed  to  him,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  and  enduring  interest.    The  Persian  text  of  the 

these  pseudo-sciences  undoubtedly  originated  in  Akhar  :NAmah  is  edited  in  the  Bihliothaoa  Indica 

countries  farther  to  the  east.  (1873-87),  and  a  translati<m  is  now  being  issued 

ABITKIB,  li'boo-ker'.    An  insignificant  village  by  Beveridge  in  the  same  collection.    The  Zytn-i- 

on  the  coast  of  Egypt,  about  13  miles  norUieast  Akhar,  edited  in  the  Bihliotheca  Indica  (1867-77), 

of  Alexandria,  probably  the  ancient  Bukiris.  The  is  translated  by  Blochmann  and  Jarett  (1873-94) 

important  city  of  Canopus  was  situated  in  the  in  the  same  series.    Abulfiul  died  by  the  hand  of 

near  vicinity.     The  castle  of  Abukir  stands  on  an  assassin  while  returning  from  a  mission  to 

the  west  side  of  the  bay  of  the  same  name,  which  the  Deccan  in  1602. 

is  west  of  the  Rosetta^branch  of  the  Nile.  This  ABUXFEDA,  ft^bTSoI-fft-dA',  Arabic  AbC  al- 
bay  is  celebrated  on  account  of  Nelson's  victory  Yjda'  IsicITl  ibn  'AlT  'Imad  al-DIn  ( 1273- 
here  gained  over  the  French  fleet,  August  1-2,  1331).  A  Moslem  prince  and  historian.  He  was 
1 798,  the  engagement  being  frequently  called  the  bom  at  Damascus.  During  his  youth  he  distin- 
Battle  of  the  Nile.  The  French  fleet  was  sta-  guished  himself  in  several  campaigns  against  the 
tioned  in  a  curved  line  near  a  small  island  guard-  Cnisaders.  He  inherited  the  principality  of 
ed  by  a  battery;  but  Nelson,  with  his  usual  in-  Hamah,  Syria,  in  1298,  but  in  consequence  of  a 
trepidity,  forced  a  passage  with  half  of  his  fleet  dispute  over  the  succession  the  dignity  oas  abol- 
of  fifteen  vessels  between  the  island  and  the  js^ed  by  the  Sultan.  It  was  restored  in  1310  by 
French  line  of  battle,  while  the  other  half  at-  S\i}isin  Malik  al-Nasir  and  bestowed  upon  Abul- 
tacked  the  enemy  m  front.  The  French  ad-  feda  for  distinguished  mil itory  services.  He  was 
miral  De  Bruyes  was  killed  by  a  cannon-Ull,  given  practically  sovereign  powers.  From  1310  to 
and  his  flag-ship,  VOrteni  was  destroyed  The  ^^^  ^j^^  ^^  ^^  '^^^^  he  ruled  over  the  principal- 
French  fleet  was  ^mpletely  defeated,  and  only  -^^  ^-^j^^  ^gypt  and  Arabia,  and  patronised 
two  vessels  escaped.  Napoleon  defeated  the  li^rature  and  ^ience.  Among  his  impofUnt  writ- 
Arabs  here  on  July  25th,  1799,  and  Sir  Ralph  ^  ^^^^  ^^  Abridgment  of  the  History  of  the 
Abercromby  a.v  )  repulsed  the  French  near  this  ^^^  ^^^  ^  ^^  ^^  ^^  ^^^^^  ^^^^  the  crea- 
point  m  1 801  (the  engagement  being  known  as  ^^^  ^  1329  ^he  work  is  partly  a  compilation  and 
the  battle  of  Alexandria).  p^^^j^  ^^^iginal.     It  is   important  m  historical 

ABU  KLEA,  IS/hm  klfi'A.  A  place  in  the  material  for  the  era  of  the  Crusades.  There  are 
Sudan  situated  on  the  route  between  Korti  and  several  translations  from  the  original  Arabic. 
Metemme,  both  of  which  are  on  the  great  bend  x  part  is  contained  in  the  first  volume  of  Mura- 
of  the  Nile  below  Khartum.  It  was  the  scene  tori,  Scriptores  Rerum  Italioarum.  The  part 
of  a  battle  fought  on  January  17,  1885,  in  preceding  the  Mohammedan  era  was  rendered  into 
which  the  Mahdi's  forces  were  defeated  by  the  Latin  by  Fleischer  as  AbulfedoB  Historia  ante- 
English  troops  under  8ir  Herbert  Stewart.  See  if^iamitica  (Leipzig,  1831) ;  the  part  on  the  life 
^^HDi.  of  Mohammed  into  English  by  W.  Murray  (Lon- 

ABUIi  ALA  Ali-MAABBI, a'bg^lanA  Al-mA-  don)  ;  and  the  later  part  by  Reiske  and  Adler 
ar'r*  (937-1027).  An  Arabian  poet  and  philos-  {Annalea  Moslemiei,  6  vols.,  Copenhagen,  1789- 
opher.  He  was  bom  in  Syria,  and  at  an  early  94),  The  Geography  of  Abulfeda  is  chiefly  valu- 
age  lost  his  eyesight.  In  his  poems— mostly  of  able  for  the  history  and  description  of  the  Mo- 
a  philosophical  nature — ^he  sete  up  purity  and  un-  hamraedan  world.  A  complete  edition  was  pub- 
selfishness  as  the  highest  ideals  that  man  could  ijshed  by  Reinaud  and  de  Slane  in  Paris  (1840)  ; 
follow.  A  collection  of  his  poems  was  made  and  a  French  translation  by  K«inaud  appeared  in 
at  Cairo   (1306).     Consult  Kremer,   Veber  difi  \^A», 

philosophischen  Gedichte  des  AbH  l-Ald  alMa'-  ABXTL-HASaAlT,  S'bSSl-hAs'sAn.    See  Judah, 

arrC  (Vienna.  1888).  Ben  Samuel. 

ABTJIiCASIM,      RTK^m-kft's^m.        Commonly  ABUIiIA,  A-b5?5li-A.     See  Psychiatby. 

termed  by  European  historians  Abul-Kasis      A  ^yj^    KASIM    MANSTJB,    a'bS?^    ka's^m 

famous  Arabic  physician      He  was  born  at  El-  ^^^^.^^^^     ^^  Firdausi. 

Zahra,   near   Cordova.     The  exact  date  of  his  .•^-t*-^  .,-„ 

birth  is  unknown.     He  died  in  his  birthplace  ABTTLONE,  ft-b55a6-nA,  A  wild  tribe  in  2am 

1106.     His   great  work,   AL-Tannf,   an   encyclu-  bales  province,  Luzon.     See  Philippines. 

psDdia  of  medicine,  is  of  much  interest,  the  trea-         ABITL  STJ'XJD,  ft^bool  sy-oSd'  (1828 ).     An 

tise  on   surgery  contained  in  it  being  the  best  Arabian  poet.  He  was  born  in  a  village  of  fx)wer 

that  has  come  to  us  from  antiquity,  and  still  of  Egypt  of  poor  parents,  and  was  one  of  a  number 

importance  in  tracing  the  progress  of  surgery.  A  of   pupils   annually  selected   from   the  primary 

partial   Latin   translation   of   Abulcasim's   work  schools  to  take  the  course  in  languages  at  the 

was  published  in  Augsburg,  1519;  the  section  on  institute    founded    at    Cairo    by   Mehemet    Ali. 

surgery   was   published    in   the   original    Arabic  He  at  first  imitated  the  elegiac  ;ioets  of  Arabia; 

with  a  Latin  translation  by  Channing   (Oxford,  afterward  his  verses,  many  of  which  became  verv 

1778,  two  volumes).  popular,  were  distinguished  by  a  wealth  of  ideas 


ABUIi  SVni}.  j 

Mid  1^  Tolnptuoiu  myatical  teudenciea.  The 
a«MS«Hni  of  Said  Paatu  iiupiivd  Abul  Su'ud  to 
«  aplendid  karida  (ode),  and  the  fall  of  SebiR- 
topol  »■■  celebrated  by  him  in  a  dithyramb 
wliich  voiced  an  appeal  tor  universal  brother- 
hood, an  idea  till  th«n  little  known  in  the  Orient. 
ABITL  WZFA,   a'btRyl   wS'fi.      See   Mohau- 

HB)   BRT    MonAUtlKD   BEN   YaHATA. 

ABmtXOACKA,  AbCtrml-sa'kA  (native 
natoe).  A  large  catfiah  of  the  Nile  {diarote* 
lalicepa) . 

ABtTHDA,  6-WtSa'di.  A  Bantu  people  of  An- 
gola, living  partly  on  the  low-lyinK  coaHtlands  and 
partly  on  the  terraoed  eacarpmenta,  nnd  hence  di- 
vided into  "hifthlanders"  and  "lowlandpra."  They 
have  lon^  been  in  contact  with  Europeans,  and 
there  ia  a  considerable  admixture  of  white  blood, 
largely  account ing  for  their  enterpriae,  which 
travpiern  praise  highly.  Most  of  them  speak  both 
Portugueae  and  Vmbunda,  a  trade  language  which 
ia  current  over  vast  areas.  It  is  said  that,  with  a 
knowlcdfie  of  T.'mbunda  and  Kl-Sivahili,  bIm>  a 
Bantu  dialect,  a  traveler  can  make  his  way  across 
the  continent  from  Benguela  to  Zanzibar. 

ABU  HtJWAB,  tt'bitci  nBCwia,  al-5a8an 
IBK  H2mi  AI.-HAKAMI  (762r-810T).  One  ot  the 
ni<Mt  celebrated  Arabic  lyric  poets;  bom  in  al- 
Ahwaz;  lived  a  riotoua  life  in  Baara.  Kufah,  and 
Bagdad,  though  under  the  special  favor  of  al- 
Uarun  and  al-Amin.  His  collected  poems  contain 
4900  verses.  Those  which  (^lebrate  wine  are  beat 
known;  but  he  also  wrote  love  poems,  satires  (one 
of  which  was  the  cause  of  his  death),  poema  on 
the  ctaane  and  on  aHceticism.  He  has  been  called 
the  Heine  of  Arabic  literature.  His  Diioan  has 
bren  edited  and  partly  translated  by  von  Kremer 
(Vienna,  1855)  and  Ahlwardt  (Greifswald, 
Ift61).  Compare  Brockelmann,  Ge»chichte  der 
amhinrhai  Litteratur  (1898),  i.  p.  75.  ' 

JlBTT  said  TTTTAW,  VtHSB  Bft-ed'  Kin.  See 
Mo50OL  Dtnasths. 

ASUBB'  OP  PBOCESa  The  wrongful  em- 
ploTueiit  of  a  regular  judicial  proceeding. 
Courts  of  juatice.  quite  as  much  for  their  own 

trDtccUon  aa  for  that  of  the  party  injured  there- 
y,  refuse  to  lend  themselves  to  the  abuse  of  their 
procedure,  and  may,  accordingly,  stay  or  dismiss 
actions  and  strike  out  defenses  which  are  mani- 
featly  frivolous  or  vexatious.  The  question 
whether  an  allegation  or  a  denial  comes  under 
this  deaniption  is  addressed  to  the  discretion  of 
the  court.  The  jurisdiction  to  prevent  or  redress 
•och  abuse  may  be  exercised  nn  the  motion  of 
the  party  ajjirieved  or  at  the  instance  of  the 
court  itaelf.  In  order  to  Buatain  an  action  for 
malicious  abuse  of  civil  proces.*,  it  is  necessary 
to  allege  and  prove  both  a  want  of  probable  cause 
and  the  existence  of  a  malicious  motive.  Con- 
sult ;  Newell,  Lav  of  Malioioua  Prosecution, 
Falft  Imjirimnmrnt,  and  Abntt  of  Legal  Procesa 
(Chicago.  14II2).  See  Malicious  Probecl'tion. 
ABUBHEHS,  i'bSil-sber',  or  BUSHI&E, 
bi!5-i>her'  (Pers.  Bendersliekr) .  A  Persian  sea- 
port town  on  the  east  coast  of  the  Persian  Gulf, 
about  130  miles  southwest  of  Shiraz,  with  which 
it  ia  connected  by  a  caravan  route.  It  is  situ- 
ated at  the  extremity  of  a  peninsula  and  has  an 
extremely  hot  climate.  Owing  to  its  advan- 
tageous position  as  a  terminal  of  one  of  the  moat 
important  caravan  routes  of  Persia,  .Abushehr 
haa  a  rery  considerable  trade,  in  spite  of  the 
lact  that  its  harbor  is  neither  safe  nor  deep 


i  ABU 

enough  for  heavy  vessels,  which  are  compelled 
to  anchor  outside.  The  trade  (over  97,000,000 
anntially)  is  chiefly  with  Great  Britain  and  her 
colonies.  The  exports  consist  of  opium,  raw  cotton 
and  silk,  mother  of  pearl,  carpets,  tobacco,  and 
hides,  while  the  Imports  are  made  up  chjefly  of 
cotton  goods,  tea,  metals,  and  sugar.  Abushehr 
is  the  seat  of  several  European  consuls,  as  well 
aa  of  a  Peraian  governor.  The  population  U 
about  16,000. 

ABU-SEHBEL,  B'bSS-Bfn/bel  (IsBAUBtrL  or 
IFSAMBUL).  A  place  on  the  left  bank  of  the 
Nile  in  Nubia,  lat.  22°  22'  N..  the  site  of  two 
very  remarkable  rock-cut  temples.  Both  were 
constructed  by  Rameses  II.,  who  dedicated  the 
larger  to  the  god*  Ammon  of  Thebes,  Harmachis 
of  Heliopolis.  and  Ptah  of  Memphis;  the 
smaller  to  the  goddess  Hathor.  The  larger 
temple  has  a  facade  IIQ  feet  broad  and  mors  than 
100  feet  high,  adorned  with  four  sitting  colossi, 
each  more  than  65  feet  in  height,  representing 
the  King.  Upon  these  are  carved  inscriptions 
commemorating  the  viait  of  Phoenician  and 
Qreek  mercenaries  in  the  service  of  King  Psam- 
metichus  II.  (S94-68&  B.C.).    The  interior  of  this 


temple,  which  is  180  feet  in  depth,  contains  two 
large  halls  and  twelve  smaller  chambers  and 
corridors,  all  decorated  with  sculptures  and 
paintings.  The  great  outer  hall,  68  by  54  feet, 
is  supported  by  two  rows  of  square  pillara,  four 
in  each  row,  30  feet  high ;  and  to  each  of  tbesa 
pillarn  is  attached  a,  standing  figure  of  the  King, 
reaching  to  the  roof  The  walls  of  this  hall  are 
decorated  with  representations,  in  color,  of  vic- 
tories over  the  Hittitea  and  other  enemies  of 
Egypt,  In  front  of  the  smaller  temple  are  six 
statues,  each  33  feet  high,  representing  King 
Rameses  and  his  Queen,  These  temples  were 
discovered  by  Burckhardt.  In  1892,  CapUin 
Johnston,  R.E.,  repaired  the  front  of  the  larger 
temple,  and  built  two  walla  to  protect  the  en- 
trance against  the  drifting  sand. 

ABU  TEHKAK,  SOtiS  tem-mHrn',  HAnts 
(80TI-846?),  An  Arabic  poet,  the  exact  dates 
of  whose  birth  and  death  are  uncertain.  He  was 
bom  in  Ryrta,  and  his  father  is  said  by  some 
authorities  to  have  been  a  Christian,  But  few 
facts  of  hi^  life  are  known.  At  an  early  oge 
he  came  to  Egypt,  where  he  flrat  became  known 
as  a  poet.  He  led  the  life  of  a  wanderer,  and 
pniicd  from  Damascus  to  Mosul,  thence  to  Bag- 
dad, and  Anally  settled  for  some  time  in  Hama- 
dan,  where  a  large  library  was  placed  at  his  dia- 


ABU  TEMMAM. 


50 


2>osal,  from  which  he  compiled  four  collections  of 
Arabic  poems.  The  most  famous  of  these  is 
known  as  the  Hamasa — i.e.,  "heroic"  anthology. 
Though  Abu  Temmam  achieved  high  renown  as  a 
poet,  his  reputation  rests  chiefly  upon  this  an- 
thology. The  Arabic  text  of  the  Hamaaa  was 
published  by  G.  W.  Freytag  in  two  volumes 
(Bonn,  1828-47),  and  an  edition  has  also  been 
published  in  Bulak  (1869)  and  Calcutta  (1856). 
The  German  poet  Friedrich  Rttckert  published  a 
German  translation  of  the  Hamaaa  (Stuttgart, 
1846). 

ABXJ^ILOK  (Ar.  auhUtiliin),  or  Flower- 
INO  Maple.  A  genus  of  mostly  shrubby  tropical 
or  semi-tropical  plants  of  the  natural  order  Mal- 
vacete,  including  about  seventy  species.  A  num- 
ber of  species  are  groA^n  like  Geraniums  or 
Fuchsias  in  pots  in  greenhouses  and  in  summer 
planted  out  in  borders.  The  leaves  are  long- 
stalked,  often  maple-like  or  vine-like,  and  gen- 
erally edged  or  mottled  with  white;  the  flowers 
are  pendant,  one,  two  or  more  inches  long,  vary- 
ing in  color  from  red  to  yellow  and  white  and 
intermediate  shades.  The  more  commonly  cul- 
tivated species  are:  Abutilon  striatum,  Abutilon 
Thompsoni,  Abutilon  venosum,  Abutilon  in- 
signe,  etc.  Abutilon  avicennse,  known  as  Velvet- 
leaf,  is  a  common  weed  in  different  parts  of  the 
United  States.    See  Plate  of  Abutilon. 

ABXJT^MENT  (Fr.  ahoutir,  to  end  in,  to 
touch  by  the  extremity,  from  hout,  end,  compare 
Engl,  hutt).  In  architecture,  that  part  of  a  wall 
or  pier  which  takes  the  weight  or  thrust  of  the 
construction  above  it,  as  of  an  arch,  vault,  or 
truss.  The  name  is  not  generally  used  to  designate 
minor  supports,  but  only  those  at  the  end  of  a 
series;  neither  does  it  refer  to  vertical,  but  to 
diagonal  thrusts.  An  abutment  arch  is  the  land 
arch  of  a  bridge,  or  any  arch  in  a  series  that 
is  next  to  the  abutment. 

AB'fl'-YfrST&r  YAKtrS,  a'bS5-y?R5'svf  ya'kvb, 
called  AL-MANsf)R,  or  "The  Victorious"  (1160- 
98) .  The  fourth  sultan  of  the  Almohade  dynasty 
in  Africa  and  Spain.  His  father  was  killed  at 
the  siege  of  Santarem,  1184,  and  as  soon  as  he 
had  quelled  certain  insurrections  in  Morocco, 
Abtl-Yastlf  Yaktlb  turned  his  arms  against  the 
Christians  and  carried  off  to  Africa  40,000  cap- 
tives. In  subsequent  expeditions  he  captured 
Torres  and  Silves,  in  Portugal,  and  defeated  the 
Christians  under  Alfonso  III.,  near  Valencia.  He 
died  in  Morocco.     See  Alhohades. 

A'BY,  e'bA,  Christoph  Tiieodor.     See  Aebt. 

ABY'DOS  (Gk.  'A/Jvrfof).  In  ancient  geogra- 
phy, a  town  of  Asia  Minor,  situated  at  the  nar- 
rowest part  of  the  Hellespont,  opposite  Sestos. 
It  is  celebrated  as  the  place  where  Xerxes  and 
his  vast  army  passed  into  Europe  in  480  d.c.  ; 
also  as  the  scene  of  the  story  of  Hero  ( q.v. )  and 
Leander.  The  people  of  Abydos  were  prover- 
bial for  their  effeminate  and  dissolute  manners. 
There  is  another  Abydos  in  Upper  Egypt 
(ThebaTs),  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Nile  and  on 
the  main  route  of  commerce  with  Libya.  It  is 
mentioned  in  the  earliest  Egyptian  inscriptions, 
and,  especially  under  the  nineteenth  dynasty, 
was  a  city  of  considerable  extent  and  importance. 
Later  it*  declined,  and  in  the  time  of  Strabo, 
about  the  beginning  of  the  Christian  era,  it  was 
in  ruins.  Abydos  was  celebrated  as  the  burial 
place  of  Osiris,  and  the  bodies  of  pious  Egyptians 
were  brought  thither   for   interment  from   aU 


parts  of  the  land.  Magnificent  temples,  dedi- 
cated to  Osiris,  were  built  at  this  place  by  Seti  I. 
and  by  his  son  Barneses  II.  In  the  latter  temple 
was  found,  in  1818,  a  portion  of  the  famous  tablet 
of  Abydos,  containing  a  list  of  E^gyptian  kings. 
The  second  and  more  important  part  of  this 
tablet  was  found  in  1864  in  the  temple  built  by 
Seti  I.  In  recent  years  excavations  conducted 
at  Abydos  by  Am6lineau  and  Flinders  Petrie 
have  brought  to  light  important  remains  of  the 
first  Egyptian  dynasty.    See  Petrie,  F.,  and  also 

EOTPT.  ^ 

ABYDOS,  Bride  of.  A  narrative  poem  in 
two  cantos,  by  Lord  Byron  (publishea  1813). 
The  heroine,  Zuleika,  is  an  Oriental  character 
of  ideal  purity  and  beauty. 

AB^YIiA  AND  CAI/FE.  See  Hercules,  Pil- 
lars OF. 

ABYSIEAL  ACCn'MULATIOKS.  Depos- 
its  which  gather  upon  the  bottom  of  the  abysmal 
denths  of  the  ocean.  They  consist  chiefly  of 
red  and  gray  clays,  and  the  so-called  oozes, 
which  latter  are  combinations  of  the  clays  with 
the  shells  of  minute  organisms  such  as  Radio- 
larians,  Foraminifera,  and  Diatoms.  For  a 
more  detailed  description  of  these  abysmal  accu- 
mulations and  other  forms  of  deep-sea  deposits 
the  reader  is  referred  to  the  article  on  Oceanic 
Deposit. 

ABYSS^  (Gk.  aPvaao^y  ahyaaos,  bottomless, 
from  a,  a,  priv.  -f  flvaaS^,  byaaos,  depth,  bottom). 
A  designation  applied  in  the  Greek  translation 
of  the  Old  Testament  to  the  primitive  "chaos" 
as  described  in  Genesis  i  :  2.  The  Hebrew  term 
^■tehdm — occurs  some  thirty  times, and  was  mod- 
ified in  the  course  of  time  to  convey  the  notion 
of  the  "watery  deep"  in  general  surrounding 
the  earth,  on  which,  according  to  what  appears 
to  be  a  later  conception,  the  earth  was  supposed 
to  rest,  and  from  which  springs  and  rivers  were 
fed.  The  situation  of  Sheol  l^ing,  according  to 
primitive  Semitic  ideas,  in  the  depths  of  the 
earth,  the  term  "abyss"  is  used  in  the  New  Testa- 
ment (Romans  x  :  7)  as  the  designation  for  the 
abode  of  the  dead,  and  then  more  specifically  for 
the  prison  in  which  evil  powers  are  confined 
(so  in  seven  passages  of  Revelation,  ix  :  1; 
xi  :  7,  etc.  See  also  Luke  viii:31).  In  the 
Revised  Version  of  the  New  Testament,  the  Greek 
term  is  rendered  by  "abyss,"  but  in  the  Author- 
ized Version  and  in  both  the  Authorized  and 
Revised  Versions  of  the  Old  Testament  expres- 
sions like  "deep"  and  "bottomless  pit"  are  enf- 
ployed. 

ABYS'SAL  FATJ^A.    See  Distributiox  of 

^NIMALS. 

AB' YSSINOA  ( Ar.,  from  a  root  connected  with 
Ar.  al-Habashy  "collection,  body  of  men") .  A  coun- 
trv  in  East  Africa,  situated  between  the  Red  Sea 
and  the  Blue  Nile,  and  extending  from  about  5*  to 
15**  N.  lat..  and  36*  to  43*  E.  long.  (Map;  Africa, 
H  4) .  It  is  bounded  by  Nubia  on  the  northwest, 
the  Italian  colony  of  Eritrea  on  the  northeast, 
the  country  of  the  Danakil  on  the  east,  British 
East  African  possessions  on  the  south,  and  the 
Egyptian  Sudan  on  the  west;  but  its  boundaries 
can  hardly  be  drawn  with  precision,  on  account 
of  the  changes  caused  by  foreign  treaties  and  fre- 
quent wars  between  the  Negus  and  the  neighbor- 
ing tribes.  It  comprises  the  kingdoms  of  Tigpr€, 
Amhara  with  Gojam,  and  Shoa,  and  the  outlying 


ABUTILON 


I.  FLOWERINQ  MAPLE  UButtlon  v^noium).  3.  ALLSPICE  (Plnian 

I.  APRICOT  (Prunm  ■rmanliei).  4.  B-- 

6.  AVOCADO  PEAR  (Parwa 


61 


^pendencies  of  Harrar,  Kaffa,  and  Enarea.  Its 
area  is  estimated  at  150,000  square  miles,  and 
its  population  at  3,500,000. 

The  surface  of  Abyssinia  is  a  plateau,  with  an 
average  altitude  of  about  8000  feet,  and  a  general 
depression  toward  Lake  Tzana  (q.v.)  on  the 
west.  Of  the  numerous  mountain  chains  in  this 
region  only  a  few  can  be  clearly  traced.  The 
Samen  group,  situated  at  the  northern  end  of 
the  country,  and  inclosed  by  the  bend  of  the 
Takaue,  has  an  average  altitude  of  about  10,000 
feet  and  rises  in  Ras  Dashan,  over  15,000  feet 
above  the  sea.  South  of  the  Samen  group  is 
another  chain,  the  Talba  Wakha,  surrounded  by 
the  upper  course  of  the  Atbara  (q.v.)  on  its 
•emerging  from  Lake  Tzana.  This  chain  is  in- 
ferior in  height  to  the  Samen,  its  greatest 
elevation  being  only  about  9000  feet  above  the 
sea.  The  southern  part  of  Abyssinia  is  less 
mountainous,  but  abounds  in  so-called  "ambas,** 
isolated  rocky  hillocks,  most  of  them  very  pre- 
cipitous and  difficult  of  ascent.  Although  at 
present  it  includes  no  active  volcanoes,  the  coun- 
try in  its  entire  aspect  bears  evidence  of  violent 
volcanic  eruptions  in  some  remote  age.  Even 
to-day  numerous  extinct  volcanoes  are  to  be 
found,  with  their  craters  half  obliterated,  and 
there  are  several  hot  springs  in  the  vicinity  of 
Mount  Entoto,  some  of  them  with  a  temperature 
of  170  degrees. 

Among  the  rivers  the  most  important  are  the 
Abai,  or  Blue  Nile  (q.v.),  the  Atbara,  or  Black 
Nile,  the  Takazze,  the  main  head-stream  of  the 
latter,  and  the  Hawash.  With  the  exception  of 
the  Abai,  none  of  these  rivers  is  navigable,  and 
all  are  liable  to  sudden  rises,  often  accompanied 
by  great  disasters.  The  largest  lake  is  Tzana, 
called  also  Dembea. 

In  regard  to  climate  and  flora,  the  country 
may  be  divided  into  three  zones.  The  first,  em- 
bracing all  the  districts  lying  below  the  altitude 
of  4800  feet  above  the  sea,  and  called  Kollas, 
lias  an  annual  temperature  ranging  from  70°  to 
100*  F..  and  an  exceedingly  luxuriant  vege- 
tation, including  cotton,  indigo,  bananas,  sugar 
cane,  coffee,  date  palms,  and  ebony.  The  second 
zone,  Woina  Dega,  includes  all  the  country  be- 
tween 4800  and  0000  feet  above  the  sea.  It  is 
characterized  by  a  moderate  temperature,  rang- 
ing from  60°  to  80**  F.,  and  its  vegetation 
includes  many  of  the  grasses  and  cereals  which 
flourish  in  Europe,  besides  oranges,  lemons, 
olives,  tobacco,  potatoes,  onions,  the  bamboo, 
the  turpentine  tree,  etc.  The  third  zone,  Dega, 
which  comprises  all  of  the  country  situated 
above  9000  feet,  has  a  temperature  of  45  to  50 
degrees.  It  affords  excellent  grazing  grounds, 
and  its  soil  is  well  adapted  for  the  cultivation 
of  the  hardier  cereals. 

The  rainy  season  on  the  coast  lands  lasts  from 
December  to  May.  In  the  interior  of  the  country 
there  are  generally  two  rainy  seasons,  one  from 
April  to  June,  and  the  other  from  July  to  Oc- 
tober.   The  climate  is  generally  healthful-. 

The  fauna  is  not  inferior  in  variety  to  the 
flora.  It  includes,  among  other  animals,  the 
Hon,  the  elephant,  the  rhinoceros,  the  giraffe,  a 
species  of  wolf  (the  kaberu),  the  hyena,  hippo- 
potamus, zebra,  and  several  forms  of  antelopes. 
Consult:  Blanford,  Geology  and  Zoology  of  Abys- 
sinia (London,  1870).  Among  the  domestic  ani- 
mals may  be  mentioned  the  horse,  mule,  donkey, 
4»mel.  ox,  sheep,  and  goat. 

Geologically  the  surface  of  Abyssinia  is  com- 


posed mainly  of  sandstone,  together  with  gran- 
ite, basalt,  trachyte,  and  other  varieties  of  ig- 
neous rocks.  The  minerals  include  gold,  which 
is  found  mostly  in  the  streams,  and  also  iron, 
coal,  silver,  and  rock  salt.  For  further  infor- 
mation about  the  geology  of  Abyssinia,  see 
Africa  and  Great  Rift  Valley. 

Industbies.  Abyssinia  is  preSminently  an 
agricultural  country,  and  its  soil  is  especially 
well  adapted  for  the  cultivation  of  cereals.  The 
land  is  divided  not  among  individuals  but  among 
families,  and  the  only  title  to  land  is  its  occu- 
pation. The  agricultural  methods  employed  are 
of  the  most  primitive  kind,  a  fact  which,  to- 
gether with  the  extortionate  practices  of  the 
civil  and  military  officials,  is  not  very  conducive 
to  the  agricultural  development  of  the  country. 
Wheat  and  barley  are  the  chief  grains  raised. 
Different  kinds  of  fruit,  such  as  oranges,  lemons, 
bananas,  etc.,  are  found  in  abundance,  but  very 
little  attention  is  paid  to  their  cultivation. 
Cattle  raising  is  a  very  important  industry  in 
Abyssinia,  and  wool  is  one  of  the  chief  articles 
of  export.  Of  manufacturing  industries  Abys- 
sinia has  practically  none.  Ancient  remains 
found  in  several  parts  of  the  country  bear  traces 
of  skill  which  is  hardly  to  be  met  with  among 
the  modem  Abyssinians. 

Tr/ide.  Abyssinians  do  not,  as  a  rule,  engage 
in  foreign  trade,  which  is  entirely  in  the  hands 
of  foreign  merchants.  The  trade  is  not  consid- 
erable, as,  until  recently,  the  buying  was  done 
almost  exclusively  by  tne  King  and  his  court. 
The  increased  security  of  life  and  property,  how- 
ever, which  the  Abyssinians  have  been  enjoying 
under  King  Menelek  has  prompted  an  increasing 
number  of  them  to  part  with  their  buried  treas- 
ures of  gold  and  silver  in  exchange  for  all  kinds 
of  goods.  The  total  imports  in  1899-1900  into 
the  two  chief  trading  centres  of  the  country, 
Addis  Abeba  and  Harrar,  were  estimated  at 
about  $3,500,000,  Great  Britain  and  the 
United  States  being  the  two  leading  sources,  and 
France  and  Germany  coming  next.  The  leading 
articles  of  import  are  cotton,  silk,  and  arms, 
the  American  cotton  being  preferred  to  all  others. 
The  chief  articles  of  export  are  coffee,  gold,  ivory, 
and  skins.  Coffee  is  exported  chiefly  to  Arabia, 
gold  to  India.  The  chief  obstacles  to  trade  are 
the  primitive  means  of  communication,  resulting 
in  slow  and  expensive  transportation.  The  dis- 
tance from  Addis  Abeba  to  Harrar,  for  example, 
about  250  miles,  is  traversed  in  from  four 
to  six  weeks;  the  goods  are  carried  on  mules' 
and  camels'  backs.  The  railway  line  between 
Jibutil,  in  French  Somaliland,  and  Harrar,  which 
is  to  be  eventually  extended  to  Addis  Abeba, 
will  have  a  total  length  of  about  600  miles,  of 
which  about  60  miles  were  completed  and  opened 
for  traffic  in  1900.  This  line  is  constructed  en- 
tirely by  French  capital,  with  a  political  rather 
than  a  commercial  aim,  although  it  will  cer- 
tainly attract  the  trade  between  Abyssinia  and 
the  coast,  which  at  present  passes  through  Zeila, 
in  British  Somaliland. 

The  chief  mediums  of  exchange  are  the  Maria 
Theresa  dollar  and  a  dollar  issued  by  King 
Menelek.  Salt  bars  of  uniform  size,  and  car- 
tridges also  circulate  to  some  extent  in  certain 
parts  of  the  country. 

In  its  form  of  government  Abyssinia  may  be 
considered  a  sort  of  feudal  monarchy.  The  pres- 
ent King,  or  Negus,  is  undoubtedly  the  real  ruler 
of  Abyssinia;  but  this  position  he  owes  more  to 


52 


his  personal  qualities  than  to  any  traditional 
rights.  Certain  parts  of  the  country  are  ruled 
by  petty  kings  or  ras,  some  of  them  appointed 
by  the  Negus,  while  others  are  sufficiently  strong 
to  defy  his  authority,  and  may  throw  the  country 
into  a  state  of  disorder  at  his  death.  The  petty 
chiefs  have  retinues  of  followers  ready  to  support 
them  in  any  undertaking  so  long  as  there  is 
any  prospect  of  plunder.  This  class  of  profes- 
sional warriors,  whose  usefulness  lasts  as  long 
as  there  are  any  insubordinate  tribes  to  pacify, 
is  a  great  hindrance  to  the  development  of  the 
country.  The  revenue  is  derived  from  tithes 
paid  in  kind,  and  taxes  on  commodities,  espe- 
cially gold  and  ivory  sold  in  the  market.  The 
collection  of  taxes  is  intrusted  to  the  governors 
of  the  villages  or  ahuma,  who  are  practically  un- 
restricted as  to  the  methods  used  or  amounts 
collected.  The  laws  of  the  country  are  supposed 
to  be  copied  from  the  old  Roman  code,  but  they 
are  almost  disregarded  by  the  native  judges,  who 
are  guided  in  their  decisions,  as  a  rule,  by  their 
personal  preferences  or  the  social  position  of  the 
defendant.  The  Abyssinian  army,  numbering 
about  150,000,  is  almost  entirely  composed  of 
cavalry  and  is  very  well  adapted  for  swift  move- 
ments, as  it  is  not  encumbered  by  any  commis- 
sariat, its  maintenance  being  obtained  from  in- 
habitants of  regions  through  which  it  passes. 
This  kind  of  commissariat  naturally  leaves  ample 
room  for  abuse  and  falls  most  heavily  on  the  ag- 
ricultural population.  The  regular  army  may  be 
supplemented  by  irregular  and  provincial  troops 
in  case  of  need. 

The  political  divisions  of  the  country  are  sub- 
ject to  continual  alteration;  but  the  following 
are  the  most  important:  (1)  The  kingdom  of 
Tigr4,  extending  between  the  River  Takazze  or 
Bahr-el-Aswad  (Black  River),  and  the  moun- 
tains of  Samen  on  one  side,  and  the  district*  of 
Samhara  on  the  other.  Its  chief  towns  are 
Antalo  and  Adowa.  (2)  The  kingdom  of  Amhara, 
extending  on  the  west  of  the  Takazze  and  the 
Samen  Mountain,  and  including  Gojam.  The 
capital,  Gondar,  is  situated  in  the  northeast  of 
the  plain  of  Dembea  or  Gondar,  at  an  elevation 
of  about  7500  feet.  (3)  The  kingdom  of  Shoa 
(including  Efat),  lying  southeast  of  Amhara  and 
separated  from  the  Galla  tribes  by  the  Hawash. 
This  is,  by  all  accounts,  the  best  organized  and 
most  powerful  state  now  existing  in  Abyssinia. 
The  capital,  Ankobar,  at  an  elevation  oiF  about 
8000  feet,  contains  7000  inhabitants,  and  enjoys 
a  delightful  climate. 

The  capital  of  Abyssinia,  formerly  at  Adowa, 
was  transferred  after  the  Italian  war  to  Addis 
Abeba,  which  has  grown  from  a  village  to  a 
city  of  about  80,000  inhabitants  within  two  to 
three  years. 

PopiTLATioN.  The  location  of  the  people  be- 
tween the  Nile  and  the  Red  Sea  permitted  the 
commingling  of  Hamites  from  the  north,  Him- 
varitic  Semites  from  Asia,  and  negroes  from  the 
south.  The  Abyssinians  are  of  medium  stature; 
in  color  they  vary  from  brunette  to  translucent 
black.  The  principal  language  of  the  upper 
classes  is  the  Aniharic,  closely  allied  to  the  an- 
cient Geez  (still  used  in  ritual),  and  is  written 
in  a  syllabary  resembling  that  of  the  old  inscrip- 
tions in  Yemen,  Arabia.  The  Amharic  is  the  lan- 
guage of  the  court.  (See  Amharic  Laivguage.) 
Of  the  same  stock  are  the  Tigr6  and  Tigrifla 
tongues.  The  language  of  the  common  people 
throughout  a  great  part  of  the  country  is  the 


Agua  (Agow),  a  Hamitic  tongue.  The  Gallas, 
who  form  an  important  element  in  the  popula- 
tion, likewise  speak  a  Hamitic  language.  Tlie 
Abyssinians  are  in  the  hand  epoch  of  the  iron 
age,  and  are  herdsmen.  Polygamy  prevails  ex- 
tensively. They  have  little  5iat  deserves  the 
name  of  literature.  Education  is  in  the  hands 
of  the  clergy.  The  national  religion  is  a  per- 
verted Christianity,  introduced  into  the  country 
in  the  fourth  century.  The  tribe  of  the  Falashaa 
profess  Judaism.    The  Gallas  are  Mohammedans. 

HiSTOBT.  Abyssinia  is  a  part  of  the  ancient 
and  vaguely  defined  Ethiopia.  (For  its  ancient 
history,  see  the  article  on  Ethiopia.)  The  people 
still  call  themselves  Ethiopians,  the  name  Abys- 
sinians, by  which  they  are  generally  known  out- 
side their  own  borders,  being  a  Portuguese  form 
of  the  Arabic  Hahak  or  Haheah,  signifying  "mix- 
ture," and  referring  to  the  diverse  tribes  which 
compose  the  population.  The  traditions,  customs, 
and  language  point  to  an  early  and  intimate 
intercourse  with  the  Jews;  and  the  Book  of 
Kings  professes  to  record  the  rulers  down  from 
the  Queen  of  Sheba  and  her  son  Menelek  by 
Solomon,  King  of  Israel;  but  this  book  is  not 
to  be  depended  upon  unless  corroborated  by  in* 
dependent  evidence.  Greek  influence  was  intro- 
duced through  an  invasion  by  Ptolemy  Euer- 
getes  (247-221  B.C.).  In  the  fourth  century 
Christianity  was  introduced,  and  Frumentius, 
who  had  been  instrumental  in  its  introduction, 
was  in  326  consecrated  as  a  bishop  by  Atha- 
nasius,  patriarch  of  Alexandria,  and  became,  as 
Abuna  Salamah  ("our  father  of  peace"),  the 
head  of  the  Abyssinian  Church,  with  his  seat  at 
Axum,  then  the  capital.  The  Coptic  ri'^e,  older 
than  that  of  Rome  or  Moscow,  has  prevailed  is 
Abyssinia  to  the  present  day,  in  spite  of  efforts 
to  introduce  other  forms  of  Christianity  made 
by  the  Jesuits  in  the  sixteenth  century  and  by 
representatives  of  Protestant  churches  in  later- 
years.  The  head  of  the  Church  is  still  the 
Abuna,  who  is  sent  from  Alexandria;  but  he 
shares  his  ecclesiastical  authority  with  the  native 
Echegheh,  or  head  of  the  monastic  bodies.  Mo- 
nasticism  of  the  Oriental  type  was  introduced 
about  the  year  470,  and  became  a  permanent 
feature  of  the  life  of  the  country.  The  monks 
number  about  12,000.  In  the  sixth  century  the 
King  of  the  Homerites,  an  Arab  convert  to 
Judaism,  began  a  persecution  of  the  Christians, 
and  King  Elesbaas,  or  Caleb  of  Axum,  invad- 
ed Arabia,  and  conquered  Yemen,  which  was 
ruled  as  a  province  of  Abyssinia  for  sixty-seven 
years. 

This  was  the  most  flourishing  period  of 
Abyssinia;  its  influence  then  reached  farthest 
and  it  was  most  in  touch  with  the  outside  world. 
In  590,  the  overthrow  of  Abrahah,  the  last 
Abyssinian  ruler  of  Yemen,  left  Arabia  open 
for  the  spread  of  Mohammedanism,  which  soon 
rose  like  a  flood  and  rolled  around  Abyssinia, 
cutting  it  off  from  the  outside  world  and  from 
the  influences  that  had  been  urging  it  forward* 
It  thus  became  a  primitive,  half -barbarous  civi- 
lization in  a  state  of  arrested  development.  A 
line  of  usurpers  took  the  place  of  the  ancient 
sovereigns  in  the  tenth  century  and  reigned  until 
about  1300.  In  the  reign  of  Naakweto  Laab,  the 
last  of  this  line,  Tekla  Haimanot,  an  ar- 
dent patriot,  who  possessed  great  influence  be- 
cause of  the  dignity  of  his  character  and  the 
unselfishness  of  his  life,  succeeded  in  negotiating 
a  treaty  between  the  King  and  the  representative 


53 


of  the  old  line,  which  still  held  the  goTemment 
of  Shoa,  by  which  Na&kweto  Laab  agreed  to  ab- 
^eate,  receiying  in  return  a  certain  mountainoua 
province  aa  a  hereditary  possession  and  the  right 
of  sitting  on  the  same  kind  of  chair  as  that 
Urted  by  the  sovereign.  By  the  same  treaty  one- 
third  of  the  kingdom  was  granted  to  the  clergy, 
and  it  was  provided  that  no  native  should  ever 
be  Abuna,  but  that  the  office  should  be  filled  by 
Appointees  of  the  patriarch  of  Alexandria.  This 
wuji  an  attempt  to  renew  some  connection  with 
the  outer  world,  and  shows  that  the  more  intel- 
ligent Abvssinians  keenly  felt  their  isolation. 
The  rise  of  the  Mohammedan  power  cut  Abyssinia 
off  from  the  coast;  the  invasion  of  the  rude 
<jallaa  from  the  south  in  the  sixteenth  century 
introduced  an  alien  race  into  the  country,  whicn 
has  always  been  a  harmful  and  disturbing  ele- 
ment. The  true  Abyssinian  type  was  produced 
probably  by  a  mingling  of  the  African  Hamitic 
And  the  Asiatic  Semitic  stocks,  which  .here  came 
into  contact. 

Portuguese  Jesuit  missionaries  came  into 
the  country  in  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth 
eenturies,  and  Portugal  took  much  interest  in 
Abyssinian  affairs,  assisting  the  Negus  against 
liis*  enemies,  the  Turks,  "nie  attempts  of  the 
•Tesuits  to  supplant  the  old  faith  with  that  of 
Itome  was  intensely  displeasing  to  the  Abyssin- 
iana,  who  have  always  clung  loyally  to  their 
national  church.  The  Jesuits  were  expelled  in 
1633,  and  Abyssinia  relapsed  asain  into  prac- 
tical isolation  until  the  nineteenth  century.  Oc- 
easional  African  explorers  entered  Abyssinia 
from  the  fifteenth  to  the  nineteenth  century 
(see  Bbuce,  James),  and  some  remained,  volun- 
tarilv  or  constrained  by  the  laws  of  the  country, 
-which  at  times  were  hospitable  to  the  admission 
of  travelers,  but  did  not  allow  their  departure. 
In  the  middle  of  the  nineteenth  century  the 
power  was  in  the  hands  of  Ali,  a  raa  or  prince  of 
'the  barbarous  Gal  las,  when  it  was  seized  by  Lij 
Kasa,  an  adventurer  who  was  crowned  as  Negus 
with  the  name  of  Theodore,  in  1854.  He  was 
at  first  very  friendly  to  the  English,  and  acted 
to  a  icreat  extent  under  the  advice  of  the  English 
oonsnl,  Mr.  Plowden;  but  meeting  difficulties  in 
his  task  of  imposing  unity  upon  the  disorganized 
country,  he  became  morose,  and  taking  offense  at 
the  neglect  by  the  £nglish  Government  of  a  letter 
sent  by  him  to  Queen  Victoria,  he  imprisoned 
Mr.  Cameron,  then  British  consul,  and  his  suite, 
and  followed  this  by  seizing  and  holding  the 
members  of  the  mission  sent  by  the  British  Gov- 
ernment under  Mr.  Rassam  to  negotiate  for  free- 
ing the  consul.  After  prolonged  and  useless  at- 
tempts at  negotiation,  an  army  of  English  and 
Indian  troops,  under  Sir  Eobert  Napier,  invaded 
the  country,  and  in  a  vigorous  campaign  cap- 
tured Magdala,  Theodore's  chief  stronghold,  and 
released  the  prisoners  (April  13,  1868).  Theo- 
<lore  at  once  committed  suicide.  He  was  suc- 
ceeded by  John,  ra8  of  Tigrtf,  who  proved  un- 
equal to  the  task  of  quelling  rebellion.  He  fell 
in  1889  in  battle  with  the  dervishes  of  the  Su- 
d*n,  and  Menelek  II.,  ras  of  Shoa,  who  claims  to 
represent  the  old  line  of  kings,  obtained  the 
erown. 

Meneldc  represents  in  the  main  the  spirit  of 
progress.  As  the  only  country  in  tropical  Africa 
•nibble  for  the  residence  oi  white  men,  with 
considerable  latent  resources,  and  its  position  in 
the  upper  basin  of  the  Nile,  Abyssinia,  with  its 
Almost  impregnable  highlands,  is  an  important 


stionghold  on  the  borders  of  savage  Africa,  and 
a  commanding  point  with  relation  to  surround- 
ing territories  under  European  flags.  It  has 
therefore  become  an  object  of  interest  to  Euro- 
pean powers  since  the  opening  of  Africa  to  trade 
and  colonization. 

Italy,  eager  for  lands,  began  to  look  in  this 
direction  as  early  as  1870,  and  having  occupied 
several  hundred  miles  of  the  Bed  Sea  littoral 
about  Massowah  (1881-86),  it  commenced 
aggressions  upon  Abyssinian  territory,  which 
would  have  resulted  in  open  war  but  for  the 
intervention  of  England,  through  the  friendly 
mission  of  Sir  (jrerald  Portal.  The  Italians 
claimed  a  protectorate  over  Abyssinia  by  virtue 
of  a  clause  in  the  treaty  of  Uchali  (1889),  which 
read  differently  in  the  Amharic  and  Italian  ver- 
sions. Menelek  denounced  this  treaty  in  1893, 
and  when  the  Italians  occupied  Kassala  in  the 
following  year,  as  an  outcome  of  the  Anglo- 
Italian  agreement  of  1891,  defining  the  spheres 
of  influence  of  the  two  nations,  Abyssinia  re- 
newed hostilities  (1895).  After  sustaining  a 
terrible  defeat  at  Adowa,  March  1,  1896,  Italy 
was  compelled,  in  the  treaty  of  Addis  Abeba  (Oc- 
tober 26,  1896),  to  recognize  fully  the  independ- 
ence of  Abyssinia.  Great  Britain,  by  treaty,  in 
1898  ceded  to  Abyssinia  about  8000  square  miles 
of  British  Somaliland,  and  established  a  political 
agency  at  the  Abyssinian  capital.  The  title  of 
the  Abyssinian  sovereign  is  Negus  Negustif  King 
of  Kings,  or  more  fully  in  English,  "King  of  the 
Kings  of  Ethiopia  and  Conquering  Lion  of 
Judah." 

See  Africa,  section  History;  Italy.  (Donsult: 
Wylde,  Modem  Abyssinia  (London,  1891),  a  use- 
ful historical  and  descriptive  book  by  an  Eng- 
lish consul-general  to  the  Red  Sea;  Vivian, 
Abyssinia  (New  York,  1901),  a  recent  work  by 
an  intelligent  observer;  Portal,  My  Mission  to 
Abyssinia  (London,  1892)  ;  Rassam,  Narrative 
of  the  British  Mission  to  Abyssinia  (London, 
1869)  ;  Markham,  A  History  of  the  Abyssinian 
Expedition  (London,  1869),  containing  nn  excel- 
lent summary  of  Abyssinian  history;  Vigneras, 
Une  mission  frarygaise  en  Abyssinie  (Paris, 
1897);  Rohlfs,  Meine  Mission  nach  Abysainien 
(Leipzig,  1883)  ;  Stanford's  Compendium  of 
Geography  and  Travel,  Volume  I.  (London, 
1899)  ;  J.  T.  Bent,  The  Sacred  City  of  the  Ethio- 
pians (London,  1893)  ;  Welby,  'Twiwt  Birdar  and 
Menelek  (London,  1901). 

AB'TSSIKOAK  GHXTB.CH,  The.  The  Church 
founded  about  t)ie  middle  of  the  fourth  century 
by  Frumentius  (q.v.),  whose  titles  Abuna  ("our 
father")  and  Abba  Salamah  ("father  of  peace") 
are  still  used  by  his  successors.  The  abuna,  the 
head  of  the  Church,  is  never  an  Abyssinian,  and 
is  appointed  by  the  Coptic  patriarch  of  Alexan- 
dria. He  is  bishop  of  Axum.  In  ChrintolojTy 
the  Church  is  monophysite;  the  secular  priests 
are  allowed  to  marrjr  once;  circumcision,  the 
Sabbath,  and  the  Levirate  law  are  adhered  to. 
Baptism  (of  adults  by  trine  immersion,  infants 
by  aspersion)  and  the  Euchariflt  (in  which 
grape  juice  is  exclusively  used)  are  accepted; 
but  confirmation,  transubstantiation,  extreme 
unction,  pursjatory,  enici fixes,  and  ima^  worship 
are  all  forbidden.  There  are  180  festivals  and 
200  fast  days.  The  Scriptures  are  read  in 
Geez  or  Ethiopic,  which  is  now  a  dead  languajje. 
The  attempts  of  Roman  Catholics  and  Protest- 
ants to  build  up  missions  among  tho^^e  Christians 
have  not  been  permanently  successful. 


ABYSSINIAN  MEADOW  O&ASS.  54 

ABYSSINIAN  KEAIXOW  O&ASS.  See 
Meadow  Grass. 

ACA'CIA  (literally,  thorny,  Gk.  aic/c,  akis, 
point,  splinter,  thorn).  A  genus  of  plants  of 
the  order  Leguminos^,  differing  from  Mimosa  in 
the  greater  number  of  stamens  (10  to  200)  and 
the  absence  of  transverse  partitions  in  the  pods. 
There  are  about  450  species  of  Acacia,  300  of 
which  are  indigenous  to  Australia  and  Polynesia. 
The  others  are  found  in  all  tropical  and  Sub- 
tropical countries  except  Europe.  The  flowers 
are  small  and  are  arranged  in  globular  or  elon- 
gated clusters.  The  leaves  are  usually  bipin- 
nately  compound;  but  in  many  of  the  Australian 
species  the  leaflets  are  greatly  reduced  and  the 
leaf  blades  correspondingly  enlarged  and  flat- 
tened into  what  are  termed  ph^llodia.  Most  of 
the  species  having  phyllodia  inhabit  hot,  arid 
regions,  and  this  modification  prevents  too  rapid 
evaporation  of  moisture  from  the  leaves.  Many 
of  the  species  are  of  great  economic  importance: 
some  yield  gums,  others  valuable  timber,  and 
still  others  food  products.  The  African  species, 
Acacia  gummifera,  Acacia  seyal.  Acacia  ehrenber- 
giana.  Acacia  tortilis,  and  Acacia  arabica,  yield 
gum  arabic,  as  do  the  Asiatic  species,  Acacia 
arabica  and  the  related  Albizzia  lebbek.  A  some- 
what similar  gum  is  produced  by  Acacia  decur- 
rens  and  Acacia  dealbata  of  Australia  and 
Acacia  horrida  of  South  Africa.  Gum  Senegal 
is  the  product  of  Acacia  verek,  sometimes  called 
Acacia  Senegal.  The  drug  "catechu"  is  prepared 
from  Acacia  catechu.  The  astringent  bark  of  a 
number  of  species  is  extensively  used  in  tanning, 
especial Iv  the  bark  of  those  known  in  Australia 
as  Wattles.  For  this  purpose  Acacia  decurrens, 
the  Black  Wattle,  is  one  of  the  best,  the  air-dried 
bark  of  this  plant  containing  about  four  times 
as  much  tanning  extract  as  good  oak  bark.  The 
most  valuable  timber  tree  of  the  genus  is  prob- 
ably the  Blackwood  {Acacia  melanoiDylon) ,  of 
Australia.  The  tree  attains  a  large  size,  and 
the  wood  is  easily  worked  and  takes  a  high 
polish.  A  number  of  the  Acacias  have  been 
introduced  into  cultivation  in  Europe  and  Amer- 
ica, where  they  thrive.  The  California  experi- 
ment station  recommends  planting  several 
species  for  tanning  extract  and  for  timber.  A 
number  of  species  are  grown  in  mild  climates 
and  in  greenhouses  as  ornamentals,  partly 
because  of  the  fragrance  of  their  flowers.  The 
foliage  of  some  of  the  hi  pinnate  species  exhibits 
sleeping  movements  analogous  to  the  movements 
of  the  sensitive  plant.  Some  species  show  a 
remarkable  sensitiveness  to  weather,  the  leaves 
remaining  closed  while  the  sky  is  cloudy.  The 
common  American  Robinia  or  Locust  {Rohinia 
paeudacacia)  and  the  Robinia  hispida  are  known 
as  Acacia  and  Rose  Acacia  in  Europe  and  else- 
where. Fossil  forms  of  Acacia  are  abundant  in 
the  Tertiary  beds  of  Aix  in  France,  and  an  allied 
genus,  Acaciaphylluni,  has  been  described  from 
the  Cretaceous  beds  of  North  America.   Consult: 

F.  von  Mueller,  Iconography  of  Australian 
Acacias  (Melbourne)  :  L.  H.  Bailey,  Cyclopcedia 
of  American  Horticulture  (New  York,  1900-01)  ; 

G.  Nicholson,  Illustrated  Dictionary  of  Garden- 
ing (London,  1884-89). 

ACACIANSy  d-ka^shl-anz.    See  AcAaus. 

ACACIXTS,  A-ka^shl-fks,  Bishop  of  Csesarea 
(340-365).  He  founded  a  sect,  named  after  him, 
which  maintained  that  the  Son  was  like  the 
Father;  not  of  the  same  or  of  similar  substance. 


ACADEICY. 

btit  that  this  likeness  was  in  the  will  alone. 
Thus  he  differed  from  the  general  Arian  party. 
His  doctrine  was  actually  accepted  by  a  synod 
at  Constantinople,  which  he  manipulated  (359), 
which  gave  rise  to  Jerome's  famous  saying:  "The 
whole  world  groaned  and  wondered  to  find  itself 
Arian."  Yet  in  the  end,  as  formerly,  it  was  con- 
demned, and  he  was  exiled. 

ACADEMIC  LE^OION.  A  name  applied 
particularly  to  an  armed  body  of  students  who 
participated  in  the  uprising  of  1848  in  Vienna; 
also  more  generally  to  similar  student  companies 
elsewhere  in  the  revolutionary  disturbances  of 
that  year. 

ACADl^MIE  DES  BEAXTX-AB.TS,  &1<&Mft'- 
mft'  dA  bd'zar'.    See  Ecole  des  Beaux- Arts. 

AC'ADEVXTS  (Gk.  'AxtiVoc,  Akadfmw). 
A  mythical  hero  of  Attica.  When  the  Tyndar- 
idse  invaded  the  Attic  land  to  rescue  Helen  from 
the  hands  of  Theseus,  Academus  revealed  to 
them  the  place  where  their  sister  was  hidden, 
and  in  return  for  this  act  the  Lacedsmonians 
then  and  thereafter  showed  the  hero  great  honor. 
The  Acadcmia  was  thought  to  have  received  it» 
name  from  Academus,  though  the  earlier  form, 
Hecadcmia,  seems  to  point  to  an  original  Heca- 
demus.  The  Academia  was  in  early  times  a 
sacred  precinct,  six  stades  northwest  of  the 
Dipylon  gate  of  Athens.  Later  a  gymnasium 
was  built  in  the  precinct,  and  still  later  the 
spot  was  made  a  public  park,  being  planted  with 
many  kinds  of  trees,  adorned  with  statues, 
watered  by  the  Cephissus,  and  laid  out  in  walks 
and  lawns.  Here,  in  the  gymnasium  and  the 
neighboring  walks,  Plato  conversed  with  his 
pupils  and  held  his  first  formal  lectures  in  phi- 
losophy. Later,  having  purchased  in  the  neigh- 
borhood a  piece  of  land  and  built  thereon  a 
temple  to  the  Muses  and  a  lecture-hall,  he  trans- 
ferred his  school  thither.  This  spot  was  also 
called  Academia,  and  gave  its  name  to  the 
school. 

ACAIXEHY  (Gk.  luutdiyitta,  akad^meia,  or 
oKadrifiia,  akad^mia ) .  Originally  the  name  of 
a  public  garden  outside  of  Athens,  dedicated  to 
Athene  and  other  deities,  and  containing  a  grove 
and  a  gymnasium.  It  was  popularly  believed  to 
have  derived  its  name  from  its  early  owner,  a  cer- 
tain Academus,  an  eponymous  hero  of  the  Tro- 
jan War.  It  was  in  these  gardens  that  Plato 
met  and  taught  his  followers,  and  his  school 
came  to  be  known  from  their  place  of  meeting 
as  the  Academy.  The  later  schools  of  philosophy 
which  developed  from  the  teachings  of  Plato 
down  to  the  time  of  Cicero  were  also  known  as 
academies.  Cicero  himself  and  many  of  the 
best  authorities  following  him  reckoned  but  two 
Academies,  the  Old,  founded  by  Plato  (428-348 
B.C.),  and  including  Speusippus,  Xenocrates 
of  Chalcedon,  Polemo,  Crates,  and  Cranto;  and 
the  New,  founded  by  Arcesilaus  (241  or  240 
B.C.).  Others  have,  however,  reckoned  the  latter 
as  the  Middle  Academy,  and  added  a  third,  the 
New  Academy,  founded  by  Cameades  (214-129? 
B.c ) .  Others*  again  have  counted  no  fewer  than 
five,  adding  to  tne  three  above  a  fourth,  that  of 
Philo,  and  a  fifth,  that  of  Antiochus.  (See 
articles  Plato;  Arcesilaus;  Carneades; 
Philosophy;  and  references  under  the  last.) 
From  its  use  in  the  sense  of  a  school  the  word 
academy  has  come  to  be  applied  to  certain  kinds 
of  institutions  of  learning;  from  its  use  in  the 
sense  of  a  body  of  learned  men  it  has  come  to 


ACACIA,     ETC. 


ACADEMY.  55 

be  applied  to  various  associations  of  scholars, 
artists,  literary  men  and  scientists  organized  for 
the  promotion  of  general  or  special  intellectual 
or  artistic  interests.  Not  only  was  the  name  ap- 
plied particularly  to  the  followers  of  Plato,  but  it 
soon  came  to  be  given  as  well  to  general  societies 
of  learned  men  unconnected  with  a  philosophical 
school.  In  the  Middle  Ages  the  name  and  insti- 
tution survived  not  merely  among  the  Arabs,  par- 
ticularly in  Spain,  but,  passing  over  the  fable  of 
Alfred's  foundation  of  an  academy  at  Oxford, 
we  find  such  an  institution  under  the  name  of 
academy  among  the  group  of  scholars  whom 
Charlemagne  gathered  around  him. 

At  the  Renaissance  the  academy  sprang  into 
sudden  prominence  as  a  favorite  form  of  intellec- 
tual organization,  and  took  its  place  as  an  intel- 
lectual force  beside  the  universities.  From  these 
it  differed,  as  it  does  to-day,  in  being  not  a  teach- 
ing body  but  a  group  of  investigators,  who, 
generally  under  roval  or  state  patronage,  en- 
couraged learning,  literature,  and  art  by  research 
and  publication.  Laying  aside  the  claims  of 
Alost  to  a  society  of  scholars  in  1107,  and  that  of 
Diest  to  a  society  of  poets  in  1302,  academies  of 
this  type  seem  to  have  first  appeared  in  Italy  and 
to  have  been  devoted  to  literature,  art,  and  archi- 
t«;ture.  The  Academy  of  Fine  Arts,  founded  at 
Florence  about  1270  by  Brunetto  Latin! ;  that  of 
Palermo,  about  1300,  by  Frederick  IL;  and  the 
Academy  of  Architecture  of  Milan  (1380?)  were 
among  the  first  of  these.  Language  and  litera- 
ture were  not  far  behind.  The  so-called  Academy 
of  Floral  Games  (Acad^mie  des  Jeux  Floraux), 
founded  at  Toulouse  about  1325  by  one  Clemens 
Isaurus  as  a  part  of  the  great  Troubadour  move- 
ment, was  probably  the  earliest  of  these  literary 
academies,  and  has  had  an  almost  continuous 
history  till  the  present  day.  With  this  exception 
the  earliest  academies  rose  in  Italy,  and  found 
their  prototype  in  that  brilliant  group  of  schol- 
ars, critics,  and  literati  gathered  at  the  court  of 
Lorenzo  de'  Medici,  the  Magnificent,  and  Cosmo 
de'  Medici  in  Florence,  the  so-called  Platonic 
Academy  which,  founded  about  1474,  was  dissolved 
after  the  expulsion  of  the  Medici  in  1527.  It  was 
succeeded  in  Florence  by  the  Academy  of  Flor- 
ence, formed  in  1540  especially  for  the  study  of 
Tuscan,  partictilarly  Petrarch.  Before  the  Pla- 
tonic Academy  of  the  Medici  only  Naples  boasts 
an  earlier  academy,  that  founded  in  1440  by  Al- 
fonso. But  the  sixteenth  century  was  rich  in 
academies  devoted  to  literature.  The  Intro vati 
of  Siena,  1525;  the  Infiammati  of  Padua,  1534; 
the  Rozzi  of  Siena,  later  suppressed  by  Cosmo 
de'  Medici,  1568;  and  the  Accademia  delU  Crusca 
or  Purfuratorum,  founded  in  1587,  and  still  in 
existence,  the  most  famous  of  them  all,  are 
perhaps  the  best  known  of  that  astonishing 
burst  of  academic  vigor  which  produced  in  the 
sixteenth  century  in  Italy  a  number  variously 
estimated  from  170  to  700  of  this  form  of  organ- 
ization. In  these,  under  curious  names  but  with 
common  purpose,  the  Italian  aristocracy  espe- 
cially, barred  from  political  interests  by  tyrants 
and  republics  alike,  found  vent  for  their  activity. 

One  academy  of  distinction  alone  devoted  to 
science  appears  in  this  i>eriod,  the  Academia 
Secretorum  Nature,  founded  at  Naples  in  1560, 
and  after  a  short  existence  suppressed  by  the 
Church.  It  was  succeeded  by  the  Accademia  della 
Lincei,  founded  by  Prince  Chesi  in  1003,  count- 
iDf^  Galileo  among  its  members,  and  still  ex- 
isting in  R(»ne  after  many  changes.    The  foun- 


ACADEMT. 


dation  of  this  society  heralded  that  great  burst 
of  interest  in  sciences  of  the  seventeenth  and 
eighteenth  centuries  which  to  some  extent  suc- 
ceeded the  purely  literary  activity  of  the  six- 
teenth. The  reformation  had  destroyed  or  altered 
much  of  the  ecclesiastical  power  which  had  served 
to  check  investigation  earlier,  and  the  foundation 
of  several  societies  indicated  a  new  interest  in 
science.  Of  these  the  Academia  Naturae  Curiosor- 
um,  Leipzig,  established  by  Dr.  J.  L.  Bausch  in 
1651-52,  still  exists  under  the  name  of  Csesareo- 
Leopoldinia,  in  honor  of  the  Emperor  Leopold  I., 
who  patronized  it  liberally.  Since  1808  it  has 
had  its  headquarters  at  Bonn.  The  Royal  Society 
in  England  (q.v.),  the  Academy  of  Sciences  in 
Paris,  the  Academy  or  Collegium  Curiosum 
established  by  Professor  Sturm  of  the  University 
of  Altdorf,  and  similar  institutions  brought  about 
an  astonishing  increase  of  interest  and  conse- 
quent advance  in  scientific  pursuits  and  methods. 
The  importance  of  these  academies  to  science 
indeed  can  hardly  be  overestimated. 

This  was  maintained  in  the  eighteenth  century, 
and  the  establishment  of  academies  was  further 
stimulated  then  by  the  influence  of  Louis  XIV., 
so  important  in  this  as  in  so  many  other  intel- 
lectual as  well  as  political  interests  throughout 
Europe.  In  this,  however,  as  in  so  many  other 
ways,  he  and  his  ministers  but  carried  further 
the  plans  of  their  predecessors.  In  1635  Riche- 
lieu established  the  most  famous  of  all  such 
organizations,  the  old  French  Academy,  which 
had  its  inception  six  years  before  in  the  minds 
of  eight  men  of  letters.  It  consisted  of  forty 
members,  with  a  director,  a  chancellor,  and  a 
secretary,  and  its  avowed  purpose  was  to  control 
the  French  language  and  regulate  literary  taste. 
Its  constitution  provided  for  the  publication  of 
a  grammar,  a  treatise  on  rhetoric,  and  one  on 
poetry,  besides  a  dictionary  of  the  French  lan- 
guage. Though  its  condition  has  been  somewhat 
changed,  it  is  the  same  in  all  essentials  to-day 
as  it  was  at  its  foundation.  In  this  plan  Riche- 
lieu was  copied,  as  usual,  bv  his  successor^ 
Mazarin,  who  established  the  Academy  of  Fine 
Arts  (Beaux- Arts)  in  1655.  Colbert  continued 
this  policy  by  foimding  the  Academy  of  Inscrip- 
tions and  Belles  Lettres  in  1663,  as  a  committee 
of  the  old  academy  to  draw  up  inscriptions  for 
monuments  and  medals  to  commemorate  the 
victories  and  glories  of  Louis  XIV.  This  was 
remodeled  in  1706.  Colbert  established  also  an 
Academy  of  Painting  and  Sculpture  in  1664,  the 
Academy  of  Sciences  in  1666,  the  Academy  of 
Architecture  in  1671,  later  merged  into  the 
Academy  of  Fine  Arts,  and  the  Academy  of 
France  at  Rome.  All  these,  save  the  last, 
together  with  the  Academy  of  Moral  and  Politi- 
cal Science,  founded  in  1832,  came  to  form  the 
Institute  (q.v.).  To  Louis  XIV.  other  cities  in 
France  owed  the  charters  of  their  academies, 
notably  Montpellior  in  1706. 

Largely  owing  to  these  two  causes,  that  is  to 
say,  the  interest  in  science  and  the  fashion  of  roy- 
al patronage  set  by  Louis  XIV.,  the  foundation  of 
academies  reached  its  height  in  the  eighteenth 
century,  especially  in  Germany  and  the  north 
and  east  of  Europe.  Frederick  I.  of  Prus- 
sia founded  the  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences 
in  Berlin  in  1700,  on  a  plan  drawn  up  by 
Leibnitz,  its  first  president.  That  savant  aided 
alf^o  in  drawing  up  the  scheme  adopted  by  Peter 
the  Great  and  carried  out  by  Catharine  1.  in  the 
foundation  of  the  Imperial  Academy  of  Sciences 


AGADEKY.  56 

at  St.  Petersburg  in  1725.  In  1739  the  Academy 
of  Sciences  of  Stockholm  was  established  witn 
a  most  distinguished  member  in  Linnsus,  and 
was  incorporated  in  1741  as  the  Royal  Swedish 
Academy.  In  1742  Christian  VI.  founded  the 
Royal  Academy  of  Copenhagen;  in  1750-51  the 
GQttingen  Academy  of  Sciences  was  established; 
in  1754  the  Electoral  Academy  at  Erfurt;  in  1755 
the  Academy  of  Sciences  of  Mannheim  was 
founded  by  the  Elector  I'alatine,  Karl  Theodor, 
and  in  1759  the  Electoral  Bavarian  Academy  of 
Sciences  was  founded  at  Munich.  In  Spain  the 
Royal  Academy  of  Science  at  Madrid  began  its 
existence  in  1774;  in  Italy  the  Royal  Academy 
of  Sciences  of  Turin  originated  in  1759  as  a  pri- 
vate society,  receiving  royal  recognition  in  1783. 
Not  merely  were  academies  founded  in  the  broad 
field  of  science,  in  its  earlier  sense  of  all  human 
knowledge;  they  were  established  for  all  imag- 
inable special  purposes.  In  surgery,  the  Surgical 
Academy  of  Paris,  1731,  and  the  so-called  Acad- 
emy of  Surgery  at  Vienna,  more  properly  a 
college,  are  the  most  prominent  examples.  In 
archteology  and  history  we  find  the  Royal  Acad- 
emy of  Portuguese  History  established  in  1720, 
a  similar  institution  at  Madrid  chartered  in 
1738,  the  Archaeological  Academy  of  Upsala 
founded  in  1710,  that  of  Cortona  in  1727,  and 
that  of  Herculaneum  at  Naples  in  1755.  In 
literature  the  Royal  Spanish  Academy,  founded 
by  the  exertions  of  the  Duke  d'Escalona  in  1713 
or  1714.  and  the  Royal  Academy  of  Savoy,  foimd- 
ed  in  1719  by  Charles  Felix,  are  the  most  prom- 
inent of  numerous  similar  institutions,  including 
those  of  St.  Petersburg  of  1783,  later  a  part  of 
the  Imperial  Academy,  and  Stockholm  in  1786. 
In  music  and  the  fine  arts,  the  departments  to 
which  the  name  has  been  especially  applied  in 
England,  the  Royal  Academy  of  Arts  was  found- 
ed in  1768,  with  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  as  its  first 
president,  the  Academy  of  Arts  at  Milan,  that 
of  painting  and  sculpture  and  architecture  at 
Madrid  by  Philip  V.,  the  Swedish  Academy  of 
Fine  Arts  by  Count  Tessin  in  1733,  and  the 
Academy  of  Painting  and  Sculpture  at  Turin 
in  1778. 

During  the  nineteenth  century  a  smaller  num- 
ber of  such  organizations  were  founded,  partly 
because  the  field  was  so  well  covered,  partly  be- 
cause other  forms  of  activity  or  the  same  form 
of  institution  under  a  different  name  took  its 
place.  (See  Societies;  Advancement  of  Sci- 
ence, Associations  for  the.)  The  Royal 
Hibernian  Academy,  founded  in  1803,  the  English 
Royal  Academy  of  Music,  founded  in  1822  and 
incorporated  in  1830,  and  the  Royal  Scottish 
Academy,  founded  in  1826  and  chartered  in  1838, 
represent  the  English  activities  in  this  field. 
The  Pliiladelphia  Academy  of  Sciences,  founded 
in  1812  and  incorporated  in  1817,  and  the  Vienna 
Academy  of  Sciences,  founded  in  1846,  are  among 
the  most  important  scientific  foundations  of 
the  century.  The  Celtic  Academy  of  Paris, 
founded  1800  to  1805  and  merged  in  1814  into 
the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  France,  and  the 
Academy  of  History  and  Antiquities  of  Naples, 
founded  by  Joseph  Bonaparte,  represent  the 
Napoleonic  period.  The  Academy  of  Medicine 
of  Paris,  founded  for  research  into  matters 
affecting  public  health,  1820,  has  performed 
excellent  service  to  the  communitv  at  large. 
But  the  most  important  event  in  academic  organ- 
ization of  the  century  was  the  reorganization  of 
the  French  Academy  into  the  Institute  of  France, 


AGADE2r7. 

an  account  of  which  may  be  found  under  that 
title  in  this  work.  The  French  Academy  as  now 
constituted  represents  the  old  academy  of  Rich- 
elieu, though  it  is  reckoned  officially  as  the 
highest  of  the  five  divisions  of  the  Institute. 
Its  membership  in  1902  was  as  follows,  in  order 
of  seniority : 


Ernest  LegonvS 

£mile  OUivier 

Alfred  M6udre8 

Gaston  Boiaaier 

Victorien  Sardon 

Bug  d'Audiffret-Pasqaier 

A.  J.  E.  Ronsse 

R.  F.  A.  SuUy-Prudhomme 

Cardinal  Perraad  (Bishop  of 

Antan) 
Fran^olfl  Copp^e 
Ludovic  Hal^Tjr 
V.  C.  O.  Gr^ard 
ComteOth^nin  d^Hannonville 
Jules  Claretie 
Vicomte  B.  M.  Melchior  de 

Vogfl^ 
Charles  de  Freyctnet 
Jalien  Yiaod  (Pierre  LotI) 
Ernest  Lavlsse 
Paul  Thureaa-Dangin 


Ferdinand  Branett^re 

Jos^  M.  de  H6r6dia 

Albert  Sorel 

PaulBonxget 

Henri  Hoassaje 

Jules  Lematire 

Anatole  France 

Marquis  Costa  de  Beauregard 

Gaston  Paris 

Andr6  Theuriet 

Comte  Albert  Vandal 

Comte  Albert  de  Man 

Gabriel  Uanotanx 

C.  J.  B.  E.  Guillauxne 

H.  E.  L.  Layedan 

P.  E.  L.  Deschanel 

Paul  Hervleu 

£mUe  Faguet 

Haroellin  Berthelot 

Marquis   C.   J.   Melchior  de 

Vogfl* 
Edmond  Rostand 


It  remains  to  notice  in  detail  some  of  the  other 
more  important  existing  academies.  The  Royal 
Academy,  Burlington  House,  London,  the  asso- 
ciation of  English  artists,  holds  an  exhibition 
each  year,  open  to  all  artists,  and  corresponding 
to  the  French  Salon.  It  consists  at  present  of 
358  Academicians  (R,  A.),  four  Honorable  Re- 
tired Academicians,  six  Honorable  Foreign 
Academicans,  thirty  Associates  (A.  R.  A.),  four 
Honorable  Retired  Associates.  Sir  Edward  John 
Poynton  has  been  its  president  since  1896.  The 
Royal  Academy  of  Berlin,  founded  in  1700,  owes 
its  present  statutes  to  the  year  1881.  It  consists 
of  two  sections — physics-mathematics  and  phi- 
losophy-history. It  has  60  regular  and  20  for- 
eign, corresponding,  and  honorary  members.  Its 
publications  have  appeared  since  its  foundation. 
The  Imperial  Academy  of  St.  Petersburg,  found- 
ed in  1725,  has  three  divisions — physics-mathe- 
matics, Russian  language  and  literature,  history, 
philology.  It  is  richly  endowed,  and  offers  year- 
ly prizes  for  contributions  to  learning.  Its  li- 
brary is  very  large,  and  it  controls  a  number  of 
museums.  The  Royal  Swedish  Academy,  founded 
in  1739,  has  100  native  and  75  foreign  members, 
and  its  work  is  divided  into  nine  classes.  The 
Royal  Bavarian  Academy  includes  theology,  law, 
finance,  and  medicine  among  its  activities,  and 
has  three  classes — philosophv- philology,  mathe- 
matics-physics, and  history.  The  Imperial  Acad- 
emy of  Sciences  of  Vienna,  founded  in  1846, 
comprises  two  classes  —  philosophy-history  and 
mathematics- science — with  frequent  meetings,  and 
its  publications  are  especially  numerous  and  im- 
portant. It  is  well  endowed  by  private  benefac- 
tion, and  by  the  State,  and  is  enabled  to  send  out 
many  scientific  expeditions. 

In  the  United  States  there  are  many  such  soci- 
eties. The  earliest  founded  was  the  American 
Philosophical  Society,  organized  in  1743  tlirough 
the  efforts  of  Benjamin  Franklin,  who  was  its 
first  secretary,  and  later,  until  his  death,  its 
president.  The  interests  and  the  activities  of 
this  society  covered  the  whole  range  of  science 
pure  and  applied,  and  of  philosophy.  The  pub- 
lication of  Transactions  began  in  1799  and  of  its 
Proceedings  in  1838.    At  present  the  society  has 


57 


ACAKAPICTLI. 


ACADEMY. 

200    resident    and    300    non-resident    members,  used  occasionally  elsewhere.    In  his  Traoiate  on 

The   American   Academy   of   Arts   and   Sciences  Kducation,  John  Milton  calls  his  ideal  educa- 

was  chartered  by  the  Legislature  of  Massachu-  tional  institution  an  academy.     In  England  the 

setU  in   1 1 80,  to  a  considerable  extent  through  term  applied  to  those  institutions  of  secondary 

the  influence  of  John  Adams.    Ita  attention  was  rank    established    by    the    dissenting    religious 

deToted  to  the  study  of  the  antiquities  and  the  bodies  during  the  latter  part  of  the  seventeenth 


natural  history  of  America.  It  >ias  published  a 
series  of  memoirs,  beginning  in  1785,  and  Proceed- 
tHffs  since  1846.  The  Connecticut  Academy  of 
Arts  and  Sciences  was  founded  in  1799,  and  the 
Philadelphia  Academy  of  Natural  Science  in 
'1812.  This  latter  academy  has  a  very  valuable 
library  and  museum,  especially  rich  in  conchol- 
ogT  and  ornithology,  and  has  published  Journals 
frince   1817  and  Proceedings  since  1841,  besides 


during  the  latter  part 
and  in  the  eighteenth  century  to  provide  for  the 
general  education  of  their  youth,  especially 
those  intended  for  the  ministry,  since  such  edu- 
cation could  not  be  obtained  from  the  existing 
public  schools.  In  the  United  States  the  term 
was  first  applied  to  the  institution  founded  in 
Philadelphia  in  1740  under  the  leadership  of 
Benjpmin  Franklin.    This  Academy  and  College 


of  Philadelphia  was  chartered  in  1753,  and 
the  Xmerican  Journal  of  Conchology.  The  New  Ibecame  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  in  1779. 
York  Academy  of  Science  was  founded  in  1818  The  typical  academies  were  those  founded  during 
as  the  Lyceum  of  Natural  History,  and  received     the  Rca  olutionary  War  period  at  Exeter,  N.  H., 


its   present  title  in   1875.     It  is  organized  into 
four  sections,  as  follows:  Astronomy  and  phys- 
ics, geology  and  mineralogy,  biology,  and  anthro- 
pology,  psychology,   and   philology.     These   sec- 
tions hold  monthly  meetings,  and  the  Academy 
holds    general    meetings    and    gives    an    annual 
exhibit   of   scientific   progress   that   is   of   great 
value.      Similar   scientific   academies  have   been 
organized   in   most   of   the   large   cities    in   the 
I'nited  States,  but  their  influence  is  chiefly  local. 
Such  societies  usually  cover  the  entire  field  of 
the  exact  and  the  natural  sciences,  while  special 
societies   for   particular  sciences   are   now   com- 
monly formed.     In  recent  years  Washington   is 
t>oi'oming  the  centre  of  scientific  interest  in  this 
country,  and  in  1898  its  various  scientific  soci- 
eties combined  into  the  Washington  Academy  of 
S<'ience.      National    associations    of    the    same 
character  have  been  formed.     In  1863  Congress 
chartered   the   National    Academjr   of   Sciences^ 
which    was    designed    to    investigate    scientific 
questions  and  to  report  thereon  to  Uie  Govern- 
ment.   As  a  matter  of  fact,  however,  the  Acad- 
emy has  not  been  frequently  employed  by  the 
Government.    Two    annual    meetings    are    held 
and  reports  and  memoirs  are  issued.    The  mem- 
bership of  the  Academy  originally  was  limited  to 
50   members,  but  in   1870   this  limitation  was 
removed,  and  now  five  members  may  be  elected 
annually.  At  present  there  are  86  members.  The 
American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of 
Science  was  organized  in  1848  and  is  the  most 
active  and  the  largest  of  such  associations.    It 
now  has  about  1000  members  and  776  fellows, 
the    latter    being    those    who    are    engaged    in 
advancing  science,  while  any  one  interented  in 
•cienre  may   be  a  member.     In   fine   arts   both 
Philadelphia  and  New  York  possess  institutions 
under  the  name  of  academies,  founded  in  1805 
and    1828   respectively,  each   having  schools   of 
design  and  annual  exhibitions.     Many  other  such 
asMKiations,  under  different  names,  are  to  be 
found   in   this   country   for   the   prosecution   of 
research  and  publication  along  literary  as  well 
as  s<  ientific  lines.     Of  the^te  Inst  the  American 
Academy    of    Political    and    Social    Science    of 
Philadelphia  is  perhaps  the  roo^t  important.     It 
wa<«  founded  Tn   1889,  has  a  large  membership, 
and  its  publications,  under  the  title  of  Annals^ 
arf   of   considerable   value.      See    Smithsonia>' 
Institution. 

In  the  sense  of  a  school  or  an  institution  of 
learning,  the  term  academy  has  come  to  be 
applied  to  an  educational  institution  between  the 
elementary  school  and  the  college,  particularly 
in  the  eastern  part  of  the  United  States,  though 

TOL.  I.— «. 


and  Andover,  Mass.,  largely  through  the 
generosity  of  John  Phillips,  after  whom  they  are 
named.  Such  academies  became  very  numerous 
and  took  the  place  of  the  old  Latin  grammar 
schools,  which  had  lost  their  popularity  and 
serviceableness  on  account  of  the  economic  and 

Solitical  changes  of  the  eighteenth  century, 
uch  academies  are  controlled  by  trustees  usually 
of  some  one  religious  denomination,  and  are  not 
dependent  upon  state  support.  Their  place  has 
been  largely  taken  up  by  the  modern  high  school ; 
the  existing  ones  have  for  the  most  part  become 
college  preparatory  schools. 

The  term  is  also  used  much  more  widely  in 
a  lower  sense,  to  indicate  places  where  special 
accomplishments  are  taught,  such  as  riding, 
dancing,  or  fencing  academies.  A  more  restrict- 
ed use  is  that  in  connection  with  schools  that 
prepare  for  particular  professions,  as  the  United 
States  Military  Academy  at  West  Point.  In 
France  and  the  United  States  it  is  occasionally 
applied  to  buildings  devoted  to  particular  arts, 
especially  music;  hence  an  opera  house,  often 
called  an  academy  of  music;  and  occasionally 
by  analogy  to  the  theatre  as  well. 

ACAIXEHY  OF  DESIGN^  National.  Bee 
National  Academy  of  Design. 

AGAa>IA  (Fr.  Acadie,  L'Acadie,  or  La  Cadie, 
from  the  Micmac  Indian  word  AMde,  meaning 
abundance).    See  Nova  Scotia. 

ACAa)IAK  SE0BIE8.  See  Cambrian  System. 

ACAJXTTULy  &'k&ho<9t^&.  A  seaport  in 
the  Department  of  Sansonate,  Republic  of  Salva- 
dor, Central  America,  situated  on  the  Pacific 
Ocean,  10  miles  south  of  Sansonate  (Map:  Cen- 
tral America,  C  4).  It  is  the  second  port  of  Sal- 
vador in  importance,  and  the  seat  of  a  consular 
agent  of  the  United  States. 

AC'AIiE^HJE  (plural  of  Gk.  &Ka7.^^7f^  ak» 
al^hSf  a  nettle,  a  kind  of  jellyfish).  A  group 
of  free-swimming,  discoidal  or  bell-shaped  medu- 
sae, the  lobed  jellyfishes,  with  downwardly  direct- 
ed mouth,  gastro- vascular  pouches,  and  numer- 
ous radial  canals,  and  having,  as  a  rule,  the 
margin  of  the  umbrella  lobed ;  called  Discophora 
by  Huxley.    See  Jellyfish. 

AGAMAPICTLI,  A  •  kA  •  mA  -  p§sh^tl^,  or 
AGAMPICHTLI,  or  ACAMAPIXTLE  (''the 
hand  full  of  reeds").  An  Aztec  chieftain  or 
king.  The  dates  of  his  reign  are  variously  given 
as  1352-80,  1.303-96,  and  1375-1403.  He^  was  a 
vassal  of  the  King  of  the  Tepanecs,  and  ruled  but 
a  small  territory,  yet  he  maintained  peace,  began 
the  construction  of  the  canals  of  Lake  Tezcooo, 


ACAMAPICTLI.  58 

and  built  many  stone  edifices  in  his  capital  of 
Tenochtitlan. 

AC'ANTHA^CEJB  (for  derivation  see 
Acanthus  ) .  An  order  of  dicotyledonous  plants 
embracing  about  130  genera  and  1600  species. 
It  is  found  chiefly  in  the  tropics,  but  also  occurs 
in  the  south  of  Europe  and  the  United  States. 
The  species  are  mostly  herbs  and  shrubs, 
although  a  few  become  trees.  Plants  of  this 
order  frequent  almost  every  situation,  from 
marshes  to  the  driest  of  conditions  where  plants 
are  able  to  survive.  The  leaves  are  usually 
thin  and  entire.  The  flower  parts  in  fours  or 
fives,  stamens  often  two  and  styles  two.  The 
fruit  is  a  two-celled  capsule,  upon  the  explosion 
of  which  the  seeds  are  thrown  out,  aided  by 
peculiar  outgrowths  from  the  base  of  their 
stalks.  The  chief  genera  are  Nelsonia,  Thunber- 
gia,  Strobilanthus,  Ruellia,  Blepharis,  Acanthus, 
and  Justicia. 

ACAN^THITE  (Ok.  anavQa,  akantha, 
thorn).  A  silver  sulphide  that  crystallizes  in 
the  orthorhombic  system.  It  is  iron-black  in  color, 
and  has  a  metallic  lustre.  It  occurs  with  argen- 
tite  and  stephanite  at  various  localities  near 
Freiberg  in  Saxony,  and  is  named  from  the 
peculiar  shape  of  its  crystals. 

ACAN'THOCEPH^ALA  (Ok.  AKavOa,  akan- 
tha,  thorn,  prickle  +  «^^^,  kephaU,  head). 
An  order  of  round  parasitic  worms  distinguished 
by  an  elongated  cylindrical  body  and  a  proboscis 
armed  with  horny  hooks.  The  order  contains  three 
families,  viz.,  Gigantorhynchidae,  Neorhynchidie, 
and  Echinorhynchid®.  Echinorhynchus  gigas  is 
parasitic  in  the  small  intestine  of  swine.  Other 
species  are  found  in  ducks  and  other  aquatic 
birds.  The  Acanthocephala  belong  to  the  class 
Nemathelminthes,  which  includes  also  the  €k)r- 
diaceaB  and  the  Nematodes. 

ACANTHOPTEB.YOn,  ftk'An-thdp-ter-IjI-I 
(Ok.  Jion^a,  aliantha,  thorn  -\-nTtpvyiov^  pterygion, 
wing;  plural,  fins).  One  of  the  primary  divis- 
ions of  the  osseous  fishes  (Teleostei).  It  in- 
cludes many  families,  among  which  are  largely 
the  most  specialized  forms  of  fishes.  They  are 
characterized  by  the  possession  of  spines  in  the 
anterior  portion  of  the  dorsal  fin  or  in  the  first 
dorsal  when  two  are  present,  and  by  the  usual 
absence  of  a  pneumatic  duct  connecting  the  air- 
bladder  with  the  oesophagus.  The  ventral  fins 
are  generally  thoracic,  i.e.,  fastened  to  the  shoul- 
der. The  acanthopterygian  fishes  include  the 
perch,  bass,  mackerel,  and  similar  forms. 

ACAN^THUS  (Lat.,  from  Ok.  d«xvft>f, 
akanthoSf  brankursine ) .  A  name  given  by  the 
Oreeks  and  Romans  to  certain  plants  of  the 
natural  order  Acanthacese,  which  order  contains 
nearly  134  genera  and  1600  species.  The  plants 
of  the  order  are  herbs  or  shrubs,  rarely  trees, 
chiefly  tropical,  a  few  occurring  in  the  Mediter- 
ranean region,  in  the  United  States,  and  in 
Australia.  The  greater  number  are  mere  weeds, 
but  the  genera  Justicia,  Aphelandra,  and  Ruellia 
contain  some  of  our  finest  hothouse  flowers.  In 
cultivation  the  Acanthus  is  only  semi-hardy,  and 
needs  protection  in  En|?land  and  in  the  United 
States  north  of  Virginia.  Of  a  dozen  varieties 
of  the  genus  Acanthus  two  only  were  anciently 
common  in  Mediterranean  lands:  the  wild 
Acanthus  (Acanthus  spinoaua) ,  a  short  prickly 
plant  with  curly  leaves;  and  the  cultivated 
Acanthus  [A-canthua  mollis)  ^  with  larger,  thick- 


ACAPTTLGO. 

er,  smooth  leaves  without  thorns.     See  Plate  of 
Acanthus,  etc. 

In  Abchitectube.  The  leaves  of  both  of  these 
varieties  have  been  copied  in  architectural  deco- 
ration. Those  of  Acanthus  spinosus  only  were 
conventionalized  by  the  Greeks  in  the  Corinthian 
capital  (q.v.),  whose  characteristic  decorations 
they  formed,  as  well  as  in  other  details,  such  as 
the   acroterion    (q.v.)    of   temples,   monuments,. 


ACANTML>. 


or  sepulchral  columns,  etc.  In  all  these  Grecian 
decorations  the  acanthus  leaves  are  straight  and 
pointed.  Etruscan  and  early  Roman  work» 
show  a  form  of  acanthus  with  curling,  split 
leaves  of  quite  different  aspect.  The  typical 
Greek  three-lobed  acanthus  was  introduced  into- 
Roman  architecture  before  the  close  of  the  Repub- 
lic, but  the  Roman  artists  of  the  time  of  the 
Empire  were  not  satisfied  with  its  simple  forms; 
they  conventionalized  it,  adopted  in  preference 
the  form  of  the  more  luxuriant  Acanthus  mollis, 
and  combined  with  it  the  forms  of  other  trees 
and  plants,  especially  the  olive,  laurel,  and 
parsley.  The  result  was  an  extremely  rich  dec- 
oration of  capitals,  friezes,  consoles,  moldings, 
and  cornices  quite  unknown  to  Greek  art.  The- 
acanthus  came  into  use  also  in  other  forms  of 
decoration:  in  fresco  painting,  in  the  ornamen- 
tation of  table  feet,  of  vases,  candelabra,  furni* 
ture,  goldsmith  work,  and  embroideries.  It 
naturally  passed  into  post-classical  ornament, 
together  with  the  Corinthian  capital,  which  was 
the  favorite  form,  and  we  find  it  in  early  Chris- 
tian, Byzantine,  and  Romanesque  art.  In  cer- 
tain parts  of  Italy  it  preserved  its  purity  until 
the  Renaissance  —  especially  in  central  and 
southern  Italy — ^and  in  southern  and  central 
France  it  was  superseded  only  by  Gothic  foliage^ 
See  Column. 

A  CAPETJiA,  &  kd-pen&  ( Ital.,  in  the  church 
style).  Music  for  voices  without  accompani- 
ment, like  the  early  church  compositions.  The 
term  is  also  used  when  the  accompaniment  is 
octaves  or  unison.  As  an  indication  of  time  it 
is  equivalent  to  alia  hreve  (q.v.). 

A  CAPBICGIO,  a  kA-pre'ch6  (Ital.).  At  the 
caprice  or  pleasure  of  the  performer,  regarding 
both  time  and  expression.    A  musical  term. 

ACAPXJXiCO,  a'k&-po5l^6  (a  corrupted  ab- 
breviation of  the  Latin  name  [Portua]  Acqu€^ 
Pulchrce,  [Port  ofl  beautiful  water).  A  town 
on  the  Pacific  coast,  in  Guerrero,  Mexico,  231 
miles  southwest  of  the  City  of  Mexico,  of  which 
it  was  formerly  the  Pacific  port,  on  account  of  the 
excellence  of  its  harbor  (Map:  Mexico,  J  9).  It 
was  the  chief  centre  of  commerce  with  the  Phil- 
ippine Islands,  as  well  as  China  and  India,  until 
the  railroad  between  the  City  of  Mexico  and  San. 
Bias  robbed  it  of  most  of  its  trade.  Population^ 
about  4d00. 


ACANTHUS,     ETC. 


1.  ACANTHUS  (AeinUiuB  melii*,  vir.  I(ti«eiii»).  G.  WORMWOOD 

2.  AFRICAN  ULY  (Aaipintu*  umbtllituB).  6.  Ra~ 
S.  (.OVE-UEVBLEEDINQ  iAmarinthui  cauOalu*).  grandinor. 
4.  ALMOND  (Prunui  Ptnlci).  7.  PHEASANT'S 


ACABIASIS.  59 

ACABI^ASIS.    See  Mange. 

ACABIOTA.    See  Mites. 

ACABVAOTIA  (Gk.  'Axapvavta.  Akama- 
nia),  A  country  of  ancient  Greece,  separated 
from  Epirus  on  the  north  by  the  Ambracian 
Gulf,  now  the  Gulf  of  Arta,  from  MUAia,  on  the 
cast  by  the  River  Achelods,  and  washed  south 
and  west  by  the  Ionian  Sea.  Along  with  iEtolia, 
it  forms  one  of  the  nomes  or  departments  of  the 
modem  kingdom  of  Greece,  with  an  area  of 
3013  square  miles  and  a  population  of  170,566 
in  1896.  The  western  part  of  Acarnania — from 
the  mouth  of  the  Achelotts  or  Aspropotamo  to 
Cape  Actium  in  the  northwest — is  occupied  by  a 
mass  of  rocky  and  thickly-wooded  mountains, 
rising  abruptly  from  the  indented  coast  and  cul- 
minating in  the  summit  of  Berganti.  A  consid- 
erable part  of  Acarnania  is  overgrown  with  wood 
— a  rare  feature  in  modem  Greece.  There  is  no 
town  of  importance  in  the  whole  district,  though 
naturally  the  territory  is  not  destitute  of  re- 
sources. Consult  Oberhummer,  Akamanien, 
Ambrakia,  Amphilochien,  Leukaa  im  Altertwn 
(Munich,  1887). 

ACABXrS  VOIXICULCyBUK,  or  Detnodea;, 
or  Bteatozoan  folUculorum,  the  coramedo  mite.  A 
microscopic  parasite  residing  in  the  sebaceous 
itcs  and  hair  follicles  of  the  human  skin.  It 
was  first  described  by 
Dr.  Simon  of  Berlin  in  ;; 

ia42,  under  the  title  of 
A  c  a  r  u  s  foUiculorum, 
which  was  suggested  by 
the  eminent  zodlogist, 
Erichson  of  Berlin.  Ac- 
cording to  Professor 
Owen,  who  gave  it  the 
name  of  Demodex,  it 
represents  the  lowest 
form  of  the  class  Ar- 
achnida,  and  makes  a 
transition  from  the  An- 
nelids to  the  higher  Ar- 
ticalata.  Their  pres- 
ence has  no  reference  to 
disease  of  the  skin  or 
of  the  follicles.  They 
are  met  with  in  almost 
every  person.  They  varv 
in  length  from  y^^th 
to  y|.th  of  an  inch, 
and   tne    accompanying 

figure  represents  the  magnified  parasite.  Their 
number  is  various;  in  some  persons  not  more 
than  two  or  three  can  be  found  in  a  follicle, 
while  in  others  upward  of  fifteen.  The  heaa  is 
always  directed  inward.  They  are  most  com- 
monly found  in  the  skin  of  the  face,  particularly 
that  of  the  nose;  but  they  have  also  been  met 
with  in  the  follicles  of  the  back,  the  breast,  and 
the  abdomen.  The  animal  possesses  ei^ht  thor- 
acic appendages  {Cf  c)  of  the  most  rudimentary 
kind,  each  of  which  is  terminated  by  three  short 
set«.  tlie  integument  of  the  abdomen  is  very 
finely  annulated.  The  mouth  is  suctorial  or 
|>robo9cidiform,  consisting  of  two  small  spine- 
>haped  maxille  (5),  and  an  extensive  labium 
capable  of  being  elongated  or  retracted;  it  is 
prorided  on  each  side  with  a  short,  thick,  maxil- 
lary palp  (a,  a),  consisting  of  two  joints  with  a 
narrow,  triangular  labrum  above.  The  sexes  are 
distinet,  but  the  differences  between  the  male  and 


(a)acabus  yoLLicuix>anM. 

(b)  DBVODIX  MOBIflNIS. 


ACCA  LABENTIA. 

female  are  not  well  recognized.  Ova  are  fre- 
quently seen,  both  in  the  body  of  the  female  and 
in  detached  discharged  masses.  Acari  may  be 
examined  by  collecting  between  two  pieces  of 
thin  glass  the  expressed  fatty  matter  from  a 
nasal  follicle  and  moistening  it  with  a  drop  of 
olive  oil  before  placing  under  a  microscope  lens 
of  300  diameters.  Identical  animals  have  been 
found  in  the  skin  of  dogs,  hogs,  and  cattle.  They 
damage  cowhides  in  some  instances.  No  treat- 
ment is  requisite. 

ACA8TE,  AlcAst^  One  of  the  characters  in 
Moli^re's  Misanthrope  (q.v.)  ;  a  self-satisfied 
young  marquis  who  easily  consoles  himself  when 
scorned  as  a  suitor  by  C^lim^ne. 

ACASTOy  &-kfts'td.  In  Otway's  tragedy  of 
The  Orphan  (q.v.),  a  nobleman  retired  from  the 
court  who  is  the  guardian  of  Monimia,  the  hero- 
ine, and  father  of  Castalio  and  Polydore. 

ACAS^TtTS  (Gk.  'AKootoc,  Akaatos),  A  son 
of  Pelias,  King  of  lolcus;  one  of  the  Argonauts 
and  of  the  Calydonian  hunters.  He  revenged  the 
murder  of  his  father  (killed  by  his  daughters  at 
the  instigation  of  Medea)  by  driving  Jason  and 
Medea  out  of  lolcus.    See  Abgonauts  ;  Medea. 

ACATHiarmS  (Gk.  a,  a  priv.  +  KaBi^etv, 
kathizein,  to  sit  down ) .  A  hymn  in  honor  of  the 
Virgin,  sung  standing  in  the  Greek  Church  on 
Saturday  of  the  fifth  week  in  Lent,  when  the 
repulse  of  the  Avars  from  Constantinople  is  cele- 
brated. 

AO^CAD.  One  of  the  chief  cities  of  the  land 
of  Shinar  (i.e.,  Babylonia),  mentioned  in  Genesis 
X  :  10.  Originally  applied  to  a  city  only,  the 
name  was  afterward  extended  to  the  district  of 
which  Accad  (or  Akkad)  was  at  one  time  the 
centre,  and  among  the  titles  of  the  kings  of 
Babylonia  and  Assyria  we  find,  from  about  3000 
B.C.  on,  the  phrase  "King  of  the  land  of  Shumer 
(the  biblical  Shinar)  and  Akkad"  used  as  a 
designation  for  all  Babylonia.  If  the  identi- 
fication of  Accad  with  the  city  of  Agade,  men- 
tioned in  the  inscriptions  of  Sargon  I.  and  of  his 
son,  Naram-sin,  were  certain,  we  could  place 
this  ancient  city  of  Akkad  about  fifteen  miles 
west  of  Bagdad.  According  to  the  testimony  of 
Nabonidus,  the  last  ruler  of  Babylonia,  Sargon 
I.,  whose  seat  was  at  Agade,  ruled  about  3800 
B.C.,  but  the  statement  of  Nabonidus  is  open  to 
suspicion  as  overstating  the  length  of  time  be- 
tween him  and  Sargon,  and  the  identification  of 
Akkad  with  Agade  is  not  certain.  The  city  of 
Accad  was  still  in  existence  in  the  days  of  Ne- 
buchadnezzar I.  (circa  1135  b.c.),  who  makes 
mention  of  it  in  nn  inscription.  The  Accadians 
belonged  to  the  white  race,  and  were  probably 
Semites,  the  theory  of  an  Accadian-Sumerian 
language  of  Turanian,  or  Uralo-Altaic,  affinities 
having  been  abandoned  by  the  best  authorities. 
Whether  they  were  the  first  inhabitants  of  the 
country,  in  which  they  are  found  so  early,  may 
be  doubted;  but  their  predecessors,  if  any,  were 
of  the  white  race,  possibly  Aryans,  or,  it  may  be, 
peoples  akin  to  the  tribes  of  the  Caucasus.  In- 
deed, the  Accadians  themselves  may  have  been 
in  part  Arynn.  Consult  Robert  William  Rogers, 
History  of  Babylonia  and  Assyria  (2  vols..  New 
York,  1900).     See  the  articles  Assyria;  Baby- 

UOyiX;  SUMEBIAN  LANGUAGE. 

ACCA  LABEK^IA.  In  the  story  of  primi- 
tive   Rome,    the   wife   of    the   king's    shepherd, 


AOOA  LASEVTIA. 


60 


A0CS88. 


Faustulus,  who  found  the  twin  infants,  Romulus 
and  Remus,  and  carried  them  to  her  to  be 
nursed  and  brought  up.  But  this  is  a  later  leg- 
end. The  name  Acca  Larentia  seems  to  have 
meant  * 'Mother  of  the  Lares;**  and  in  the  primi- 
tive Latin  mythology  she  was  the  cultus-heroine 
of  the  festival  Larentalia,  held  in  honor  of  the 
spirits  of  the  dead  on  December  23.  She 
was  perhaps  identical  with  Dea  Dia,  to  whose 
worship  the  Fratres  Arvales  were  dedicated.  See 
Abval  Brothers. 

ACCAXTLT,  i'k6',  Michel.  A  French  ex- 
plorer. He  was  a  lieutenant  of  La  Salle,  at 
whose  request  he  accompanied  Louis  Hennepin 
in  the  exploration  of  the  upper  part  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi in  1679.    See  Hennepin. 

AC'CELEBANOK),  liaL  pron,  ii'chft-lA- 
r&nM6.  In  music,  with  gradually  increasing 
velocity  of  movement. 

ACCEL'EBA^ION    (from    Lat.    ad,    to   + 

celerare,  to  hasten).  In  theoretical  mechanic8|  a 
term  which  denotes  the  rate  of  change  of  velocity 
at  any  instant  with  respect  to  the  time,  that  is, 
the  change  of  velocity  in  the  next  second  of  time 
if  the  rate  of  change  is  uniform;  in  other  words, 
the  change  which  would  take  place  in  the  velocity 
in  the  next  second  if,  during  that  time,  the 
change  were  to  continue  at  the  same  rate  as  at 
the  instant  considered.  An  example  of  accelera- 
tion is  furnished  by  a  body  falling  freely  toward 
the  earth.  Its  numerical  value  is  about  981  centi- 
meters, or  32.2  feet,  per  second.  Hence  a  body 
freely  falling  from  a  position  of  rest,  or  with 
velocity  equal  to  zero,  at  the  end  of  the  first 
second  would  be  moving  with  a  velocity  of  32 
feet  per  second,  at  the  end  of  the  second  second 
with  a  velocity  of  64,  at  the  end  of  the  third 
second  with  a  velocity  of  96,  and  so  on.  In  math- 
ematical language,  the  acceleration  is  the  lim- 
iting value  of  the  ratio  Av/Aty  where  A  t?  is 
the  actual  change  in  the  velocity  in  the  interval 

of  time  A^  seconds,  as  this  interval  is  taken 
shorter  and  shorter.  There  are  two  kinds  of 
acceleration,  linear  and  angular,  corresponding 
to  the  two  kinds  of  motion,  translation  and  rota- 
tion, and  there  are  two  types  of  each  of  these. 
See  Mechanics. 

ACCENT  (Lat.  accenius,  from  ad,  to  + 
cantua,  singing,  chant) .  A  special  stress  laid 
upon  one  syllable  of  a  word,  by  which  it  is  made 
more  prominent  than  the  rest.  In  the  Indo- 
European  languages  two  kinds  of  accent  are 
found,  varying  in  quality — the  musical  and  the 
expiratory.  The  first  is  found  in  Sanskrit  and 
Greek,  the  second  in  Latin  and  Teutonic.  The 
accent  may  also  be  distinguished  by  its  position, 
as  free,  in  Greek  and  primitive  Teutonic,  and 
fixed,  in  later  Teutonic.  In  English  the  general 
tendencv  is  to  throw  the  accent  back.  In  com- 
pound  words  the  sw^cent  is  usually  on  the  first 
part,  as  in  courtyard,  highway.  When  the  first 
part  is  a  prefix  it  receives  the  accent  if  the  word 
be  a  noun  or  adjective;  the  root  is  accented  if 
the  word  be  a  verb.  This  rule  applies  also  to 
"some  other  words,  as  prcs'ont  and  presents  Bor- 
rowed words  usually  adopt  the  Knj»lish  accent, 
as  orator,  presence:  but  some  recently  lx)rrowed 
French  words  retain  the  orij^inal  accentuation. 
as  parole,  caprice.  The  absence  of  stress  on  final 
inflectional  syllables  has  played  an  important 
part  in  the  leveling  of  inflections.  ( See  English 
IiANGUAOE.)  Besides  word-accents,  there  is  a 
sentence-accent,  by  which  some  word  in  the  sen- 


tence is  given  greater  stress  than  the  others. 
This  is  always  a  free  accent,  the  position  of  the 
accent  depending  upon  the  meaning.  In  the  sen- 
tence, "Where  is  he?"  three  different  meanings 
can  be  given  by  shifting  the  position  of  the  ac- 
cent. The  efl'ect  of  sentence  accent  is  often  seen 
in  the  development  of  doublets,  or  words  with 
a  common  origin,  but  a  different  form  and  mean- 
ing, as  to — ^too,  of — off.  ( See  Phonetic  Laws.  ) 
Accent  is  also  the  essential  principle  of  modern 
verse.  (See  Versification.)  For  the  primitive 
Indo-European  accent  and  its  effect  in  connection 
with  conjugation,  see  Philology. 

In  Music,  the  term  is  analogous  to  accent  in 
language,  the  stress  or  emphasis  given  to  cer- 
tain notes  or  parts  of  bars  in  a  composition. 
It  may  be  of  three  kinds:  grammatical,  rhyth- 
mical, and  rhetorical  or  aesthetic.  The  first  al- 
ways falls  on  the  first  part  of  a  bar,  long  or 
compound  measures  of  time  usually  having 
additional  or  subordinate  accents— only  slightly 
marked.  The  rhythmical  accent  is  applied  to 
the  larger  component  parts  of  a  composition, 
such  as  phrases,  themes,  motives,  etc.,  and  marks 
their  entrance,  climax,  end.  The  rhetorical  ac- 
cent is  irregular,  and  depends  on  taste  and  feel- 
ing, exactly  as  do  the  accent  and  emphasis 
used  in  oratory.  In  vocal  music  well  adapted  to 
words,  the  words  serve  as  a  guide  to  the  right 
use  of  the  rhetorical  accent.  See  Syncopation; 
Ragtime. 

ACCEK^OB  (Lat.,  one  who  sings  with  an- 
other, from  ad,  to  +  cantor ,  singer).  A  book 
name  for  a  group  of  European  warblers,  of 
which  the  misnamed  British  hedge-sparrow  {Ac- 
centor tnodularis)  is  a  type;  and  also  for  the 
American  water-thi  ashes,  wood-warblers  of  the 
genus  Seiurtis, 

ACCEPT'ANCE.  In  law,  the  signification 
by  the  drawee  of  his  assent  to  the  order  of  the 
drawer  of  a  bill  of  exchange  (q.v.).  The  term 
is  also  employed  to  descril^  the  bill  after  sucli 
acceptance. 

ACGEPT'ANTS,     APPELOiAKTS.       The 

names  given,  respectively,  to  those  among  the 
Flinch  clergy  who  accepted  the  bull  Unigenitus 
condemning  Jansenism  (1713),  and  to  those  who 
did  not,  but  appealed  to  a  general  council  to 
settle  the  controversy. 

ACKCESS,  Right  of.  A  legal  incident  of  the 
ownership  of  property  abutting  on  the  sea  or 
other  navigable  waters  or  on  a  highway  or  other 
public  lands.  In  addition  to  the  general  right 
to  the  use  of  such  waters  and  lands,  which  he 
shares  with  the  public  at  large,  the  adjacent 
owner  has  a  right  of  free  access  which  is  consid- 
ered a  special  property  right,  and  of  which,  in 
this  country,  he  cannot  be  deprived,  even  by  the 
State,  without  due  process  of  law  and  compen- 
sation. The  existence  of  such  a  right  as  against 
the  State  was  long  disputed,  but  is  now,  as  the 
result  of  recent  decisions,  firmly  established. 
Peculiar  applications  of  this  right  are  to  be 
found  in  the  common-law  rights  of  mooring 
vessels  and  of  wharfing  out  in  navigable  waters. 
Its  infringement  has  usually  taken  the  form  of 
a  grant  of  the  shore  or  of  land  under  water 
for  railroad  or  wharfing  purposes,  whereby  the 
access  of  the  ripari«an  owner  was  cut  off.  The 
right  is  not  to  be  confused  with  that  of  the 
abutting  owner  in  a  highway  or  private  stream 
subject  to  a  public  use  where  the  fee  of  the  high- 


ACCESS. 


61 


way  or  streftm  is  vested  in  such  owner.  As  to 
this,  see  Highway;  Rivers;  Ripabian  Rights; 
Waick  Rights.  Consult  Gould,  Treatise  on  the 
Law  of  Watera  (Chicago,  1900). 

ACCES^SION  (Lat.  ad,  to  +  cedere,  to  go, 
move).  In  the  law  of  property,  a  mode  of 
acquiring  title  to  land  or  goods  hy  their  annex- 
ation to  the  real  or  personal  property  of  another, 
whereby  the  thing  annexed  loses  its  separate 
identity.  It  occurs  where  land  is  gradually 
increased  by  accretion  (q.v.)  or  alluvion  (q.v.), 
where  a  tenant  or  stranger  erects  a  building  or 
attaches  a  fixture  (q.v.)  to  land,  and  where  a 
chattel  belonging  to  one  is  improved  by  the 
addition  of  materials  or  labor  of  another,  as  in 
the  repair  of  a  wagon  by  adding  a  wheel  or  by 
painting  it,  or  in  tne  conversion  of  leather  into 
shoes.  The  legal  effect  of  the  annexation  is 
to  transfer  the  title  of  the  thing  annexed  to  the 
owner  of  the  property  so  improved  or  increased, 
the  identity  of  the  former  having  been  merged 
in  the  latter;  the  wheel,  the  paint,  and  the 
labor,  in  the  examples  given  above,  having  dis- 
appeared as  separate  articles  and  being  now 
inseparable  parts  of  the  wagon  and  the  leather. 
The  rule  governing  accessions  is  that  the  own- 
ership of  the  principal  thing  carrier  with  it  that 
of  the  inferior  thing.  But,  as  the  question  of 
superiority  or  inferiority  is  not  always  one  of 
price  or  value,  the  rule  is  sometimes  difficult  of 
application.  Thus,  additions  and  improvements 
to  land,  however  extensive  and  valuable  thev 
may  be,  always  accrue  to  the  owner  of  the  soil, 
and  a  chattel  may  be  doubled  or  trebled  in  value 
by  the  expenditure  of  skill  and  labor  without 
changing  its  ownership.  But  where  the  identity 
of  a  chattel  is  completely  changed  b^  the  labor 
expended  upon  it,  as  by  the  conversion  of  malt 
into  h^eT,  or  where  it  is  enormously  increased 
in  value,  as  by  the  manufacture  of  pig  iron  into 
watch-springs,  the  product  belongs  to  the  person 
whose  money  and  labor  have  effected  the  trans- 
formation. See  the  article  on  Confusion;  and 
consult  Schouler,  Treatise  on  the  Law  of  Personal 
Property  (Boston,  1896). 

ACCES^SOBY.  At  common  law,  a  person 
who  was  not  the  chief  actor  in  a  crime,  nor 
present  at  its  performance,  but  was  concerned 
in  its  commission,  was  an  accessory.  Treason 
and  misdemeanors  did  not  admit  of  accessories, 
however;  the  former,  Blackstone  says,  because 
of  the  beinousness  of  the  crime,  and  the  latter 
because  the  law  does  not  descend  to  distinguish 
the  different  shades  of  guilt  in  petty  offenses. 
An  accessory  before  the  fact  is  one  who  counsels 
or  procures  the  commission  of  a  crime,  but  who 
is  neither  present  nor  engaged  in  furthering  the 
transaction  when  the  crime  is  committed.  An 
accessory  after  the  fact  is  one  who,  knowing  a 
felony  has  been  committed,  receives,  relieves, 
comforts,  or  assists  the  felon.  Several  reasons 
are  aaaigned  by  Blackstone  for  the  common  law 
distinction  between  principals  and  acces<4ories, 
but  the  tendency  of  modern  legislation  is  to 
convert  accessories  before  the  fact  into  princi- 
pals, and  to  permit  the  trial  and  conviction  of 
an  accessory,  whether  the  principal  has  been 
tried  and  convicted  or  not.  Consult  the  author- 
ities referred  to  under  the  title  Criminal  Law; 
also,  Wharton,  Criminal  Law  (Philadelphia, 
1896)  ;  Stephen,  A  History  of  the  Criminal  Law 
of  England  (London,  1883)  ;  Harris,  Principles 
o/  th€  Criminal  Law  (London,  1899). 


ACCIDENT  IKSITBANCE. 

ACCIDENT  (Lat.  ad,  to  +  coders,  to  fall, 
happen,  occur).  In  the  law  of  torts,  a  trans- 
action in  which  one  is  harmed  by  another  while 
the  latter  is  acting  lawfully  and  in  the  exercise 
of  due  care  adapted  to  the  exigency  of  the  case. 
For  example,  A's  and  B's  dogs  are  fighting;  A 
beats  them  in  order  to  separate  them,  and,  aa 
he  raises  his  cane,  unintentionally  a*hd  without 
negligence  hits  B,  who  is  standing  behind  hinu 
B  has  no  cause  of  action  against  A,  as  the  injury 
was  accidental.  This  is  now  the  undisputed  law 
both  in  England  and  in  the  United  States, 
although  formerly  there  was  much  apparent 
authority  in  England  for  A's  liability  in  such  a 
case.  See  the  authorities  referred  to  under  the 
title  Tort. 

In  equity  accident  denotes  an  unforeseen  event, 
loss,  act,  or  omission,  not  the  result  of  negli- 
gence or  misbehavior  in  any  of  the  parties;  such 
as  the  loss  of  negotiable  or  other  papers;  or 
where  some  part  of  a  document  has  been  omitted^ 
in  which  case  the  court  can  require  its  insertion. 
In  penalties  and  forfeitures,  where  the  injury 
caused  by  omission  of  duty  can  be  reasonably 
compensated,  as  in  case  of  failure  to  pay  rent 
on  a  given  day,  the  court  may  relieve  the  offend- 
ing party  against  the  penalty  of  forfeiture. 
Where  there  has  been  neglect  or  omission 
through  want  of  information  or  through  negli- 
gence to  defend  a  suit,  the  court  may  permit  the 
proper  steps  to  be  taken.  But  as  a  rule,  a  court 
of  equity  will  interfere  only  in  favor  of  persons 
paying  a  consideration;  so  if  a  seal  should  he 
omitted  from  a  conveyance  made  without  con- 
sideration, or  a  clause  should  be  left  out  of  a 
will,  no  relief  would  be  extended.  It  is  also 
ruled  that  no  relief  will  be  granted  against  a 
purchaser  who  has  acquired  legal  rights  in  good 
faith  for  a  consideration  of  value.  Consult :  Bisp- 
hara,  Principles  of  Equity  Jurisprudence.  See 
Tort;  Crime;  Accident  Insurance;  Contract. 

ACCIDENT  (in  logic  and  philosophy).  See 
Chance;  Loqic,  and  Predicable. 

ACCIDENTAL.  In  music,  a  sjrmbol  placed 
before  a  note  and  intended  to  alter  its  pitch. 

ACCIDENT  INSXTE^ANCE.  A  form  of 
insurance  which  indemnifies  the  insured  in  case 
of  disablement  or  death  as  the  result  of  bodily 
accident.  Under  the  usual  contract  of  accident 
insurance  the  only  injuries  insured  against  ore 
those  caused  by  violent,  accidental,  external,  and 
visible  means.  It  does  not  therefore  cover  casea 
of  intentional  injuries,  whether  self-inflicted  or 
not,  nor  cases  of  injury  or  death  resulting  from 
surgical  operations,  where  the  operations  were 
themselves  rendered  necessary  by  natural  dis- 
ease or  weaknci^s  and  not  by  external  accident. 
The  fact  that  the  accident  was  incurred  through 
the  misconduct  or  negligence  of  the  insured  will 
not,  in  general,  affect  his  rights  under  the  policy, 
though  some  companies  seek  to  protect  them- 
selves by  stipulations  that  they  shall  not  be 
liable  in  cases  where  the  accident  was  due  to 
the  intoxication  of  the  insured,  or  was  incurred 
while  wilfully  exposing  himself  to  unnecessary 
danger.  The  general  principles  governing  acci- 
dent insurance  are  the  same  as  those  of  fire, 
marine,  and  life  insurance  (q.v.).  Employers' 
Liabilitv  (q.v.),  under  recent  Enjjlish  statutes, 
is  a  form  of  accident  insurance.  Consult:  May, 
TjOw  of  hisuratwi'  (Boston.  1900);  Porter,  Law 
of  Insurance  (London,  189S). 


AcciprrRES. 


ACCIP^TBES  (Lat.  plural  of  accipiter,  the 
common  hawk),  or  Rap  aces,  or  Rattobes. 
See  BiBD  OF  Pbet. 

ACCnrS.     See  Attiub. 

ACCIiAlCA^nON  (Lat.  acclamatio,  a  call- 
ing to,  from  ad,  to  +  clamare,  to  shout,  call). 
An  expression  of  opinion  of  any  assembly  by 
means  of  the  voice.  Among  the  Romans,  accla- 
mation was  varied  in  both  form  and  purpose. 
At  marriages  the  spectators  would  shout  "lo 
Hymen,"  "Hymeniee,"  or  "Talassio."  A  victorious 
army  or  leader  was  greeted  with  "lo  triumphe." 
In  the  theatre,  approbation  for  the  play  was 
asked  by  the  actor  speaking  the  closing  words, 
who  added  "Plaudite."  In  the  senate,  opinions 
were  expressed  and  votes  passed  in  such  forms 
as  "Omnes,  omnes,"  "iEquum  est,"  "lustum  est," 
etc.;  and  the  praises  of  the  Emperor  were  cele- 
brated in  certain  prearranged  sentences  which 
seem  to  haVe  been  chanted  by  the  whole  body  of 
senators.  At  first  the  acclamation  which  greeted 
the  works  of  pK>ets  and  authors  recited  in  public 
was  genuine;  but  the  modern  claque  was  early 
introduced  by  rich  pretenders  to  literary  ability 
who  kept  paid  applauders  not  only  for  them- 
selves, but  lent  them  to  their  friends.  Nero  ^ve 
a  specimen  when  he  caused  5000  chosen  knights 
and  commoners  at  a  given  signal  to  chant  his 
praises  in  the  theatre;  they  were  called  "Angus- 
tiani,"  and  were  conducted  by  a  regular  music- 
master.  In  the  early  times  of  the  Christian 
Church  it  was  not  uncommon  for  a  congregation 
to  express  their  approbation  of  a  favorite 
preacher  during  the  course  of  his  sermon,  and  in 
this  manner  Chrysostom  was  frequently  inter- 
rupted. In  ecclesiastical  councils  voting  by  ac- 
clamation is  very  common,  the  division  being 
usually  put  in  the  form  "placet"  or  "non-placet." 

ACGLI1£ATIZA^I0K.  The  adaptation  of 
a  species  or  race  to  a  climate  different  from 
that  to  which  it  has  previously  been  accustomed. 
Acclimatization  is  often  confused  with  naturali- 
zation (q.v.),  but  naturalization  is  rather  the 
establishment  of  a  species  in  a  new  country,  and 
does  not  necessarily  imply  a  slow  adjustment  to 
conditions  that  are  at  first  injurious,  as  is  the 
case  in  acclimatization.  Naturalization  may  take 
place  without  any  real  acclimatization,  as  when 
the  new  country  is  climatically  like  the  old.  This 
case  is  illustrated  by  the  large  number  of  plants 
which  have  spread  eastward  or  westward  along 
parallels  of  latitude.  Again,  acclimatization 
may  occur  without  naturalization.  This  is  well 
illustrated  by  the  large  number  of  plants  that 
are  hardy,  and  yet  rarely,  if  ever,  run  wild; 
probably  the  struggle  for  existence  is  so  keen 
that  such  plants  fail  to  establish  themselves 
spontaneously.  Still  again,  naturalization  may 
accompany  acclimatization,  as  in  the  case  of 
plants  that  migrate  along  meridians. 

The  term  acclimatization  is  employed  by  the 
zo^Slogists  in  a  somewhat  broader  sense,  espe- 
cially when  referring  to  the  adaptation  of  ma- 
rine organisms  to  new  conditions  of  existence. 
In  the  latter  case  climatic  changes  are  relatively 
unimportant  factors.  The  changes  in  the  char- 
acter of  the  water,  as  respects  temperature,  con- 
tained food  supply,  marine  currents,  and  pres- 
sure as  determined  by  depth,  are  the  influential 
factors. 

In  Plants.  The  most  obvious  examples  of  ac- 
climatization are  found  in  cultivated  plants. 
While  the  original  stock  as  well  as  the  home  of 


62  ACCLIMATIZATIOK. 

most  cereals  is  not  definitely  known,  it  is  be- 
lieved that  most  of  them  have  come  from  warm, 
temperate  or  semi-tropical  countries.  They  have 
now  become  fully  acclimatized  in  far  northern 
regions;  indeed,  some  varieties  of  wheat,  barley, 
etc.,  flourish  even  better  in  cold,  temperate  dis- 
tricts than  in  their  original  home.  The  peach  is 
believed  to  grow  farther  north  now  than  in  the 
days  of  the  ancient  Greeks.  Evidences  of  ac- 
climatization apart  from  man's  influence  are  not 
wanting;  for  example,  it  has  been  shown  that 
plants  grown  from  seeds  that  mature  at  high 
altitudes  are  hardier  than  those  grown  from 
seeds  that  mature  at  low  altitudes. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  results  of  acclima- 
tization is  the  change  of  the  plant  periods.  In 
Finland  and  northern  Norway  barley  ripens  in 
89  days,  while  100  days  are  required  in  south- 
ern Sweden.  Varieties  of  corn  which  ripen  in 
New  York  in  93  days  require  105  days  in  Texas. 
Interesting  but  not  altogether  harmonious  re- 
sults have  been  obtained  from  deciduous  plants 
taken  from  temperate  into  tropical  evergreen  re- 
gions. In  most  plants  the  leafless  period  is  short- 
ened, and  in  some  cases  (notoriously  in  the  peach 
tree)  it  is  eliminated  altogether,  the  plant  be- 
coming an  evergi'een.  Schiniper  has  observed  an- 
other change,  viz.,  the  gradual  loss  of  rhythmic 
growth;  trees  of  temperate  climes  becoming  in 
this  respect  more  and  more  similar  to  native 
tropical  trees. 

In  some  cases  the  capacity  for  acclimatization 
is  incomplete,  i.e.,  plants  are  unable  to  adjust 
all  of  their  structures  and  functions  to  a  new 
climate.  This  lack  of  adjustment  is  seen  in 
some  plants  of  warm  regions  which,  when  trans- 
ported to  cool  regions,  vegetate  well  but  fail 
to  ripen  wood.  Many  plants  that  can  perform 
all  their  vegetative  functions  may  still  be  un- 
able to  mature  seeds;  this  is  true  not  only  of 
plants  taken  into  cooler  climates,  but  also  in 
some  cases  of  plants  transported  into  warmer 
climates.  Some  species  occurring  naturally  in 
Spitzbergen  are  said  never  to  ripen  seed;  since 
their  reproduction  is  now  wholly  vegetative, 
their  original  appearance  in  that  region  must 
necessarily  have  been  at  a  period  when  the  cli- 
mate was  much  warmer  than  at  present. 

Darwin  and  others  have  discussed  the  influence 
of  individual  variation  as  compared  with  varia- 
tion through  offspring  on  the  acclimatization  of 
a  species.  Tliere  can  be  but  little  doubt  of  the 
gradual  adaptation  of  a  race  through  the  nat- 
ural selection  of  the  hardiest  individuals  of  each 
generation.  Darwin  also  believed  in  the  power 
of  an  individual  to  become  acclimatized.  The 
Wyoming  experiment  station  reports  that  po- 
tatoes from  the  same  stock  endure  in  the  up- 
lands frosts  that  would  destroy  them  in  the 
lowlands.  This  favors  the  idea  of  individual  accli- 
matization. Oranges,  however,  propagate  hard* 
ier  forms  by  seeds  than  by  grafts,  which 
shows  that  gradual  acclimatization  through  off> 
spring  may  be  more  important.  Northern-grown 
seeds  are  preferred  by  farmers,  partly  because 
plants  grown  from  them  mature  sooner  than 
from  home-grown  seeds.  In  a  few  generations, 
how^ever,  this  hereditary  peculiarity  is  lost,  and 
a  new  supply  becomes  necessary.  It  should  be 
borne  in  mind  that  many  of  the  above  statements 
are  based  on  imperfect  observations,  and  that 
there  is  the  greatest  need  for  careful  experiment 
in  this  field. 

In  Animals.  The  capacity  of  adapting  them« 


ACCLIMATIZATION. 


63 


ACCLIMATIZATION. 


selves  to  chan^d  environment  is  not  possessed 
to  Uie  same  degree  by  different  species  of  one 
genus  or  by  the  individuals  of  any  species.  It 
varies  with  the  hardihood,  with  the  capacity  for 
resistance,  both  of  the  individual  and  of  the  spe- 
cies. Just  what  the  changes  are,  whether  chem- 
ical or  physical,  that  go  on  in  the  protoplasm 
of  the  body  during  the  period  of  acclimatization, 
we  do  not,  in  many  cases,  know.  In  the  acclima- 
tization of  fishes  to  denser  media  it  is  apparent 
that  some  solids  are  taken  into  the  body,  for  the 
fishes  sink  when  transferred  again  to  fresh  wa- 
ter. Some  organisms  possess  a  remarkably  high 
degree  of  acclimatization.  Thus,  few  animals 
can  resist  a  temperature  of  over  115**  F.,  while 
105  **  F.  is  the  death-point  of  whole  groups. 
Yet  certain  organisms  live  in  hot  springs  in 
Mater  of  much  higher  temperature,  although 
they  may  be  similar  in  kind  to,  or  even  identical 
with,  those  that  live  in  cooler  waters  outside, 
and  probably  were  acclimated  to  the  high  tem- 
perature by  slow  degrees  as  they  made  their 
way  up  the  outlets  into  the  springs.  We  know 
from  experimentation  that  organisms  can  resist 
an  amount  of  heat,  of  density  or  of  poison 
when  accustomed  to  it  by  slow  degrees,  that 
would  have  been  fatal  had  they  been  subjected 
to  it  suddenly.  We  owe  the  fact  that  certain 
domestic  animals,  such  as  the  horse,  cattle, 
dog.  cat,  fowls,  rats,  and  mice,  have  spread 
with  mankind  over  nearly  all  the  world  to 
the  great  capacity  for  acclimatization  of  these 
forms,  most  of  which  liave  originated  in  warm 
climates.  Likewise  the  ubiquity  of  such  food- 
plants  aa  the  potato  and  cereals,  as  well  as  cer- 
tain weeds,  is  due  to  their  great  capacity  of  adap- 
tation; for  those  plants  and  animals  that  have  a 
limited  amount  of  adaptation  have  likewise  a 
limited  range  of  distribution.  The  quality  and  the 
strength  of  some  animals  seem  actually  to  im- 
prove in  a  new  climate.  Thus  the  merino  sheep 
imported  into  Silesia  and  Pomerania  from  Spain 
seem  to  be  superior  in  those  lands  to  their  Span- 
ish ancestors,  while  the  fleece  of  the  Syrian  sheep 
becomes  finer  in  Spain;  but  in  such  cases  it  is 
difficult  to  say  just  how  much  is  due  to  climate 
and  how  much  to  the  breeder's  skill  and  care. 
Many  of  our  domestic  animals  have  been  so  long 
in  the  countries  in  which  we  now  find  them  that 
we  can  never  hope  to  know  anything  about  the 
history  of  their  importations;  but  the  silkworm 
is  comparatively  so  late  an  importation  into 
Europe  that  we  can  follow  its  progress.  It  was 
brought  from  China  first  into  Italy,  and  now  it 
is  acclimated  not  only  to  southern  France  but 
even  to  the  coast  of  the  Baltic  Sea,  and  it  is 
able  to  live  in  some  parts  of  the  United  States. 
Of  late  years  numerous  acclimatization  socie- 
ties have  been  formed  (the  best  known  of  which 
is  the  Soci4t^  d'Acclimatation  of  Paris),  having 
as  their  object  the  transference  of  seemingly  de- 
sirable animals  from  their  native  lands  to  other 
parts  of  the  world  where  they  may  thrive  to 
human  advantage.  This  has  been  found  feasible 
in  many  instances,  so  far  as  the  ability  to  be- 
come acclimated  is  concerned,  but  in  many 
cases  the  expected  benefits  have  turned  to  evils 
throu^  overmultiplication  or  other  means  of 
becoming  a  local  pest,  and  such  experiments  are 
now  rarely  attempted.  The  introduction  of  sal- 
monoid  fishes  from  the  Pacific  to  the  Atlantic 
side  of  the  United  States,  and  from  Europe  to 
New  Zealand,  of  bumble-bees  into  New  Zealand, 
and  of   several   insects,   such   as   ladybirds,   as 


enemies  of  agricultural  pests,  are  instances  of  the 
more  beneficial  sort.  The  European  house-spar- 
row in  North  America,  the  mungoos  and  agua- 
toad  in  the  West  Indies,  the  rabbit  in  Australia, 
and  a  great  host  of  more  or  less  accidentally 
introduced  insects  destructive  of  plants,  etc.,  are 
cases  of  an  opposite  character.  For  particulars 
in  respect  to  these,  see  accounts  of  the  respective 
animals. 

In  People.  This  treats  of  the  ability  of  men  to 
maintain  themselves  in  a  country  with  radically 
different  climatic  conditions  from  those  from 
which  they  migrate.  At  present  the  inevitable 
tendency  of  European  and  American  peoples  to 
spread  over  the  major  part  of  the  earth  gives  the 
question  many  practical  bearings.  Can  a  race 
and  a  civilization  from  the  temperate  zone  be 
transplanted  to  the  tropics?  The  question  is  a 
double  one:  (1)  Can  individuals  from  the  tem- 
perate zone  live  in  the  tropics  for  a  few  years 
and  maintain  their  health  and  vigor;  (2)  can 
they  work  at  their  usual  occupations,  maintain 
their  customary  vigor,  energy,  and  ability,  rear 
families  and  propagate  their  kind  for  several 
generations?  On  the  first  point  most  authorities 
agree  in  the  afiirmative,  provided  reasonable 
provision  for  sanitation  is  made,  and  temperance 
and  thrift  prevail  among  such  emigrants.  On 
the  second  point  authorities  differ,  with  the  bal- 
ance in  the  negative.  Races  differ  in  their  abil- 
ity to  adjust  themselves  to  new  climatic  condi- 
tions. The  individual  or  the  race  may  not  suc- 
cumb at  once  when  transferred  to  a  very  differ- 
ent climate,  and  yet  the  acclimatization  may  be 
only  partial.  Certain  organs  only  of  the  body 
may  be  affected  by  the  changes,  so  that  "diseases 
of  acclimatization"  may  be  induced.  Thus  Euro- 
peans are  liable  in  tropical  countries  to  suffer 
from  diseases  of  the  liver,  while  natives  of  the 
tropics  are  subjected  to  pulmonary  troubles  in 
temperate  zones.  The  African  in  the  United 
States  has  a  high  death  rate  from  lung  affections. 
On  the  other  hand,  loss  of  hardihood  induced  by 
climate  may  express  itself  mainly  in  deteriora- 
tion in  size,  as  is  the  case  with  the  Shetland 
pony.  So  far  as  the  human  races  are  concerned 
there  seems  to  be  a  direct  ratio  between  intelli- 
gence and  capacity  for  acclimatization.  The  An- 
glo-German race  is  able  to  endure  climatic 
changes  with  less  loss  of  vigor  than  any  other 
European  race,  and  for  this  reason  has  been 
able  to  surpass  all  the  others  as  colonizers. 
High  moral  qualities  are  needed.  Homesick- 
ness is  a  frequent  cause  of  failure.  Temperance 
and  thrift  are  excellent  qualities  for  success,  as 
evidenced  in  the  history  of  Jewish  and  Chinese 
emigration.  Mankind  is  tolerant  of  great  ex- 
tremes of  climate,  —97*  F.  to  164'  F.  being 
the  greatest  extremes  recorded  as  having  been  en- 
dured by  human  beings,  though  no  such  range 
of  variation  has  ever  been  endured  by  one  peo- 
ple or  in  any  one  place.  Not  only  temperature 
but  also  meteorological  conditions  have  an  ef- 
fect, and  moisture  is,  next  to  temperature,  the 
most  important  element. 

Bibliography.  The  best  general  treatment  of 
acclimatization  may  be  found  in  J.  Hann,  Hand- 
huch  der  Klimatologie  (Stuttgart,  1897);  Dar- 
win, The  Variations  of  AnimaU  and  Plants  Un- 
der Domesticationf  revised  edition  (London, 
1875)  ;  Pavillard,  EUments  de  biologic  r^gHale 
(Paris,  1901);  Schimper,  Pflanzengeographie 
auf  physiologischer  Orundlage  (Jena,  1898)  ; 
Hollick,  "Relation  Between  Forestry  and  Geology 


ACCUKATIZATIOK.  64 

in  New  Jersey,"  Geological  Survey  of  New  Jersey, 
Annual  Report  (Trenton,  1899) ;  Wallace,  Island 
Life  (London,  1880)  ;  Heilprin,  The  Geographical 
and  Oeological  Distribution  of  Animals  (New 
York,  1887);  Wallace,  The  Geographical  Distri- 
bution of  Animals,  2  volumes  (London,  1896). 
A  popular  treatment  of  acclimatization  of  ]>eoples 
is  given  in  Ripley,  Racial  Geography  of  Europe 
(Boston,  1899),  in  which  book  there  are  also 
excellent  bibliographical  references;  also  A.  Ire- 
land, Tropical  Colonization  (New  York,  1899)  ; 
Peschel,  The  Races  of  Man  and  Their  Geograph- 
ical Distribution  (London,  1878). 

AC'CO,  or  AC'CHO.    See  Acre. 

ACCOLADE,  ftk'k6-lfld'  (Fr.  an  embrace,  kiss, 
from  I^t.  ad,  to  4*  collum,  neck) .  A  part  of  the 
ceremonies  of  conferring  knighthood  in  the  Middle 
Ages.  The  sovereign  or  other  superior  embraced 
the  aspirant  around  the  neck  (ad  collum).  The 
term  is  sometimes  applied  to  the  later  ceremony 
of  giving  a  slight  blow  on  the  shoulder  with  the 
flat  of  the  sword.  In  music,  the  accolade  is  the 
couplet  uniting  several  staves,  as  in  part  music 
or  pianoforte  music. 

AC^COLON.  In  Sir  Thomas  Malory's  Morte 
d* Arthur,  a  knight  of  Gaul,  who  obtained  posses- 
sion of  King  Arthur's  sword  Excalibur  through 
the  treachery  of  Morgan  le  Fay.  He  died  after 
his  fight  with  the  king  (Book  IV.),  which  had 
led  to  the  discovery  of  the  trick  and  the  recovery 
of  the  sword. 

ACCOLTI,  kk-k6Vt^,  Bkntoetfo  (1415-66); 
called  the  Elder.  An  Italian  jurist.  He  was 
born  at  Arezzo,  Italy,  and  died  at  Florence.  At 
first  a  professor  of  law  at  Florence,  he  afterward 
became  chancellor  of  the  Republic,  and  occupied 
this  position  until  his  death.  He  was  gifted 
with  a  marvelous  memory,  and  is  said  on  one 
occasion  to  have  repeated  word  for  word  a  Latin 
discourse  which  the  Hungarian  ambassador  had 
addressed  to  the  magistracy  of  Florence.  His 
historical  attainments  were  considered  inferior 
to  his  knowledge  of  law.  Accolti's  principal 
publications  are:  De  Bella  a  Christianis  Contra 
Barbaros  Gesto  pro  Chrisii  Sepulchro  et  ludcsa, 
Recuperandis  Libri  Quatuor  (Venice,  1572; 
Florence,  1623,  w«th  a  commentary  by  Scoto), 
which  furnished  the  material  for  Tasso's  Jeru- 
salem Delivered;  and  Prcsstantia  Virorum  8ui 
JEvi  (first  published  at  Parma  in  1689  and  fre- 
quently reprinted).  Consult  Potthast,  Biblio- 
iheca  Historica  Medii  JEvi,  Volume  I.  (Berlin, 
1896). 

ACCOLTI,  Bernabdo  (1465-1536).  An  Ital- 
ian poet,  a  son  of  Benedetto  Accolti  (q.v.).  H^, 
was  born  at  Arezzo,  and  is  said  to  have  enjoyed 
so  much  popularity  as  a  poet  that  the  shops 
were  closed  and  multitudes  flocked  to  hear  him 
recite  his  verses.  But  although  styled  by  his 
contemporaries  "The  Unique,"  such  portions  of 
his  works  as  have  come  down  to  us  scarcely 
justify  so  high  an  estimate  of  his  ability.  His 
poems  were  first  published  at  Florence  in  1613 
under  the  title:  Virginia^  commedia,  capitoli, 
e  strambotti  di  Messer  Bernardo  Accolti  Aretino. 
They  were  republished  at  Venice  in  1519  and 
have  since  been  frequently  reprinted. 

ACCOM'MODA^nON  (Lat.  <u2,  to  +  com- 
modus,  fit,  suitable).  The  power  of  altering  the 
focus  of  the  eye  so  that  rays  coming  from  an 
object  nearer  than  twenty  feet  are  brought  to- 
gether on  the  retina.    This  is  brought  about  by 


ACCOXPANIIEENT. 

changes  in  the  convexity  of  the  crystalline  lens 
(q.v.).  The  latter  possesses  a  degree  of  elastic- 
ity which  tends  to  make  it  assume  a  spherical 
form.  The  lens  being  suspended  by  a  ligament 
extending  around  its  periphery,  the  ciliary  mus- 
cle  is  so  attached  that  when  it  contracts  it 
causes  a  relaxation  of  the  suspensory  ligament. 
This  diminishes  the  tension  upon  the  latter  and 
allows  the  lens  to  become  more  spherical,  chiefly 
on  its  anterior  surface.  At  the  same  time  the 
pupil  contracts,  and  the  visual  lines  of  the  two 
eyes  converge.  The  range  of  accommodation  is 
the  distance  between  the  "far  point"  or  tlie  far- 
thest point  of  distinct  vision  and  the  "near 
point,"  or  nearest  point  at  which  the  eye  can 
distinctly  see  objects.  As  a  person's  age  in- 
creases, the  power  of  accommodation  gradually 
diminishes  and  the  near  point  recedes.  At  ten 
years  it  is  2.8  inches;  at  thirty  it  has  reached 
5.6  inches,  and  after  forty-five  it  increases 
rapidly,  until  at  seventy  it  is  160  inches,  and  at 
seventy-five,  infinity.    See  Vision. 

ACCOMMODATION  (In  Theologt).  Either 
the  practice  of  forcing  Scripture  texts  to  bear 
other  than  their  plain  meaning,  or  the  theory 
that  Jesus  Christ  in  his  teaching  fell  in  with 
certain  errors  of  his  time,  e.g.,  belief  in  de- 
moniacs, and  thus  accommodated  himself  to  the 
mental  and  moral  conditions  of  the  Jews. 

ACCOMMODATION  BILL  OB  NOTE.     A 

draft,  bill  of  exchange  or  promissory  note,  one 
or  more  of  the  parties  to  which  has  signed  it 
without  receiving  value  therefor,  and  for  the 
purpose  of  lending  his  credit  to  some  other  part^ 
thereto.  Such  a  bill  is  a  valid,  negotiable  in- 
strument, and  the  accommodation  party,  whether 
known  to  be  such  or  not,  is  liable  thereon  to  a 
holder  for  value.  But,  as  between  himself  and 
the  party  accommodated,  he  is  only  a  surety,  and 
is,  as  such,  exonerated  by  the  giving  of  time  to 
the  principal  debtor  without  his  assent.  See 
Principal  and  Surety;  Bill  of  Exchange; 
Neootiable  Instruments,  and  the  authorities 
therein  referred  to. 

ACCOM'PANIMENT.  The  additional  in- 
strumental part  which,  in  music  written  for  a 
solo  voice  or  instrument,  gives  harmonic  and 
rhythmic  support  to  the  solo  part  or  melody; 
as  the  pianoforte  part  in  a  song,  the  orchestral 
part  in  a  concert,  etc.  An  ad  libitum  accom- 
paniment is  one  that  is  not  a  part  of  the  struc- 
ture of  the  composition,  and  may  therefore  be 
performed  or  omitted  at  pleasure.  An  obligato 
accompaniment,  on  the  contrary,  forms  an  in- 
tegral part  of  the  music  and  is  indispensable. 
The  accompanist  of  the  present  day  has  an  easy 
task  compared  with  that  of  his  predecessors  in 
the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  centuries,  and 
even  later.  In  the  scores  of  the  old  masters^ 
especially  those  of  Handel  and  Bach,  the  accom- 
paniments were  not  written  out  in  full.  A 
single  bass  part  was  given,  and  the  accompany- 
ing harmonies  were  indicated  by  figures  over  the 
notes.  This  species  of  musical  shorthand  be- 
came known  as  figured  or  thorough  bass,  and 
also  basso  continuo.  The  accompanist  at  the 
organ  or  harpsichord  translated  these  figures  at 
sight  into  their  equivalent  harmonies,  and  with 
them,  improvised,  with  runs,  trills,  and  various 
ornaments,  the  sort  of  accompaniment  that  the 
music  needed.  The  musicians  of  the  time  be- 
came very  expert  at  this  difficult  accomplish- 
ment, both  Handel  and  Bach  being  renowned  for 


ACGOMPANIMENT. 


65 


their  wonderful  polyphonic  accompaniments. 
Many  of  these  old  scores  have  been  worked  out^ 
by  skilled  musicians,  who  have  filled  out  the 
missing  parts  and  arranged  the  accompaniment 
for  the  modem  orchestra.  Among  the  scores  to 
which  ^'additional  accompaniments"  have  been 
written  are  those  of  Handel's  Messiah,  by 
Mocart;  Israel  in  Egypt ,  by  Mendelssohn;  and 
the  great  edition  of  Bach's  works,  by  Franz. 
Consult  Apthorp,  Musicians  and  Music  Lovers 
(New  York,  1894). 

ACOOM^LICE  (through  confusion  with 
accomplish,  for  earlier  romp  {toe*,  companion,  es- 
pecially in  crime,  from  Lat.  complex,  closely  con- 
nect od.  confederate).  One  whose  participation 
in  a  crime  renders  him  liable  to  punishment, 
either  as  a  principal  or  as  an  accessory.  Hence, 
a  person  who  acts  only  the  part  of  a  detective 
is  not  an  accomplice,  although  he  may  pretend 
to  be  the  criminal's  confederate,  for  his  act,  not 
being  done  with  criminal  intent,  is  not  punish- 
able. The  term  is  most  frequently  used  in  cases 
where  one  of  several  criminals  has  turned  state's 
evidence.  As  his  testimony  against  his  fellows 
is  apt  to  be  given  in  the  hope  of  securing  im- 
munity for  himself,  the  court  usually  charges 
the  jury  that  it  is  open  to  suspicion,  and  many 
modem  statutes  declare  that  a  conviction  can- 
not be  had  upon  the  testimony  of  an  accomplice, 
unleas  he  be  corroborated  by  such  other  evidence 
as  tends  to  connect  the  defendant  with  the  com- 
mission of  the  crime.  Consult  the  authorities 
mentioned  under  the  title  Criminal  Law;  also 
Wharton,  CHminal  Law  (Philadelphia,  1896). 

AOCOKAMBONI,  Ak'kd-r&m-bi/nd,  VirroBiA 
(?-1585).  An  Italian  woman  remarkable  for 
her  beauty  and  her  tragic  history.  She  was 
<4m<;ht  in  marriage  by  Paolo  Giordano  Orsini, 
Duke  of  Bracciano,  who  was  supposed  to  have 
murdered  his  wife,  Isabella  de'  Medici,  but  her 
father  gave  her  to  Francesco  Peretti,  nephew  of 
Cardinal  Montalto,  aften^ard  Pope  Sixtus  V. 
The  husband  w^as  assassinated  in  1681,  and  the 
widow  lied  from  her  father-in-law's  house  to  that 
of  the  Duke  of  Bracciano,  the  supposed  mur- 
derer. Pope  Gregory  XIII.  opposed  her  mar- 
ria|^  to  the  duke  so  far  as  to  keep  her  a  prisoner 
in  the  castle  of  Sant'  Angelo  nearly  a  year,  but 
that  did  not  prevent  their  union.  Not  long 
afterward  the  duke  died,  leaving  nearly  the  whole 
of  his  fortune  to  the  widow.  This  so  incensed 
Ladorico  Orsini,  a  relative,  that  he  caused  the 
widow  to  be  murdered  in  her  home  in  Padua, 
December  22,  1585.  Her  history  has  been  made 
the  subject  of  novels  and  plays,  among  others, 
of  Webster's  tragedy.  The  White  Denl.  Consult: 
Gnoli,  Vittoria  Accoramboni  (Florence,  1870). 

AOCOBD^  AND  SAnSFACTIGN.     In  the 

law  of  contracts,  a  mutual  agreement  entered 
into  by  the  parties  to  a  contract  by  which  one 
party  agrees  to  discharge  the  other  from  his 
obligation  under  the  contract,  in  return  for  the 
other  party's  promise  to  do  or  give  somethinjjr. 
The  satisfaction  is  the  performance  of  t)io  prom- 
iiae  to  do  or  give  something.  The  a<?veemcnt 
for  the  discharge  of  the  contract  may  l)e  unilat- 
eral, that  is,  the  promise  is  given  on  the  one 
Mde  in  return  for  an  act  on  the  part  of  the 
promisee,  in  which  case  the  accord  and  satisfac- 
tion eome  into  existence  Aimultaneously.  At 
eominon  law  it  was  early  held  that  an  accord 
with  satiafaetioo  was  a  good  defense  to  an  action 
founded  upon  simple  contract,  but  that  a  mutual 


ACCOTTITT. 

agreement  to  discharge  a  pre-existing  contract, 
being  mere  promise  given  for  promise,  was  an 
accord  only  and  not  a  valid  defense  at  law. 
This  was  either  because  mutual  promises,  not 
being  good  consideration  for  each  other,  were 
not  regarded  as  binding,  or  because  the  law 
would  not  enforce  an  agreement  which  merely 
substituted  one  cause  of  action  for  another, 
or  for  both  reasons.  The  first,  owing  to  the 
changed  conception  of  consideration,  has  ceased 
to  exist,  and  the  second  is  now  generally  disre- 
garded, most  jurisdictions  holding  that  a  mere 
accord  without  satisfaction  is  a  valid  discharge 
of  a  simple  contract,  though  the  decided  cases 
are  not  altogether  harmonious  on  this  point. 
Agreements  never  to  sue  on  the  earlier  contract 
were  regarded  as  a  good  accord  or  accord  and 
satisfaction  and  a  valid  defense,  but  agreements 
not  to  sue  for  a  limited  time  were  not  admitted 
as  a  defense  at  common  law;  but  equity  might 
enforce  them  by  enjoining  action  on  the  earlier 
contract.  In  the  case  of  contracts  under  seal, 
before  breach,  accord  and  accord  and  satisfaction 
were  not  admitted  as  valid  defenses  at  common 
law,  but  after  breach  of  the  obligation  under 
seal,  it  was  regarded  as  a  mere  right  of  action 
for  damages,  of  no  higher  nature  than  a  simple 
contract  and  subject  to  the  same  defenses.  Equity 
under  proper  conditions  would  enforce  the  accord 
even  wnen  entered  into  before  breach  of  the  con- 
tract under  seal  by  enjoining  all  action  upon  the 
latter;  and  in  most  jurisdictions  where  equitable 
defenses  may  be  pleaded  at  law,  accord  or  accord 
and  satisfaction  may  now  be  set  up  as  a  defense 
to  an  action  on  the  instrument  under  seal.  An 
accord  must  always  be  an  agreement  founded 
on  good  consideration.  Thus,  a  mere  agreement 
founded  upon  a  promise  to  do  or  give  something 
which  the  promisee  was  already  bound  to  do 
(for  example,  an  agreement  to  pay  a  lesser  sum 
in  lieu  of  a  debt  for  a  greater)  is  not  valid  as 
an  accord.  An  apparent  exception  to  this  rule 
exists  in  cases  where  the  precise  amount 
or  character  of  the  obli^tion  under  the  earlier 
contract  was  uncertain,  in  which  case  an  accord 
by  way  of  a  compromise  agreement  is  regarded 
as  made  upon  valid  consideration.  A  real  excep* 
tion  £o  the  rule  was  allowed  in  case  of  compro^ 
mise  agreements  in  which  a  debtor  agreed  to 
pay  a  smaller  sum  in  lieu  of  a  greater  to  hia 
creditors  in  return  for  their  promise  to  release 
him  from  his  debts  to  them.  In  a  number  of 
the  States,  notably  New  York,  a  written  receipt 
given  by  the  creditor  to  a  debtor  without  consid- 
eration and  with  intent  to  release  the  debts  is 
allowed  to  be  a  valid  discharge  of  the  debts. 
This  is  anomalous.  See  the  authorities  referred 
to  under  Contr.\ct. 

ACCORDION  (Fr.  accorder,  to  accord,  be  in 
harmony).  A  musical  instrument  which  pro- 
duces its  tones  by  the  vibration  of  metallic 
tongues  of  various  sizes,  while  wind  is  supplied 
by  the  action  of  a  hand  bellows.  Two  sets  of 
tongues  make  it  possible  to  produce  the  same 
tones  either  by  pressing  or  pulling  the  bellows. 
It  waH  invented  by  Damian  of  Vienna  in  1829. 
See  Concertina  and  Harmonium. 

ACCOUNT'  (Lat.  ad,  to  -|-  compuiare,  to 
sum  up,  reckon,  compute).  In  its  broadest 
sense,  a  catalogue  of  items,  whether  of  debts  or 
credits,  arising  out  of  contracts,  as  in  the  case 
of  merchants;  or  a  fiduciary  relation,  as  in  the 
case  of  principal  and  agent ;  or  a  duty  imposed  by 


ACCOTTITT. 

law,  as  in  the  case  of  an  administrator  or  public 
officer.  A  mutual  account  is  one  containing 
reciprocal  demands  or  charges  against  the 
parties;  as  the  account  between  two  merchants, 
or  between  a  merchant  and  a  customer,  each  of 
whom  has  sold  goods  to  the  other.  Before  an 
account  is  rendered  or  adjusted,  it  is  spoken  of 
as  "open"  or  "current."  A  stated  account  is 
one  which  has  been  accepted  as  correct  by  the 
party  against  whom  it  states  a  balance.  The 
debtor's  assent  to  the  correctness  of  the  account 
as  stated  need  not  be  express ;  it  may  be  implied 
from  his  retention  of  an  account  rendered  with- 
out an  objection  to  it  within  a  reasonable  time. 
The  acceptance  of  an  account  stated,  or,  to  use 
the  ordinary  legal  phrase,  the  stating  of  an 
account,  is  said  to  be  in  the  nature  of  a  new 
promise;  and  the  creditor  suing  upon  such  an 
account  need  not  set  forth  the  subject  matter 
of  the  original  debt.  Originally  an  account 
stated  was  confined  to  transactions  between 
merchants;  but  in  England  and  in  most  of  our 
jurisdictions  its  scope  has  been  extended  to 
accounts  between  all  creditors  and  debtors.  In 
some  States,  however,  stating  an  account  between 
others  than  merchants  does  not  create  a  new 
cause  of  action,  but  is  available  to  the  creditor 
only  as  an  admission  by  the  debtor.  Even  after 
an  account  has  been  stated  it  may  be  corrected 
for  fraud  or  mutual  mistake. 

The  action  of  account  at  common  law  has 
fallen  into  disuse,  partly  because  it  was  difficult, 
dilatory  and  expensive,  but  chiefly  because  a 
court  of  equity  possessed  more  extended  author- 
ity and  better  machinery  in  cases  involving  an 
account.  Equity  will  entertain  an  action  for 
an  accounting  where  a  fiduciarv  relation  exists 
between  the  parties,  such  as  that  of  principal 
and  agent  (q.v.),  trustee,  and  cestui  que  trust , 
guardian  (q.v.*)  and  ward;  or  where  there  is 
a  mutual  account  between  plaintiff  and  defend- 
ant ;  or  where  there  are  circumstances  of  compli- 
cation, as  in  partnership  (q.v.)  accounts.  So  an 
accounting  may  be  had  as  incidental  to  the 
«xereise  of  other  equity  jurisdiction,  as  in  mort- 
gage foreclosures. 

ACCOTJNT'ANT.  In  the  United  States  a 
term  applied  widelv  to  any  one  who  keeps 
Accounts,  i.e.,  a  bookkeeper,  though  there  is  a 
tendency  to  restrict  it  to  those  whose  accounts 
present  a  certain  difficulty  and  complexity.  In 
England  the  term  designates  an  officer  employed 
by  railway  companies,  banks,  etc.,  from  time  to 
time  to  inspect  and  verify  their  books  and 
accounts,  ana  to  make  out  periodical  statements 
and  balance  sheets.  It  is  recognized  as  a  special 
branch  of  business.  Generafly  speaking,  the 
work  of  an  accountant  may  be  classified  under 
two  divisions:  (1)  All  those  matters  that 
involve  the  investigation  of  the  books  of  a  firm 
•or  company,  with  the  making  up  of  balance 
sheets,  statements  of  all  kinds,  and  reports ;  and 
(2)  the  managepient  of  estates,  whether  of 
bankrupts  or  others.  While  the  last  named 
function  is  not  known  in  the  United  States,  the 
practice  of  a  periodical  report  by  accountants 
not  permanently  connected  with  the  business  is 
growing  among  the  larger  financial  institutions. 
With  this  practice  there  have  arisen  professional 
accountants  whose  function  it  is  to  act  as  im- 
partial witnesses  to  the  accuracy  of  the  accounts 
of  corporations  and  similar  enterprises,  and  to 
make  expert  investigations  in  controversies  at 
law  involving  accounts. 


66 


ACCXJBATIOK. 


AG^GBA.    See  Akkra. 


•  ACCBETION  (Lat.  accretio,  an  increase, 
from  ad,  to -\- crescerCf  to  grow).  In  law,  the 
gradual  extension  of  the  boundaries  of  land  at 
the  expense  of  the  sea,  or  of  a  neighboring  owner, 
by  the  imperceptible  action  of  natural  forces, 
as  by  the  recession  of  the  ocean,  the  deposit  of 
silt  and  earth  by  a  stream,  the  drying  up  of  a 
pond,  etc.  The  word  is  sometimes,  though  im- 
properly, used  to  include  the  various  kinds  of 
accession  (q.v.)  and  as  the  equivalent  of  that 
term ;  but  it  is  in  its  legal  sense  properly  applic- 
able only  to  that  form  of  accession  in  which 
land  is  added  to  other  land  by  the  process  above 
described.  Where  the  land  so  gained  is  washed 
up  by  the  sea,  or  deposited  by  a  running  stream, 
or  left  bare  by  the  gradual  drying  up  or  retire- 
ment of  the  water  boundary^  it  is  known  as 
alluvion  (q.v.).  As  above  indicated,  the  process 
must,  in  order  to  result  in  an  accretion,  be  so 
slow  as  to  be  imperceptible  in  its  progress.  If 
sudden,  no  change  of  ownership  results,  the 
land  so  exposed  remaining  the  property  of  the 
sovereign  or  of  the  neighboring  proprietor  af- 
fected thereby.  Thus  a  boundary  stream  may, 
by  changing  its  course  gradually,  little  by  little 
transfer  the  ownership  of  the  land  on  one  side 
to  the  opposite  proprietor,  whereas  a  sudden 
change  of  course  would  not  affect  the  boundaries 
of  the  two  parcels  of  land  in  the  slightest  degree. 
Consult:  Cfbuld,  Treatise  on  the  Law  of  Waters 
(Chicago,  1900)  ;  Angell,  Treatise  on  the  Law 
of  Watercourses   (Boston,  1877). 

AC^CBINGTOKT.  A  manufacturing  town  in 
Lancashire,  England.  It  has  recently  increased 
much  in  size  and  importance,  and  lies  in  a  deep 
valley,  surrounded  by  hills,  about  20  miles  north 
of  Manchester  and  .5  miles  east  of  Blackburn, 
on  the  banks  of  the  Hindburn  (Map:  England, 
D  3).  Among  its  notable  buildings  are  Christ 
Church,  a  fine  Gothic  edifice,  erected  in  1838, 
and  the  town  hall,  a  handsome  building  in  the 
Italian  style.  The  town  was  incorporated  in 
1878.  The  gas  and  water  supply  are  owned 
jointly  by  the  town  of  Accrington  and  several 
other  neighboring  towns.  The  town  owns  public 
baths,  markets,  slaughter-houses,  and  cemeteries, 
and  maintains  a  technical  school.  It  also  owns 
its  street  railways,  which  are  leased  to  private 
companies.  The  inhabitants  are  mostly  employed 
in  cotton  factories,  dye-works,  chemical  works, 
weaving,  and  calico-printing.  Accrington  is  con- 
sidered the  centre  of  the  cotton-printing  industry. 
There  are  coal  mines  in  the  neighborhood,  in 
which  man^  of  the  people  find  employment. 
Accrington  is  advantageously  situated  m  regard 
to  communications,  being  a  station  on  the  Lan- 
cashire and  Yorkshire  Railway.  Its  growth  of 
population  has  been  very  rapid.  From  less  than 
9000  in  1841  it  rose  to  38,000  in  1891,  and  in 
1901,  to  43,100. 

AC'CTTBA^ION  (Lat.  ad,  to  +  cubare,  to  lie 
down).  The  reclining  posture  of  Greeks  and 
Romans  at  table.  Among  the  Greeks  a  low  table 
was  placed  beside  each  couch,  on  which  usually 
two  persons  reclined,  resting  on  the  left  arm, 
which  was  supported  by  cushions.  Among  the 
Romans  three  couches  were  placed,  so  as  to  form 
three  sides  of  a  square,  and  three  persons 
reclined  on  each  couch.  The  middle  couch  was 
the  most  honorable.  Respectable  women  did  not 
adopt  this  position  until  the  time  of  the  Roman 
Empire. 


Aocmc  67 

ACCUXy  Rk^pm,  Friedrich  (1769-1838).  A 
Gemiaii  chemist.  He  was  bom  in  Westphalia, 
went  to  London  in  1793,  and  became  professor 
of  chemistry  there  in  1802.  He  was  known  chiefly 
on  account  of  his  work,  A  Practical  Treatise  on 
OasUght  (1815),  which  had  the  effect  of  intro- 
ducing the  illuminant  in  England.  The  book 
wks  translated  into  several  languages.  In  1822 
he  became  professor  in  a  technical  institute  in 
Berlin,  where  he  died. 

ACCTT'iriTL ACTIONS  (Lat.  ad,  to  -|-  cumu- 
lore,  to  pile^  heap).  In  law,  the  accumulated 
interest  and  income  of  property  held  in  trust 
upon  a  trust  created  for  the  purpose  of  effecting 
such  accumulation  for  the  benefit  of  the  cestui 
^ue  trust  (q.v.).  The  law  relating  to  accumula- 
tion is  closely  related  to  the  rule  against  per- 
petuities (q.v.)  as  now  defined  by  modern  stat- 
ute. It  was  the  common  law  rule  that  any 
disposition  of  real  estate  which  postponed  a 
vesting  of  any  interest  in  the  estate  for  longer 
than  a  life  or  lives  in  being  and  twenty-one  years 
and  a  few  months  additional  was  absolutely 
void.  This  rule  was  deemed  to  be  violated  by 
the  creation  of  a  trust  for  accumulation  for  any 
R-eater  period.  This  continued  to  be  a  rule  of 
decision  until  the  passage  by  the  English  Par- 
liament of  the  so-called  Thellusson  Act^  (Bee 
Thellusson  r.  Woodford,  4  Ver.  p.  227,  Gray  Pub. 
Assoc.,  Boston.)  This  act  placed  several  limi- 
tations on  the  common  law  rule  as  to  accumula- 
tion. The  rule  relating  to  accumulation  is  now 
regulated  wholly  by  statute  in  most  jurisdic- 
tions, and  generally  the  power  to  create  trusts 
for  accumulation  is  limited  to  the  creation  of  a 
trust  for  the  life  of  the  grantor  only  or  for 
twenty-one  years  or  during  the  minority  of  the 
beneficiary.  See  the  authorities  referred  to 
under  Trust  and  Perpetuity. 

ACCU^XTTLATOBS.  Apparatus  for  equal- 
ixin^  pressure  or  for  the  accumulation  of  energy 
for  intermittent  use.  The  storage  battery  and 
the  Leyden  jar  are  electrical  accumulators.  (See 
Storagx  Battery;  Ck>NDENSEB.)  Hydraulic  ac- 
cumulators are  extensively  used  in  oounection 
with  hydraulic  machinery  for  operating  cranes, 

Punching  and  riveting  machines,  presses,  etc. 
he  simplest  way  of  storing  up  water  for  pres- 
sure purposes  is  to  erect  a  tank  at  a  sufficient 
height  to  give  the  required  pressure  by  the 
weight  or  head  of  the  water  column  alone.  This 
arrangement  is  generally  adopted  for  hydraulic 
elevators  in  warenouses  and  lofty  buildings.  (See 
EuEVATOBS.)  Where  very  high  pressures  are 
required,  however,  it  becomes  impracticable  to 
adopt  a  tank  or  water  tower,  since  the  elevation 
required  to  give  the  necessary  pressure  would  be 
impracticable  to  obtain,  700  pounds  pressure, 
for  instance,  requiring  a  tank  1610  feet  high. 
In  such  cases  accumulatora  are  employed,  and 
the^  generally  assume  the  form  of  a  vertical 
cyl]n£r  resting  on  a  firm  base  and  having  a 
plunger  working  through  a  stuffing-box  at  the 
top.  This  plunger  has  at  its  upper  end  a  yoke 
which  carries  by  means  of  suspension  rods  a 
heavy  weight  of  cast  iron  or  other  heavy  mate- 
rial. A  power  pump  forces  water  into  the  cyl- 
inder at  a  pressure  sufficient  to  lift  the  weighted 
plunger  to  the  top  of  the  cylinder,  where  the 
plunger  strikes  a  stop  which  prevents  its  rising 
niTther  and  prevents  the  further  escape  of  water 
from  the  pump.  In  this  position  the  cylinder 
Is  filled  with  a  column  of  water,  which  supports 


ACEFHALL 


the  weighted  plunger  on  its  top.  As  water  is 
drawn  off  from  the  cylinder  to  supply  the  crane, 
press,  riveter,  or  other  machinery,  the  weighted 
plunger  descends,  always  keeping  a  pressure  on 
the  top  of  the  water  column  equal  to  the  com- 
bined weight  of  the  plunger  and  its  load^  As 
soon  as  the  plunder  descends  the  pump  resumes 
work  and  raises  it  again.  By  this  combination 
of  operations  the  water  pressure  is  always  kept 
constant  for  supplying  the  hydraulic  machinery. 
Sometimes  steam  or  air  pressure  acting  on  the 
top  of  the  plunger  is  substituted  for  the  more 
common  suspended  weights.  Hydraulic  accumu- 
lators are  built  to  give  pressures  ranging  from 
five  pounds  to  ten  tons  per  square  inch. 

ACCTJSA^nON.  A  le^al  term  which  signi- 
fies either  the  act  of  charging  one  with  a  crime, 
or  the  charge  itself.  When  the  charge  is  made 
outside  of  a  judicial  proceeding  it  may  subject 
the  accuser  to  an  action  for  defamation  (q.v.), 
while  if  made  in  the  course  of  a  judicial  pro- 
ceeding it  is  generally  not  actionable.  A  threat 
or  a  conspiracy  to  accuse  another  of  a  crime  is 
indictable.     See  Blackmail  and  Extortion. 

ACCTJ^SATIVE  CASE.     See  Declension. 

ACELDAMA,  &-seKd&-mA,  or  AKELDA- 
TWA^  A-k&l^dA-in&  (R.  V.).  According  to  Acts 
i,  19,  "the  field  of  blood;"  but  inasmuch  as  the 
original  Greek  text  furnishes  the  form  Acelda- 
mach,  it  has  been  suggested  by  August  Kloster- 
mann  {Prohleme  im  Aposteltexte,  pp.  1-8)  that 
the  second  elemont,  (Uttnach,  is  the  Aramaic  word 
"to  sleep,'*  so  that  the  real  meaning  of  the  term 
is  "field  of  sleep.'*  Such  a  name  would  have  been 
appropriate  for  a  field  which,  according  to  Mat- 
thew xxvii  :  S,  was  bought  by  the  priests  of 
Jerusalem  as  a  field  in  which  to  bury  strangers. 
Aceldama  was  acquired  in  this  way  with  thirty 
pieces  of  silver  which  Judas  Iscariot  received  as 
a  reward  for  betraying  Jesus,  but  which  in  the 
hour  of  his  repentance  ne  returned  to  the  priests. 
The  designation  of  Aceldama  as  a  "potter's  field" 
in  both  of  the  passages  of  the  New  Testament 
referred  to  connects  the  place  with  the  "potter's 
house*'  mentioned  by  Jeremiah  xviii  :  2 ;  xix  :  2. 
It  would  appear,  therefore,  that  Aceldama  is 
older  than  the  story  told  of  it  in  the  New  Teste- 
ment,  and  its  designation  as  a  "field  of  blood'* 
is  but  a  play  upon  the  word,  introduced  to  add 
color  to  the  narrative  of  Judas  Iscariot.  A  tra- 
dition of  considerable  antiquity  locates  Acel- 
dama on  a  level  overhanging  the  "valley  of  the 
son"  (Hinnom)  and  halfway  up  the  hill.  As 
early  as  the  sixth  century  this  traditional  site 
was  used  as  a  burying-place  for  Christian  pil- 
grims, and  continued  in  use  until  the  seven- 
teenth century.  A  history  and  description  of  the 
site  is  furnished  by  Schick  in  the  quarterly 
stetement  of  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund  of 
1892,  pp.  283-289. 

ACXPH^ALI  (Gk.  &  a,  priv.  +  lu^ii, 
hephaie,  head;  i.e.  headless).  A  name  given 
(1)  To  metropolitans  and  bishops  who  have  no 
ecclesiastical  head  over  them.  (2)  To  certain 
ecclesiastical  parties:  (a)  those  bishops  at  the 
ecumenical  council  of  Ephesus  in  431  who  re- 
fused to  join  either  tire  party  of  Cyril  or  of  John 
of  Antioch;  (b)  those  who  rejected  the  doctrinal 
decision  of  the  ecumenical  council  held  at  Chal- 
cedon  in  451  upon  the  nature  of  Christ  (see 
Christology)  ;  (c)  the  Eutychian  adherents  of 
Peter  Mon*»U8,  who  refused  to  subscribe  to 
the    Henoticon    in    482,    designed    to    end    the 


68 


ACETO-ACETIC  ESTER. 


Monophysite  Controversy.     (3)  To  clergy  belong- 
ing to  no  diocese.     (4)  To  the  Flagellants  (q.v.). 

ACEPH'ALOCYST  (literally,  a  cyst  with- 
out a  head;  Gk.  a,  a,  priv.  -f-  KetpaX^^ 
kephaU!j  head  -f-  Kiortc,  kystis,  a  bladder, 
bag)*.  A  hydatid  growth  found  in  the  liver, 
kidneys,  or  other  glandular  organs  of  man,  and 
sometimes  of  lower  animals.  It  is  a  globular  sac 
with  walls  of  condensed  albuminous  substance 
of  laminated  composition.  In  its  cavity  is  a  col- 
orless fluid  of  albuminous  and  gelatinous  compo- 
sition. Sometimes  many  secondary  cysts  occur. 
They  are  of  parasitic  origin,  being  produced  by 
the  larvae  of  a  species  of  tapeworm  {Topnia  echi- 
nococcus), 

A^CEB.    See  Mafle. 

ACEBBI,  &-cher^,  Giuseppe  (1773-1846). 
An  Italian  naturalist,  born  at  Castel  Goffredo. 
He  studied  at  Mantua  and  became  proficient  in 
natural  science.  He  was  the  first  Italian  to  reach 
North  Cape  (1798).  In  1816  he  founded  the 
Bihlioteca  Italiana,  a  literary  review  published 
at  Milan,  and  from  1826  to  1836  was  Aus- 
trian consul-general  in  Egypt,  where  he  made 
important  archaeological  collections  for  the  muse- 
ums of  Vienna,  Padua,  Milan,  and  Pavia.  He 
published  (in  English)  Travels  Through  Stoeden, 
Finland,  Lapland  (2  volumes,  London,  1802). 

ACEBBA,  ft-cli6r^r&,  the  ancient  Aceiulv:.  An 
episcopal  city  in  south  Italy,  nine  miles  north- 
east of  Naples  and  opposite  Mount  Somma,  from 
which  there  is  an  excellent  view  of  Vesuvius.  It 
has  a  cathedral  and  a  seminary.  The  country 
is  fertile,  but  until  recently,  when  the  marshes 
were  drained,  was  extremely  unhealthful,  owing 
to  the  mundfations  of  the  Agno,  which  is  the 
Claniua  non  cequus  Acerria  of  Vergil.  Pop.,  1901, 
16,443. 

ACET.  A  combining  form  used  in  various 
chemical  terms,  and  ultimately  derived  from 
Lat.  acetum,  vinegar;  as  in  acetsl,  ace^anilid, 
etc. 

ACETAL,  is'A-tftl,  CH3CH(0CJI»)».  A  color- 
less liquid  of  agreeable  odor  and  taste.  It  is 
readily  obtained  by  heating  a  mixture  of  alde- 
hyde and  ordinary  alcohol.  It  has  been  used  to 
improve  the  flavor  of  wine. 

ACETANILID,  as'^t-fin^fl-Id.  A  crystal- 
line powder  made  by  the  action  of  acetic  acid 
on  aniline.  It  is  odorless,  slightly  bitter,  spar- 
ingly soluble  in  water,  but  freely  so  in  alcohol, 
ether,  and  chloroform.  Chemically,  it  is  phenyl- 
ucetamide,  CH«CONHCcHb.  It  is  known  also  by 
the  trade  name  antifebrin.  Its  action  resembles 
that  of  antipyrine  (q.v.) ,  but  is  less  likely  to  cause 
eruptions,  respiratory  disturbance,  cyanosis,  and 
collapse,  and  its  administration  is  followed  by 
less  sweating.  In  health  it  docs  not  aflfect  the 
temperature  to  any  extent.  Its  uses  are  similar 
to  those  of  antipyrine,  but  being  insoluble  it 
cannot  be  used  hypodermatically,  and  is  gener- 
ally given  in  tablet,  capsule  or  wafer.  The  dose 
required  is  much  smaller  than  that  of  antipyrine. 

ACETATES,  fts'd-tAts.  The  salts  of  acetic 
acid,  which  are  generally  prepared  by  the  action 
of  acetic  acid  on  metallic  carbonates  or  hydrox- 
ides. Most  acetates  are  soluble  in  water.  To 
prove  the  presence  of  an  acetate  in  a  solution, 
the  analytical  chemist  adds  to  the  solution  some 
strong  sulphuric  acid  and  a  little  alcohol  and 
heats  the  mixture  for  a  few  seconds;  by  this 
treatment  of  an  acetate  solution  ethyl  acetic 


ester  is  produced,  which  is  readily  recognized  by 
its  pleasant  and  characteristic  odor.  Some  of 
the  acetates  are:  (I) Aluminium  acetate.  Thia 
has  been  obtained  only  in  its  aqueous  solution, 
which  is  used  as  a  mordant  under  the  name 
of  "red  liquor."  (2)  The  acetate  of  iron,  known 
as  "black  liquor,"  is  likewise  used  as  a  mor- 
dant in  dyeing  and  printing  cotton.  The 
acetates  of  (3)  lead,  (4)  ammonium,  and  (5) 
potassium  are  much  used  in  medicine.  Lead  ace- 
tate, commonly  known  as  "sugar  of  lead,"  i* 
used  for  external  applications  as  an  astringent. 
Ammonium  acetate  is  used  to  promote  perspira- 
tion; it  is  prepared  best  by  passing  an  excess  of 
gaseous  ammonia  into  strong  acetic  acid.  Po- 
tassium acetate  is  very  largely  used  as  a  diu- 
retic. Other  metallic  acetates  are  mentioned  un* 
der  the  names  of  the  metals  (qq.v.). 

ACETIC  ACID,  CHjCOOH.  The  sour  prin- 
ciple of  vinegar,  an  acid  composed  chemically 
of  carbon,  hydrogen,  and  oxygen.  The  commer- 
cial acid  is  largely  used  in  the  manufacture  of 
acetates,  dye-stuffs,  etc.  Concentrated  acetic 
acid  burns  the  skin,  and  is  therefore  applied  as 
a  caustic  to  remove  small  warts  and  corns.  Like 
any  other  acid,  if  taken  internally  for  any  length 
of  time,  dilute  acetic  acid  impairs  the  digestion 
and  absorption  of  food. 

Acetic  acid  occurs  here  and  there  in  the 
organic  world.  It  is  found  ready  formed  in 
sweat  and  other  animal  secretions,  as  well  as  in 
the  juices  of  various  plants.  It  is  manufactured 
either  by  the  oxidation  of  ordinary  alcohol 
through  fermentation  (see  Vineoab),  or  by  the 
destructive  distillation  of  wood.  The  aqueous 
product  obtained  in  the  latter  process  is  sub- 
jected to  fractional  distillation,  and  the  fraction 
constituting  impure  acetic  acid  (called  pyrolig- 
neous  acid)  is  neutralized  with  soda  or  lime.  In 
this  manner  a  solution  of  sodium  or  calcium 
acetate  is  obtained;  this  solution  is  evaporated 
to  dryness,  and  the  remaining  salt  is  freed  from 
water  and  organic  impurities  by  heating  above 
400°  F.  Pure  acetic  acid  is  prepared  by  dis- 
tilling the  acetates  thus  obtained  with  strong 
sulphuric  acid.  The  pure  anhydrous  acid  is  known 
as  glacial  acetic  acid;  at  temperatures  below 
62°  F.  it  is  solid  and  crystalline;  above  that 
temperature  it  forms  a  colorless  liquid  readily 
known  by  its  pungent,  penetrating  odor.  Since 
carbon  is  one  of  its  constituent  elements,  it  is,  of 
course,  classed  w^ith  the  compounds  of  organic 
chemistry.  It  is  a  comparatively  weak  acid,  its 
salts  being  broken  up  not  only  by  the  strong 
mineral  acids,  but  even  by  many  organic  acids. 
Besides  the  methods  jusi  mentioned,  acetic 
acid  can  be  made  by  synthesis  from  the  constit- 
uent elements.  When  electric  sparks  are  passed 
between  carbon  poles  in  an  atmosphere  of  hydro- 
gen, acetylene  gas  is  produced ;  and  when  oxygen 
(furnished,  say,  by  chromic  acid)  is  made  to  act 
upon  acetylene  in  the  presence  of  water,  the 
acetylene  combines  with  oxygen  and  water,  and, 
as  a  result,  acetic  acid  is  formed  according  to 
the  following  chemical  equation: 

C,H,    4-   O   -f   H,0  =       CAO, 

Acetylene  Acetic  acid 

It  would  not  pay,  however,  to  use  this  method 
in  manufacturing  acetic  acid  for  practical  pur- 
poses. 

ACETO-ACETIC  ( as'e-t^&-8«^tlk )  i!.S'T£K, 
CH.COC^HjCOOCH,.  A  colorless  liquid  organic 
substance   obtained   by   the   action   of   metallic 


ACETO-AGETIC  ESTEB. 


60 


aodium  on  the  ester  formed  by  the  union  of  aoetio 
acid  and  ordinary  alcohol  (i.e.,  ethyl  acetic 
ester).  Aceto-acetic  ester  mixes  in  all  propor- 
tions vrith  alcohol  or  with  ether,  but  is  only 
sMrinf^ly  soluble  in  water.  It  boils  at  180"*  0. 
The  two  hydrogen  atoms  of  its  CH,  group  are 
eapable  of  being  replaced  either  by  metals  or 
by  hydrocarbon  radicles  like  methyl  (CH«), 
ethyl  (C,H»),  etc.,  and  the  substitution  products 
thus  obtained  yield,  on  treatment  with  acids  and 
alkalies,  a  variety  of  important  carbon  com- 
pounds. The  ester  is,  therefore,  extensively  used 
for  the  artificial  preparation  of  various  sub- 
stances for  scientific  purposes. 

ACETONE,  As'^tCn,  or  Dimethyl  Ketone, 
CHjCOCH,.  A  colorless  organic  liquid  boiling 
at  56**. 3  C,  and  Imving  at  20®  a  specific  grav- 
ity of  0.792.  It  is  volatile  and  inflammable,  has 
a  pleasant  ethereal  odor,  dissolves  various  organ- 
ic substances  such  as  fats  and  resins,  and  mixes 
in  all  proportions  with  water,  alcohol,  and  ether. 
It  is  separated  from  its  aqueous  solutions 
by  means  of  calcium  chloride.  It  dissolves  con- 
siderable quantities  of  acetylene  gas  (q.v.),  and 
absorbs  a  very  large  amount  of  sulphurous 
anhydride.  It  is  used  as  a  solvent  as  well  as 
for  the  manufacture  of  chloroform,  iodoform, 
etc.  Acetone  is  produced  when  various  organic 
substances  are  subjected  to  destructive  distil- 
lation: it  is  thus  found  in  pyroligneous  spirit 
(see  Mkthtl  Alcohol)  obtained  by  the  dry 
distillation  of  wood.  It  is  separated  from  wood 
spirit  by  distilling  over  calcium  chloride.  It  is 
usually  prepared  by  distilling  barium  acetate 
at  a  moderate  heat,  according  to  the  follow- 
ing chemical  equation: 

(CH3C00),Ba  =  C,H,0   +  BaCO, 

Bariam  acetate  Acetone 

The  somewhat  impure  product  obtained  either 
from  wood  spirit  or  from  barium  acetate  may 
be  readily  purified  and  dehydrated  by  the  use  of 
the  acid  sulphite  of  sodium,  with  which  it  com- 
bines to  form  a  crystalline  solid  compound. 
Pure  acetone  is  obtained  from  the  latter  by  dis- 
tilling with  sodium  carbonate.  When  acted  on 
by  chlorine  in  the  presence  of  alkali,  acetone  is 
converted  into  chloroform.  Iodoform  is  sim- 
ilarly produced  by  the  action  of  iodine  (in  am- 
monium iodide  solution)  and  ammonia  upon 
acetone,  the  reaction  forming  the  most  sensitive 
test  for  acetone  that  is  known  to  chemists.  When 
acetone  is  distilled  with  strong  sulphuric  acid, 
mesitylene  is  produced;  this  reaction  has  been 
of  great  value  in  determining  the  chemical  con- 
stitution of  a  vast  number  of  benzene  derivatives 
allied  to  mesitylene.  Acetone  occurs  in  small 
quantities  in  the  blood,  and  is  present  in  the 
liquid  passing  over  when  urine  is  distilled.  It 
has  lont;  been  known  to  chemists  as  a  product 
of  distillation  of  acetates;  its  composition  was 
first  determined  by  Liebig  and  Dumas  in  1832. 

ACETOITBS.     See  Ketones. 

ACETTXy  as'^tll.  An  atomic  group  or  radi- 
t\^   in   organic   chemistry.     See   Gabbon   Com- 

TOVSDS. 


(from  acetyl),  HC=CH.  A 
colorless  gas  composed  chemically  of  carbon  and 
hydrogen.  It  is  present  in  small  quantities  in  ordi- 
nary illuminating  gas,  and  has  a  characteristic 
diMgreeable  odor  somewhat  resembling  that  of 
garlic.  Its  "critical  temperature"  is  37*  C. 
(about  98*^.6  F.) ;   that  is  to  say,  no  matter 


how  great  the  pressure  to  which  it  may  be  sub- 
jected above  37*^  it  will  remain  gaseous,  while 
at  37**  a  certain  pressure,  called  the  "critical 
pressure,"  is  necessary  and  sufiicient  to  liquefy 
it;  the  critical  pressure  of  acetylene  is  68  at- 
mospheres. Acetylene  burns  with  a  brilliant 
fiame  and  is  used  as  an  illuminant.  It  is  best 
made  for  scientific  as  w^ell  as  for  industrial  pur- 
poses by  the  action  of  water  on  the  carbide 
of  calcium  (<}.v.).  It  is  thus  produced,  for  in- 
stance, in  bicycle  "gas  lamps."  The  various 
apparatus  devised  for  the  manufacture  of  acety- 
lene produces  it  either  in  the  gaseous  state  or, 
by  immediate  compression,  in  the  liquefied  state. 
We  will  distinguish  two  types  of  apparatus. 
In  the  first,  the  carbide  is  contained  in  an 
appropriate  reservoir^  into  which  toater  is 
introduced  at  a  required  rate.  Such  apparatus 
is  rather  inconvenient  and  somewhat  dangerous, 
for  the  reason  that  in  the  mass  of  carbide  con- 
siderable rise  of  temperature  may  occur  at  the 
point  immediately  attacked  by  water;  besides, 
a  crust  of  lime  may  form  on  the  surface  of  a 
lump  of  carbide,  and  when  the  water  at  last 
penetrated  to  the  core  of  the  lump  a  sudden  and 
more  or  less  violent  reaction  may  ensue;  all  of 
which  would  naturally  result  in  uneven  genera- 
tion of  gas,  variations  of  pressure,  and,  perhaps, 
the  explosive  inflammation  of  the  gas.  In  the 
second  type  of  apparatus,  on  the  contrary,  the 
carbide  is  throtcn  into  a  considerable  mass  of 
toater,  whereby  undue  elevations  of  temperature 
and  irregularity  of  action  are  completely  avoid- 
ed. As  the  presence  of  impurities  in  acety- 
lene adds  considerably  to  the  danger  of  using  the 
gas,  various  methods  of  purification  have  been 
proposed.  Now,  the  nature  and  quantity  of  im- 
purity in  acetylene  depends  entirely  on  the  com- 
position of  the  carbide  used  in  its  manufacture, 
and  a  very  pure  acetylene  has  been  produced  on 
quite  a  large  scale  simply  by  employing  a  pure 
carbide.  With  air  or  oxygen  acetylene  forms 
extremely  explosive  mixtures;  mere  external 
friction  of  a  vessel  in  which  such  a  mixture  is 
contained  may  cause  an  explosion.  But  even 
when  isolated  and  pure  acetylene  is  explosive 
if  kept  under  pressure  of  more  than  two  atfnos- 
pheres;  and  it  is  very  dangerous  indeed  when 
preserved  in  liquid  form.  It  has,  instead,  been 
stored  in  solution  in  ordinary  acetone,  which 
absorbs  considerable  quantities  of  it.  If  the 
pressure  under  which  the  gas  is  dissolved  in 
acetone  is  not  very  great,  explosion  can  occur 
only  in  the  gaseous  volume  above  the  surface  of 
the  liquid;  the  dissolved  portion  of  the  gas 
does  not  take  part  in  the  explosion.  Under  any 
circumstances,  sudden  compression  of  a  volume 
of  acetylene  may  cause  an  explosion.  Acetylene 
is  slightly,  if  at  all,  poisonous;  it  is  certainly 
much  less  poisonous  than  ordinary  illuminating 
gas. 

Acetylene  contains  a  high  percentage  of  car- 
bon, and  the  amount  of  heat  generated  in  its 
combustion  is  very  large.  These  are  the  causes 
to  which  its  high  illuminating  power  is  due; 
for,  in  order  that  a  flame  may  be  luminous,  it 
must  contain  a  large  amount  of  carbon  par- 
ticles, and  its  temperature  must  be  high  enough 
to  keep  those  particles  in  a  state  of  incandes- 
cence. In  order  that  acetylene  may  yield  a 
large  amount  of  light,  it  must  be  properly 
burned.  The  numerous  burners  devised  for 
this  purpose  are  constructed  with  a  view  to 
burning   either   pure   acetylene   or   mixtures   of 


ACETYLENE. 

acetylene  and  other  gases,  such  as  nitrogen,  car- 
bonic acid  gas,  and  especially  marsh  gas.     We 

reproduce  here  the  Perrodil 
burner,  which,  while  adapted 
for  use  with  pure  acetylene,  al- 
lows it  to  be  sufficiently  mixed 
with  air  before  it  reaches  the 
point  a,  where  it  begins  to 
burn. 

Acetylene  is  one  of  the  cheap- 
est illuminants.  It  has,  be- 
sides, the  important  advantage  over  other  il- 
luminants of  being  easily  produced  and  requiring 
no  special  establishment  for  its  manufacture. 
In  the  opinion  of  eminent  experts,  the  danger 
connected  with  storing  it  even  in  large  quanti- 
ties is  not  great  enough  to  justify  a  verdict 
against  its  introduction  into  common  use. 

We  will  mention  a  few  other  uses  to  which 
acetylene  may  be  applied: 

L  If  calcium  carbide  were  cheaper,  acetylene 
might  be  used  as  an  enricher;  i.e.,  to  increase 
the  illuminating  power  of  coal  gas  and  of  other 
combustible  gases. 

2.  When  acetylene  is  passed  into  an  alkaline 
solution  of  iodine,  the  substance  di-iodoform 
(GJa)    is   produced.     This   substance  possesses 

the  antiseptic  properties  of  ordinary  iodoform 
without  having  the  strong  and  annoying  odor 
of  that  substance.  In  the  last  few  years  di- 
iodoform  has  been  manufactured  on  an  indus- 
trial scale. 

3.  Under  the  influence  of  electric  sparks  acety- 
lene combines  directly  with  nitrogen  to  form 
pruasio  (hydrocyanic)  acid.  It  might,  there- 
fore, be  used  in  the  cyanide  industry. 

4.  A  process  has  been  patented  in  Germany 
for  the  manufacture  of  sugar  from  acetylene. 

5.  When  heated  with  hydrogen,  acetylene  is 
converted  into  ethylene,  and  by  the  action  of 
sulphuric  acid  and  water  the  latter  yields  or- 
dinary alcohol.  It  has  been  argued  that  if  pure 
alcohol,  manufactured  by  this  method,  could  be 
substituted  as  an  article  of  commerce  for  the 
highly  toxic  liquors  so  freely  sold  at  the  pres- 
ent day,  a  great  deal  would  be  accomplished 
toward  diminishing  the  evil  of  alcoholism.  Un- 
der the  present  conditions,  however,  the  process 
would  be  too  expensive. 

Chemically,  acetylene  is  an  unsaturated  com- 
pound, the  first  of  an  important  series  of  hydro- 
carbons. It  is  said  to  be  "unsaturated'*  because 
it  combines  with  bromine  and  the  other  halo- 
gens without  at  the  same  time  losing  any  of  its 
own  elements.  It  combines  in  a  similar  man- 
ner with  hydrogen.  By  heating  a  mixture  of 
acetylene  and  hydrogen,  ethylene  gas  may  be  ob- 
tained, and  this  can  be  further  transformed  into 
ethane  gas  by  the  action  of  hydrogen  in  the 
presence  of  "platinum  black"  (finely  divided 
platinum).  Since  from  ethylene  gas  and  ethane 
we  can  derive  innumerable  other  compounds,  it 
was  a  highly  important  problem  to  prepare 
acetylene  itself  directly  from  its  elements.  This 
problem  solved,  we  could  claim  that  we  have 
been  able  to  effect  the  complete  synthesis  of  all 
those  compounds;  that  is  to  say,  that  we  can 
prepare  them  artificially  without  using  any  com- 
pound occurring  ready  formed  in  nature.  The 
importance  of  the  problem  is  due  to  the  fact  that 
it  has  been  asserted  that  many  such  compounds 
could  not  be  obtained  artificially;  that  mys- 
terious forces  beyond  human  control  could  alone 
produce   them.    The   French  chemist  Berthelot 


70 


effected  the  interesting  synthesis  of  acetylene  by 
simply  passing  electric  sparks  between  carbon 
poles  placed  in  a  vessel  filled  with  hydrogen. 
Under  such  conditions  the  carbon  of  the  poles 
combines  directly  with  hydrogen  to  form  acety- 
lene. 

In  conclusion,  another  important  property  of 
acetylene  may  be  mentioned.  When  acetylene 
is  passed  into  a  solution  of  a  cuprous  salt  (say, 
cuprous  chloride),  containing  some  ammonia,  a 
curioup  and  characteristic  compound  of  acetylene 
and  copper  is  obtained,  called  copper  acetylide. 
When  a  chemist  is  called  upon  to  determine 
whether  acetylene  is  present  or  absent  in  a  given 
mixture,  he  tests  it  with  a  solution  of  cuprous 
chloride  containing  some  ammonia;  the  forma- 
tion of  copper  acetylide  proves  the  presence  of 
acetylene.  It  is  currently  believed  that  the  ex- 
plosive compound  of  copper  and  acetylene  will 
form  whenever  acetylene  comes  in  contact  with 
metallic  copper  or  its  alloys.  This  idea  has, 
however,  been  proved  positively  false;  there  is 
no  danger  whatever  in  storing  acetylene  in 
metallic  vessels  of  any  kind.  Consult:  W.  E. 
Gibbs,  Lighting  by  Acetylene,  (Generators,  Burn- 
ers, and  Electric  Furnaces  (New  York,  1899), 
and  V.  B.  Lewes,  Acetylene:  a  Handbook  for  the 
Student  and  Manufacturer  (New  York,  1900). 
A  technical  journal  devoted  to  the  acetylene  in- 
dustry {Zeitschrift  fUr  Calciumcarbid-Fabrika- 
tioii  und  Acetylen-Beleuchtung)  was  established 
at  Suhl  in  1897  and  has,  since  1900,  been  pub- 
lished at  Berlin. 

ACKMAy  k-k^k  ( Gk.  *Axota).  ( 1 )  The  south- 
east part  of  Tliessaly,  the  legendary  home  of 
Achilles.  (2.)  The  northern  part  of  Telopon- 
nesus,  bordering  on  the  Corinthian  Gulf.  The 
land  rising  gradually  from  the  coast  to  the  hills 
of  the  interior  was  famed  in  ancient  times  for 
fertility  in  production  of  oil,  wine,  and  fruits^ 
while  the  wooded  mountains  contained  much 
game.  In  the  modem  kingdom  of  Greece  Achaea 
forms  a  nome,  or  department,  in  the  extreme 
northwest  of  the  Morea,  and  its  chief  town  is 
Patras.  Excepting  the  west  coast,  the  land  is 
fertile,  and  prodiices  corn,  wine,  and  oil. 

In  early  times  the  Acheans  held  more 
or  less  aloof  from  participation  in  the  affaira 
of  the  rest  of  Greece.  There  were  twelve  prin- 
cipal towns,  the  names  ot  which,  according  to 
Herodotus,  were  Pellene,  jEgeira,  ^Kgae,  Bura, 
Helice,  ^Egium,  Rhypes,  Patrae,  Pharae,  Olenus, 
Dyme,  and  Tritaea,  and  these  formed  a  confeder- 
acy, with  Helice  at  the  head.  After  the  destruc- 
tion of  Helice  by  an  earthquake  in  373  B.C., 
^gium  took  its  place  as  the  chief  city  of  the 
confederacy.  The  wars  and  rivalries  which  pre- 
vailed after  the  death  of  Alexander  the  Great 
brought  about  the  complete  dissolution  of  the 
ancient  bond,  but  a  new  union  was  formed  in 
280  B.C.,  which  gradually  extended  itself,  and  in 
a  few  years  comprised  the  ten  cities,  Patrae, 
Dyme,  Pharae,  Tritaea,  Leontium,  ^geira,  Pellene, 
JEgium,  Bura,  and  (beryneia.  This  second  con- 
federacy was  known  as  the  Achaean  League.  It 
first  came  into  prominence  as  an  important 
factor  in  Greek  and  Hellenic  politics  in  249  b.c., 
when  Aratus  joined  thereto  his  native  city, 
Sicyon.  The  aim  of  the  league  was  from  this 
time  forth  to  free  the  Greek  peninsula  from 
Macedonian  rule.  In  242  B.C.  the  Macedonian 
garrison  was  driven  from  Corinth,  and  this  city 
was  brought  into  the  confederacy.  Before  vhe 
last  quarter   of  that  century  the  league  had 


71 


retched  its  most  flourishing  period  of  develop- 
ment. It  included  the  whole  of  northern  and 
middle  Peloponnesus  and  many  cities  in  other 
parts  of  Greece. 

The  government  of  the  league  affords  perhaps 
the  best  example   in  antiquity   of   the   federal 
system.      In    foreign    affairs    the    union    acted 
as  a  whole,  but  in  internal   affairs  each  city 
WIS  a  unit,  and  had  equal   rights  with  every 
other  city.    Also,  each  state  still  preserved  its 
entire  independence.    There  was  a  public  council 
which  met  regularly  twice  everv  vear,  in  spring 
snd  in  autumn,  and  was  attendea,  not  by  depu- 
ties, but  in  person  by  all  male  citizens  of  thirty 
years  of  age  or  over.    The  meeting-place  of  the 
council  was  at  first  a  grove  near  JE^nm,  but 
later  Philopccmen  instituted  a  change,  whereby 
meetings  were  designed  to  be  held  in  rotation 
at  the  various  cities  belonging  to  the  league.    In 
this   council    the    affairs    of   the    league    were 
brought  up  to  be  discussed  and   passed  upon, 
and  a  record  was  kept  of  the  proceedings.     The 
chief  officer   of  the  league  was  the  atrategos, 
who  had   as  subordinates  a  hipparchos  and  a 
nauarehos.    There   was   also   a   secretary.     The 
8tratego8  was  commander-in-chief  of  the  army 
and  general  executive  officer.     He  was  assisted 
in  the  duty  of  calling  together  the  assembly  and 
presiding  thereat  by  a  ooard  of  ten  demiurgi. 
For  some  years  the  league  maintained  its  indepen- 
dence against  all  enemies.    Something  of  the  old 
power  of   Greece  seemed  to  return,  and  there 
was  a  promise  of  permanent  union;  but  it  soon 
appeared  that  the  league  was  bent  on  its  own 
destruction.    Instead  of  presenting  a  firm  front 
against  the  common  foes  of  Greece,  its  members 
were  divided  by  continual  discords.    The  iEto- 
lian  League  was  a  formidable  rival,  and  the 
Spartans,  led  by  King  Cleomenes  III.,  pressed 
the  confederacy  so  hard  that  Aratus  was  finally 
compelled  to  seek  the  alliance  of  the  Macedonian 
king,  Antigonus  Doson. 

This  act  was  nothing  less  than  the  begin- 
ning of  the  dependency  of  the  Achtean  League 
on  the  Macedonian  power.  Another  dangerous 
enemy  was  Rome.  Led  by  the  wise  and  ener- 
pptic  policy  of  Philopoemen,  of  Megalopolis,  the 
Achsans  held  out  against  enemies  at  home  and 
abroad  for  a  number  of  years,  but  in  198  B.o. 
they  were  induced  to  all^  themselves  with  the 
Romans.  In  192  B.C.  Philopocmen  appeared  at 
Sparta  and  compelled  that  city  to  join  the  league, 
and  by  the  following  year  the  whole  of  Pelopon- 
nesus had  come  over  to  the  union.  This  power, 
however,  lasted  but  a  short  time.  The  hostilities 
of  Sparta,  the  intrigues  of  the  Romans,  and 
internal  dissensions  combined  to  bring  about 
the  fall  of  the  confederacy.  In  167  B.C.  a  whole- 
sale deportation  of  leading  Achauins  to  Rome  as 
hostages  took  place.  In  146  B.C.  the  Achseans 
vere  defeated  at  Corinth  by  the  Roman  general 
Mommius.  This  defeat  not  only  dissolved  the 
league,  but  destroyed  the  political  independence 
of  Greece.  Southern  and  central  Greece,  under 
the  name  of  Achsa,  became  a  Roman  province. 
Polybius,  who  was  one  of  the  Achsans  taken  to 
Rome  as  hostages  in  167  B.C.,  has  given  an  ex- 
tended account  of  the  league  in  his  history  of 
the  period  between  220  B.C.  and  146  B.C.  Consult: 
Sehom,  €h9chiehte  Orieohenlands  von  der  Ent-. 
ttehung  aetolitehen  und  achaischen  Bundea 
(Bonn,  1833)  ;  Drumann,  Ideen  zur  Qeachichte 
de$  VerfaUs  der  griechiachen  Staaien  (Berlin, 
1811);     Hertzbergy     Oeachichte     Qriechenlanda 


unter  den  Romem  (Halle,  1875) ;  and  Freeman^ 
History  of  Federal  Oovemment  (second  edition, 
London,  1893). 

(3.)  Under  the  Romans,  the  province  contain- 
ing all  Greece  except  Thessaly  and  Macedonia* 

ACKMANB,  &-kS'anz  (Gk.  'Axaiol,  Achaioi). 
One  of  the  races  of  ancient  Greece.  In  Homer  the 
name  sometimes  includes  all  the  Greeks.  The 
Achseans  inhabited  the  southeastern  part  of 
Thessaly  and  much  of  the  Peloponnesus.  By  the 
Dorian  invasion  they  were  crowded  into  the 
northwestern  corner  of  the  Peloponnesus,  where 
they  later  formed  the  Achean  League.  (See 
AcUMA,)  In  mythology,  their  ancestor  was 
Achsus,  son  of  Xuthus  and  grandson  of  Hellen 
(q.v.). 

AOBLSHENSS,  &-kgm'6-nez  (Gk.  'Axatfifutfc, 
Achaimenea),  ACH'JEMEN^DJE.  The  names 
of  the  progenitor  and  of  the  dynasty  of  ancient 
Persian  kings,  CJyrus,  Cambyses,  Darius,  Xerxes, 
Artaxerxes,  and  their  successors.  The  rule  of  the 
Achsemenidse  over  Iran  lasted  558-330  B.C.  In 
the  old  Persian  inscriptions  Darius  proudly 
traces  his  lineage  back  to  Haxdmaniaiya  (in 
Greek,  *Ax<ufJteviii;),  as  the  founder  of  the  royal 
line,  and  states  that  from  him  the  family  re- 
ceived the  name  Achaemenians. 

AnTTATA-    See  Ach^a. 

ACHAMOTHy  &k'&-moth.  In  the  theological 
system  of  Valentinus  (a.v.)  the  Gnostic,  a  per- 
sonification of  a  form  of  wisdom  inferior  to  the 
pure  aophia.  She  is  the  mother  of  the  world- 
maker,  Demiurgus.    See  Dbmiuboe. 

ACHAQTTA,  &-chil^wA.  An  Indian  tribe  of 
Arawakan  stock,  which  formerly  inhabited  the 
forests  of  the  upper  Orinoco  region  in  northeast- 
ern Colombia.  They  were  prominently  men- 
tioned in  the  last  century,  but  were  entirely 
uncivilized,  practicing  tattooing,  polyandry,  and 
the  destruction  of  female  infants.  About  500 
were  still  known  to  exist  on  the  Rio  Muoo  about 
the  year  1850. 

ACHABD,  fio^rt,  Franz  Karl  (1753-1821). 
A  German  physicist  and  chemist,  bom  in  Berlin. 
He  is  remembered  chiefiy  as  the  founder  of  the 
beet-sugar  industry.  He  devoted  several  years 
to  investigating  the  best  methods  of  raising 
sugar-beets  and  of  producing  sugar  on  an  indus- 
trial scale.  Finally,  at  the  instance  of  the  Kin(; 
of  Prussia,  experiments  were  successfully  car- 
ried out  in  Berlin  about  1800,  and  as  a  result 
Achard  was  enabled  to  establish  in  1801  the  first 
sugar  manufactory.  He  wrote  Die  europaiache 
Zuckerfahrikation  aus  Runkelriihen  in  Verhin- 
dung  mit  der  Bereitnng  dea  Branntweina  (1812). 
Achard  was  for  a  time  director  of  the  class  of 
physics  in  the  Berlin  Academy  of  Sciences,  and 
published  four  volumes  of  Vorleaungen  Uber 
Experimentalphyaik  ( 1790-02 ) . 

ACHABD,  &'shftr^,  Loins  Am£d£e  Euo^nk 
(1814-75).  A  French  novelist.  He  was  born 
in  Marseilles,  and  was  at  first  a  merchant.  He 
entered  newspaper  work  in  his  native  place; 
continued  it  in  Paris,  and  went  as  a  reporter  to 
Spain  with  the  Due  de  Montpensier  in  1846, 
and  followed  the  French  armies  in  1870.  But  he 
is  chiefly  known  as  a  novelist,  his  romances 
being  numerous.  Among  them  are  La  belie 
rose  (1847)  ;  Lea  miacrea  d'un  millionnaire 
(18C1);  and  Hiatoire  d*un  homme  (1863).  He 
also  wrote  several  plays,  among  them  Hiatoire 
de  mea  <imia  (1874). 


ACHAKKIANS.  72 

ACHABNIANS,  A-kUr'nlanz,  The  (Gk 
'Axapvelg,  Achameis).  A  comedy  of  Aristoph- 
anes (q.v.)  produced  in  Athena  at  the  festival 
of  the  Lensea,  425  B.C.,  under  the  name  of  Callis- 
iratus.  The  title  comes  from  the  character  of 
the  chorus  men  of  Acharnse,  an  Attic  deme  near 
Mount  Parnes,  and  the  play  is  in  opposition  to 
the  democratic  policy  of  war  with  Sparta. 
Dicfleopolis,  the  hero,  is  an  honest  farmer  who 
is  tired  of  the  fighting  and  his  attendant  losses, 
and  finally  makes  a  private  treaty  with  the 
Lacedaemonians.  This  leads  to  a  farcical  but 
brilliant  display  of  the  contrasts  between  the 
discomforts  of  war  and  the  joys  of  peace. 

ACHATES,  &-ka^tez  (modern  Dirillo).  (1.) 
A  river  in  southern  Sicily  that  gave  its  name  to 
the  agate  {achates)  which  was  found  there, 
according  to  Pliny  (37,  139).  (2.)  A  faithful 
companion  of  ^Eneas  in  his  wanderings  (Vergil, 
/Eneidj  i.,  188),  whence  the  name  fidua  Achates 
applied  to  any  faithful  friend. 

ACHEEN,  &-chgn^    See  Achin. 

ACHELOTJS,  ak'MS'iis  (Gk.  'A;tf^<?of,  Ache- 
l6oSf  now  called  Aspropotamos,  i.e.,  White  River, 
from  the  cream  color  of  its  waters).  The  largest 
river  in  Greece  (Map:  Greece,  C  5).  It  rises  in 
Mount  Pindus,  flows  southward,  separating 
j^tolia  from  Acarnania,  and  falls  into  the  Ionian 
Sea.    It  is  over  100  miles  long,  and  unnavigable. 

ACHENy  ao^en,  or  ACXEN,  ftk^en,  Johantt 
or  Hans  von  (1552-1616).  A  German  painter. 
He  was  born  at  Cologne,  studied  there  and  under 
Kaspar  Rems  at  Venice,  and  in  1590  entered  the 
service  of  the  Bavarian  court.  At  the  invitation 
of  the  Emperor,  Rudolph  II.,  he  afterward  went 
to  Prague.  His  style  is  formal  but  skillful.  His 
works  include  a  "Crucifixion^*  (in  the  Protestant 
church,  Cologne),  an  "Entombment"  (in  the 
cathedral  of  Bonn),  "St.  Mary  and  Carthusian 
Monk,"  "Portrait  of  Burgomaster  Broelman," 
"Christ  Raising  the  Widow's  Son,"  and  "Truth 
Victorious  Under  Protection  of  Justice." 

ACHENBACHy  aa'en-bfta,  Andreas  ( 1815—) . 
A  German  landscape  and  marine  painter.  He 
was  born  at  Cassel,  studied  under  Schirmer  at 
DUsseldorf,  and  is  one  of  the  most  distinguished 
painters  of  the  Dlisseldorf  School.  Ho  painted 
chiefly  in  the  Rhine  country,  Holland,  and  Nor- 
way, and  produced  realistic  works.  He  received 
a  medal  of  the  first  class  in  Paris  in  1855.  Many 
of  his  paintings  are  in  private  galleries  in  the 
United  States. 

ACHENBACH,  Oswald  (1827-1905).  A 
German  landscape  painter.  He  was  bom  in 
Diisseldorf.  and  was  the  brother  and  pupil  of 
Andreas  Achenbach.  He  painted  in  the  Bava- 
rian Alps,  Switzerland,  and  Italy.  His  conception 
of  nature  was  more  ideal  than  that  of  liis  brother. 
Many  of  his  pictures  are  in  the  United  States. 

ACHENE,  A -ken',  also  Acheniitm  and 
Akenb  (Gk.  a,  o,  priv.  -|-  ;t;airfn',  chainein,  to 
cape).  A  seed-like  fruit  such  as  is  character- 
istic of  the  great  family  of  Compositce,  to  which 
belong  sunflowers,  thistles,  dandelions,  etc.  The 
pits  of  the  strawberry  and  the  small  fruits  form- 
ing a  head  in  the  centre  of  a  buttercup  are  also 
achenes.  The  seed-like  appearance  arises  from 
the  fact  that  the  wall  of  the  seed-vessel  hardens 
and  invests  the  solitary  seed  so  closely  as  to 
seem  like  an  outer  coat.    See  Fbuit. 

ACHENSEE,  ao'en-za.  A  lake  in  north 
TjTol^  Austria^  20  miles  northeast  of  Innsbruck. 


It  is  5^  miles  long  and  a  half  mile  broad.  Its 
picturesque  shores  dotted  with  hotels  and  villas 
are  much  frequented  as  siunmer  resorts.  Steam- 
ers ply  on  its  waters. 

ACHEKWALL,  ao'CTi-vJll,  Gottfried  (1719- 
72).  A  German  economist  and  statistician.  He 
was  professor  of  philosophy  in  GSttingen  from 
about  1750  until  his  death.  Though  not  the 
originator  of  the  science  of  statistics,  he  was  the 
first  to  formulate  and  define  its  purpose. 

ACHERON,  fik^^rdn  (Gk.  'Axipov,  Agherdn). 
The  name  given  to  several  rivers  by  the  ancients. 
The  best  known  is  the  Acheron  in  Thesprotis, 
which  flows  through  the  lake  Acherusia,  and 
pours  itself  into  the  Ionian  Sea.  According  to 
Pausanias,  Homer  borrowed  from  the  river  in 
Thesprotis  the  name  of  his  infernal  Acheron. 
In  the  later  poets  and  mythographers  Acheron 
is  the  name  of  a  river  or  lake  in  the  lower 
world  across  which  the  souls  of  the  dead  were 
obliged  to  pass.  (See  Styx.)  The  lake  Ache- 
rusia in  Thesprotis  was  regarded  as  an  entrance 
t^  the  lower  world,  and  the  name  was  also 
applied  to  other  places  where  the  same  belief 
prevailed,  e.g.^  a  walled  enclosure  near  a  temple 
at  Hermione  in  Argolis,  and  a  promontory  near 
Heracleia  in  Pontus. 

A  CHEVAIi  (A'she-vAF)  POSITION  (Fr.  d 
oheval,  on  horseback).  A  military  term  to  de- 
note the  position  of  an  army  where  a  river  or 
highway  separates  considerable  pK>rtions  of  the 
troops  and  is  per]>endicular  to  the  front.  As  an 
instance  of  this  position  may  be  cited  the  case 
of  Wellington's  army  at  the  battle  of  Waterloo, 
where  it  was  d  cheval  on  the  road  from  Charleroi 
to  Brussels.  \Mien  the  perpendicular  to  the 
front  is  formed  by  a  river,  possession  of  a  bridge 
is  necessary  in  order  to  secure  the  effective  co- 
operation of  the  troops  on  both  sides. 

ACHILL,  ftk^l,  or  EAGLE  ISIE.  An  island 
off  the  west  coast  of  Ireland,  in  the  county  of 
Mayo.  It  is  15%  miles  long  by  12%  miles  broad, 
and  has  several  mountains  composed  of  mica 
slate,  which  rise  to  an  elevation  of  about  2000 
feet.  There  are  several  villages,  and  a  popula- 
tion of  about  5000. 

ACHILLEA,  &klM$^&  (Lat.  achilUoa,  mil- 
foil, yarrow,  said  to  have  been  discovered  by 
Achilles).  A  genus  of  plants  of  about  eighty 
species,  of  the  natural  order  (}ompositie,  having 
small  flowers  (heads  of  flowers)  disposed  in 
corymbs,  and  the  receptacle  covered  with  chaffy 
scales  (small  bractes).  The  florets  of  the  ray 
are  fertile,  and  have  a  short,  roundish  tongue  or 
lip;  the  florets  of  the  disk  are  hermaphroditic, 
the  tube  of  the  corolla  flatly  compressed  and  two- 
winged;  the  involucre  is  imbricated.  The  com- 
mon Yarrow  or  Milfoil  (Achillea  millefolium) 
abounds  in  all  parts  of  Europe  and  in  many 
parts  of  North  America — into  which,  however, 
it  has  perhaps  been  carried  from  Europe — 
growing  in  meadows,  pastures,  etc.  It  is  about 
a  foot  in  height;  its  leaves  bipinnate,  the  pinnse 
deeply  divided,  the  segments  narrow  and 
crowded.  It  has  white  or  rose-colored  flowers. 
The  leaves  have  a  bitterish,  aromatic,  somewhat 
austere  taste,  and  little  smell;  the  flowers  have 
a  strong,  aromatic  smell,  with  an  aromatic  bitter 
taste,  and  contain  an  essential  oil,  a  resin,  bitter 
extractive,  gum,  several  salts,  and  traces  of  sul- 
phur. Both  leaves  and  flowers  are  used  in  medi- 
cine as  a  powerful  stimulant  and  tonic.    The 


73  AOHUKZVES. 

formerly    much    used    for    healing     Troy,  and  was  detected  b;  the  craft  of  OdTBsena, 


wounds,  aod  are  atill  bo  employed  hy  the 
mon  people  in  the  Highlands  of  Scotland  and  in 
Htme  part*  of  the  Continent  of  Europe.  The  ei- 
prcsMd  jiue«  ia  a  popular  apring  medicine  in  Ger- 
DuDf .  Yarrow  is  of t«D  sown  along  with  grassee  in- 
tended t^  form  permanent  pasture  for  sheep,  but 
in  the  United  States  it  is  generally  considered  A 
Teed  in  pastures.  Achillea  tnoschata,  called 
Musk  Milfoil,  is  cultivated  as  food  for  cattle  in 
Svitierland.     Achillea   moschata,   atratA, 


who  offered  a  sword,  as  well  as  trinkets,  to  tiis 
maidens.  When  a  trumpet  sounded  an  alarm 
Achilles  at  once  seized  the  sword,  and,  being 
recofnized,  was  then  easily  induced  to  join  the 
Greeks.  His  combats  with  Pentheeilea,  Queen  of 
the  Amazons,  and  with  Memuon  (q.v.),  who  came 
to  aid  Priam  after  the  death  of  Hector,  were  fa^ 
vorite  subjects  with  Greek  artists.  He  met  hia 
death  at  the  hands  of  Apollo  and  Paris  before 
the  Scean  mte,  or  in  the  temple  of  Apollo, 
una — all   natives   of   the   Alps — are   very   aro-     where  he  had  gone  to  meet  Folyxena,  daughter 


mstic,  and  bear  the  name  of  Genipi  or  Qenip. 
The  inhabitants  of  the  Alps  value  them  very 
hi^y,  and  use  them  for  making  wtiat  is  called 
Swii*  tea.  Achillea  nank  is  said  to  be  used  in  mak- 
ing chartreuse.  They  are  very  stimulating  and 
tonic;  as  are  also  Achillea  setacea  and  Achillea 
Dobilis,  both  natives  of  Switzerland  and  other 
middle  parts  of  Europe,  and  Achillea  ageratum, 
a  native  of  the  south  of  Europe,  used  by  tlie 
FVmch  as  «  vulnerary,  and  called  herbe  ail  ohar- 
pmtier.  Sneezewort  (AohilUa  ptarmica)  is  a 
natiTc  of  Europe,  and  somewhat  introduced  into 


of  Priam.  8he  was  slaughtered  ( 
after  the  capture  of  Troy.  After  his  death  he 
was  transported  to  the  Islands  of  the  Blessed, 
where  he  was  united  with  Medea.  Achilles  was 
worshiped  in  Laoonia  and  other  parts  of  Greece, 
and  it  ia  probable  that,  like  other  Greek  heroes, 
he  was  originally  a  god,  honored  especially  by 
the  Achffians  of  Phthiotis.  See  the  articles 
Houix  and  Tbojak  Wab. 


AOHUXEB  TAima,   t&'shl.Qs    (Ok.  'Ax'^ 

IHtTdrioc,  Achillevt  To(io»).     A   Greek  writer, 

,.,....„,■■  1     .L         I    .  L-  1.       -.u      a   native  of  Aleiandria,  who  probably  lived   In 

He  Lmted   States,  one  to  three  feet  high,  with     a,o    f--  ■   •■  '  ■•  ■>-- 


lanceolate  leaves,  and  much  larger  flowers  than      ~fi, 
the  common  Milfoil.    It  grows  in  meadows  and    ^'"'"" 
damp  places.     The  root,   which   is  aromatic,   is 
mad  as  a  substitute  for  Pellitory  of  Spain,  and 
the  whole  plant  is  pungent  and  provokes  a  flow 

ACHTT.T.TM,  A-klllez  (Gk.  'AxM^,  AoAU- 
lauj.  The  hero  of  Homer's  Iliad,  and  the  type 
of  glorious   youth.     In  the  Homeric  poems  hi: 


fifth  I 


D  eight  books,  entitled  Thtf 
Eiatory  of  Leucippe  and  Clitophon,  in  which  he 
borrowed  freely  from  the  work  of  his  predecessor 
Heliodorus,  by  whom  alone  he  was  surpassed  in 
popularity.  While  his  work  is  graceful  in  style, 
it  is  inferior  to  that  of  his  model;  and  for  us 
it  is  marred  in  passages  by  the  grossest  pagan 
immorality.  It  was,  however,  freely  imitated 
by  later  writers,  especially  by  Eustathius  and 


story  u  simple.     The  son  of  King  Peleus  and  the  Nicetea    EugenianusHn    the    Byzantine    period. 

-....ndH™   Th-ti«.   },»  w..  l>r™„Tht   "P  «t  hw  Suidas  sayrthat  the  author  became  a  Christian 

'  1    J     ^  ■■"^  attained  to  the  office  of  bishop,  but  the  truth 

rly  death  ^,  j^j^  gtatement  is  doubtful.    The  work  has  been 


■ea-goddess  Thetis,  he  was  brought  up  at  his  g^ij^  saysthat  the  author  became  a  Christian 
fatoer-B  eow|t  m  Phthia  witil  induced  to  Uke  ^^^  attained  to  the  office  of  bishop,  but  the  truth 
nart  in  the  Trojan  War,  preferring  an  »"riii  iieiit.ii       .  .■,..•     .^  "^  ....  ...    i . ._ 


with  lame  to  a  long  but  inglorious  life.  This 
hte  gives  Achilles  a  tinge  of  melancholy  charac- 
teristic of  the  Greek  mind.  While  the  Greeks 
were  in  camp  before  Troy,  Achilles  plundered  the 
surroanding  country  and  secured  as  his  booty 
Mx  beautimi  Briiels.  The  Iliad  narrates  the 
wrath  of  Achilles  because  Agamemnon  deprived 
him  of  his  ttii  slave  to  replace  Chrysels,  whom 
he  had  been  forced  to  restore  to  her  father  in 
order  to  avert  the  wrath  of  Apollo  from  the 
Greeks.  In  the  absence  of  Achillea  the  Trojans 
drive  the  Greeks  to  their  ships,  and  their  de- 
■tmetion  is  averted  only  when  Achilles  allows 
bis  friend,  Patroclus,  to  lead  his  Myrmidons  to 
the  rescue.  Pursuing  the  Trojans  to  their  walls, 
Patroclos  is  slain  by  Hector,  and  Achilles,  over- 
whelmed with  grief,  becomes  reconciled  with 
Agamemnon,  that  he  may  hasten  to  obtain  re- 
vm^  He  returns  to  the  fight,  and  after  driv- 
ing the  Trojans  within  the  city,  slays  Hector 
and  drags  his  body  to  the  ships.  After  celebrat- 
ing the  funeral  of  Patroclus  with  great  pomp, 
be  yields  to  the  command  of  Zeus  and  allows 
Priam  to  ransom  the  body  of  his  son.  In  the 
Odyafcy  we  have  allusions  to  the  death  of 
Achilles,  his  splendid  burial,  and  the  renown  of 
his  son,  Neoptolemus.  I«teT  epic  poems  and 
other  compositions  add  many  details.  Accord- 
ing to  some,  his  mother  rendered  him  invulner- 
able I7  dipping  him  in  the  River  Styx;  but  his 
hed,  hj  which  she  held  him,  was  not  immersed, 
and  here  he  received  his  death  wound  from  an 
arrow.  He  was  educated  by  the  centaur  Chiron, 
and  was  afterward  bidden  by  bis  mother  at  Scy- 
roa,  among  the  daughters  of  Lycomedea.  " 
waa  needed,  h.  '     ■" 

Vol.  I.— I. 


edited  with  commentary  by  Jacobs  (Leipzig, 
1S21);  Hirschig  (Paris,  1866);  Hercher  (Leip- 
zig, 186S).  (insult  Rohde,  Der  grteckUohe  Ro- 
man uitd  setne  Torldufer  (Leipzig,  1876). 

Af!TTTT.T.T!R  TES^DOV  (Lat.  Tendo  Aehil- 
lit).  A  tendon  (a)  which  attaches  the  soleus  (b) 
and  gastrocnemius  muscles 
of  the  calf  of  the  leg  to  the 
heel-bone.  It  is  capable 
of  resisting  a  force  equal  to 
1000  pounds  weight,  and 
yet  is  occasionally  rup- 
tured by  the  contraction 
of  these  muscles  in  sud- 
den extension  of  the  foot. 
The  name  was  given  with 
reference  to  the  death  of 
Achilles  by  a  wound  in  the 
heel. 

ACUIUENEB,  ft-klra'A- 
nCz  (probably  from  Lat. 
iekttmenis,  Gk.  &x^f^'(> 
dcfiajmenia,  an  amber-col- 
ored plant  in  India  used  in 
magical  arts) .  A  genus  of 
plants  of  the  order  Ges- 
neraceffi  (q.v.),  much  culti- 
vated as  a  greenhouse  herb. 
The  species  are  numerous 
— natives  of  tropical  Amer- 
ica. Achimenes  is  propa- 
^ted  either  by  the  natural  

.    -      by  cuttings.  If  the  rhizomes 
the  expedition  against     are  potted  by  April  1,  the  droc^ing  plant  comet 


74 


ACHB01CATI8X. 


into  blossom  bj  the  last  of  May  and  continues  to 
bloom  without  cessation  for  four  or  five  months. 
The  corolla  tube  is  cylindrical  and  the  limbs  are 
spreading.  The  blossoms  are  red,  blue  and 
white,  with  all  intermediate  shades. 

ACHnr,  &-ch6n^  or  ATCHEEN.  A  petty 
kingdom  of  about  20,000  square  miles  area,  with 
more  than  half  a  million  inhabitants,  at  the 
north  end  of  Sumatra,  famed  from  ancient  times 
as  part  of  the  Golden  Chersonese.  The  country 
is  mountainous  and  intersected  with  many  rivers. 
The  famous  Gold  Mountain,  6000  feet  high,  is  at 
the  extreme  northern  point,  with  the  capital  ^ity 
of  Achin  at  its  base. 

The  shorter  stature,  darker  color,  etc.,  of  the 
aborigines  of  Achin  has  led  some  authorities  to 
separate  them  from  the  Sumatrans  in  general, 
and  their  language  is  by  others  held  to  be  Poly- 
nesian rather  than  Malay  at  bottom.  While  un- 
doubtedly Malays,  the  Achinese,  like  several  otlier 
peoples  of  the  East  Indies,  may  have  a  strain  of 
Arab  blood.  In  the  seventh  century  the  Hindu 
missionaries  introduced  civilization,  and  many 
emigrants  from  India  settled  here.  In  the 
thirteenth  century  the  people  were  converted  to 
the  faith  of  Islam,  the  sultans  of  Achin  claiming 
descent  from  the  first  Mohammedan  missionary. 
When  in  the  sixteenth  century  Europeans  reached 
Achin,  they  found  astonishing  wealth.  The  Ach- 
inese sent  an  embassy  to  the  powerful  Dutch 
republic,  and  the  envoys  had  audience  of  Prince 
Maurice  in  his  camp  before  Grave  in  1602.  The 
Dutch  kept  up  intermittent  trade  intercourse 
with  them  until  1811,  when  Sumatra  was  ceded 
to  the  British.  When  the  Dutch  regained  nom- 
inal possession,  Great  Britain  stipulated  that 
none  but  British  citizens  should  reside  in  Achin, 
and  that  the  Dutch  should  not  conquer  the  little 
kingdom,  the  English  wishing  to  retain  the  com- 
merce. The  piratical  instincts  of  the  Achinese, 
however,  led  them  into  conflicts  with  the  Dutch, 
who  found  it  necessary  to  chastise  them.  In 
1871,  by  the  Hague  Treaty,  the  British  withdrew 
their  reservation,  and  the  Dutch  sent  an  expedi- 
tion in  1873  to  capture  the  chief  city  and  invade 
the  country.  They  were  beaten  in  this,  as  well 
as  in  other  expeditions,  and  the  country  was  not 
pacified  until  several  years  later,  when  a  civil 
government  was  instituted.  The  Achin  wars 
have  cost  the  Netherlands  12,000  lives  and  nearly 
one  hundred  million  dollars  for  blockade  and 
naval  and  military  operations,  and  the  country 
is  yet  practically  unsubdued  in  the  interior. 
This  is  not  merely  owing  to  the  fanatical  spirit 
of  independence  in  the  natives,  but  also  and  more 
because  Achin  furnishes  a  rich  and  tempting 
field  for  British  blockade  runners.  There  was 
an  outbreak  in  1901.  There  are  numerous  works 
in  Dutch  treating  of  Achin,  and  there  are  in  Hoi-  ' 
land  many  monuments  and  trophies  of  the  war. 
Besides  ttie  historical  work  of  Veth,  Atchin 
(Leyden,  1873),  the  standard  treatise  on  the 
Achinese  is  Snouck,  De  Ajehera  (two  volumes, 
Batavia,  1893-95). 

ACHHET,  ILK^m^t.    See  Ahmed. 

ACHMET,  fiK^mSt,  or  AHICED,  gH^m^d. 
The  name  of  three  sultans  of  Turkey,  of  whom 
Achmet  III.  (reigned  1703-30)  was  the  most 
famous.  It  was  this  sovereign  who  sheltered 
Charles  XIT.  after  his  defeat  at  Pultowa  in  1709. 
He  wrested  the  Morea  from  the  Venetians  in 
1715.  Having  invaded  Hungary,  he  was  defeated 
by  Prince  Eugene  at  Peterwardein  in  1716,  and 


later  near  Belgrade,  and  compelled  to  cede  to 
Austria,  by  the  treaty  of  Passarovitz,  1718,  Bel- 
grade, the  Banat,  and  other  territories.  The 
soldiers  drove  him  from  the  throne  in  1730,  and 
he  died  in  prison  in  1736. 

A^CHOB.  A  valley  which  forms  the  north- 
em  boundary  of  Judah  (Joshua  xv  :  7)  near 
Jericho.  Its  identification  is '  uncertain,  though 
Wady-el-Kelt  has  been  suggested,  which,  how- 
ever, is  not  broad  enough  to  become  "a  place 
for  the  herds  to  lie  down  in"  (Isaiah  Ixv  :  10). 

ACHOOEtlOK.    See  Favus. 
ACHBAS,  ftk^rfts.    See  Black  Bullt. 
ACHBOKATIC,    ftk'r6-m&t^.      See    Tele- 

SOOFE. 

ACHBCyHATISU  (colorlessness,  from  Gk. 
4,  a  priv. -f-  XP^f^t  chrdma,  color).  The  prop- 
erty by  virtue  of  which  certain  combinations  of 
lenses  and  prisms  refract  a  beam  of  white  light 
without  producing  dispersion  of  certain  colors. 
( See  Dispersion.  )  Newton,  misled  by  imperfect 
experiments,  concluded  that  dispersion  could  not 
be  annulled  without  annulling  refraction.  Hall» 
in  1733, and  later, Dollond( independently), found 
that  certain  media  have  large  powers  of  refrac- 
tion with  small  dispersion,  while  others  give 
small  refraction  with  large  dispersion;  so  that 
the  dispersion  of  two  colors  produced  by  one 
medium  can  be  corrected  by  that  due  to  another, 
while  the  deviation  of  the  light  from  its  orig- 
inal direction  is  not  entirely  annulled.  For  ex- 
ample, by  properly  combining  a  convex  lens  of 
crown-glass  with  a  concave  one  of  fiint-glass  an 
''achromatic  lens"  can  be  produced  which  will 
have  the  same  focus  for  the  two  selected  colors^ 
while  the  foci  for  the  other  colors  are  at  neigh- 
boring points  along  the  axis  of  the  lens.  It  ia 
thus  seen  that  the  achromatism  in  the  above  ar- 
rangement is  not  perfect.  In  Fig.  1  a  beam  of 
white  light  having  the 
direction  c  d  meets 
the  crown-glass  prism 
and  is  refracted.  Dis- 
persion also  takes 
place,  and  the  beam  as 
it  emerges  is  separated 
into  its  component  col- 
ors. Adjacent  to  the 
prism  of  crown-glass  is  one  of  flint-glass,  whose 
action  is  to  bring  together  the  rays  so  that  they 
emerge  parallel,  with  the  desired  deviation.  The 
reason  is  that  prisms  of  different  media  do  not 
give  exactly  similar  spectra,  the  colors  being  dis- 
persed according  to  different  laws  for  different 
media.      Fig.  2  shows  achromatic  combinations 

of  lenses  where  the 
flint  and  crown  glasses 
are  combined  with  the 
same  effect  as  in  the 
achromatic  prism  il- 
lustrated. A  combi- 
nation of  three  lenses, 
or  prisms,  gives  a  bet- 
ter approximation  to 
absolute  achromatism 
than  a  combination  of 
two. 

If  a  lens  is  to 
be  used  for  visual  ob- 
servations, it  is  "corrected"  generally  for  a  defi- 
nite wave-length  in  the  yellow  and  one  in  the 


*«.  1. 

ACUBOMATIO  PRISM. 


Fig.  2. 

ACHROMATIC  LENSES. 


715 


AOZDB. 


bluish-green,  i^.  these  two  colors  are  brought 
t4>  the  same  focus;  but  if  it  is  to  be  used  for 
photographic  purposes,  it  is  "corrected"  for  two 
wave-lengths,  which  include  those  radiations  pos- 
sessing the  greatest  photographic  action.  There 
are  two  defects  which  a  lens  may  have,  owing  to 
chromatic  aberration  (q.v.),  in  that  the  colored 
images  may  be  at  different  distances  from  the 
lens  and  that  they  may  be  of  different  sizes.  The 
second  of  these  defects  is  insignificant  if  the  lens 
is  thin;  and  the  first  may  be  '"corrected,"  as  just 
described,  by  combining  two  thin  lenses.  If  the 
lens  is  thick,  or  if  the  lenses  of  the  lens-system 
are  ^ome  distance  apart,  the  second  of  the  above 
mentioned  errors  becomes  serious.  It  may,  how- 
ever, be  corrected. 

ACHTEBXAHNy  fto^ter-mAn,  Thbodobb 
WiLHKLM  (1790-1884).  A  German  sculptor. 
In  his  sculptures  he  devoted  himself  principally 
to  New  Testament  subjects.  While  at  Rome,  in 
1841,  he  prepared  a  statue  of  Christ  and  an 
**£cce  Homo"  for  the  Duke  of  Aremberg.  His 
most  celebrated  productions  are  preserved  in  the 
cathedral  at  Mfinster,  and  consist  of  a  "Pietft" 
and  a  ''Descent  from  the  Cross."  Another  ad- 
mirable work  is  the  marble  altar  on  which  are  de- 
picted three  episodes  from  the  life  of  Christ  (in 
relief),  prepared  in  1873  for  the  cathedral  at 
Prague. 

A  CHTJLA,  k'ShTSS^k  (Portug.).  A  danoe 
similar  to  the  fandango  (q.v.). 

ACHTTBCH',  Janet.  The  stage  name  of 
Janet  Achuroh  Sharp,  an  English  actress,  the 
wife  of  Mr.  Charles  Charrington.  She  was  bom 
in  Lancashire  and  first  appeared  in  London  at 
the  Olympic  Theatre  in  January,  1883.  In  1887 
she  joined  Beerbohm  Tree's  company,  and 
at  the  Novelty  Theatre,  June  7,  1889,  created 
in  English  the  part  of  Nora  Helmer  in  A  DolVa 
Hou9e,  This  was  the  first  presentation  of  an 
Ibsen  plaj^  to  the  English  public.  She  has  since 
toured  with  a  company  in  India  and  Australia, 
and  appeared  in  the  United  States  with  Richard 
liansneld  (1895),  and  independently.  In  June, 
1897,  at  the  Olympic  Theatre,  London,  she  took 
the  Shakespearean  part  of  Cleopatra  to  the 
Antony  of  Louis  Calvert. 

ACHZIB,  ftk^zlb.  (1).  A  Phoenician  city 
claimed  by  Asher  (Joshua  xix:29),  but  not 
conquered  (Judges  i  :  31)  ;  the  modern  Ez-Zib 
on  the  promontory  of  Ras-en-Nakurah.  Achzib 
is  mentioned  by  Sennacherib.  (2)  A  town  in  the 
Shephelah  of  Judah  (Joshua  xv  :  44).  Possibly 
the  modem  'Ain-el-Kezbeh,  near  Bet-Nettif. 

ACIDABPI8,  ftsl-d&s^pTs  (Gk.  iicic,  akia, 
spine  +  hmri^f  aapis,  shield) .  A  peculiar  genus 
of  trilobites  found  in  rocks  of  Silurian  and 
Devonian  age  in  nearly  all  parts  of  the  world. 
The  individuals  are,  as  a  rule,  small,  and  are 
.remarkable  because  of  the  spiny  ornamenta- 
tion of  the  dorsal  shield  or  carapace.  The  loba- 
tion  of  the  head  shield  is  rather  peculiar  and 
quite  unlike  that  seen  in  any  other  genus  of 
trilobites,  the  trilobite  division  being  obscured 
by  a  number  of  supplementary  furrows  and  by 
the  strong  development  of  two  longitudinal  false 
fnrrows  between  the  normal  dorsal  furrows. 
The  thorax  contains  nine  or  ten  segments,  and 
the  tail -shield  is  of  rather  small  si/e.  In  some 
species  a  row  of  slender  spines  is  developed  upon 
the  Hides  of  the  head-shield  and  a  long  spine 
projects    from    each    posterior    angle.     Besides 


these  there  are  often  two  long  straight  or  cvrved 
spines  directed  upward  and  backward  from  the 
middle  posterior  edge  of  the  head.  Each  seg- 
ment of  the  thorax  is  produced  laterally  into 
long  spines,  and  there  are  also  two  short  spines 
on  the  raised  median  portion  of  each  seffment. 
The  tail-shield  is  in  nearly  all  species  likewise 
furnished  with  spines,  so  that  on  the  whole 
these  animals  must,  though  of  small  size,  have 
presented  a  rather  formidable  aspect  to  larger 
animals  which  sought  to  prey  upon  them.  A 
few  species  of  the  genus  are  of  particular  interest 
on  account  of  the  abnormal  deirelopment  of  the 
eves,  which  are  placed  at  the  summits  of  highly 
elevated  slender,  though  immovable,  stalks, 
which  arrangement  enabled  the  animal  to  com- 
mand a  view  in  all  directions.  This  elevation  of 
the  eye  recalls  the  stalk-eyes  of  some  modern 
crabs  and  lobsters.  For  illustration,  see  Plate  of 
Tbilobites. 

ACIDIHETBY,  ftsl-dlm^^trl  (Lat.  addua, 
sour  -f-  Gk.  fikrpov,  meiron,  measure) .  The 
determination  of  the  amount  of  acid  contained 
in  a  solid  or  liquid  substance.  When  the  com- 
pound is  a  solid,  the  determination  is  usually 
made  by  the  gravimetric  method,  which  consists 
in  the  dissolving  of  a  known  weight  of  the 
material,  and  its  subsequent  treatment  by  such 
reagents  as  will  yield  an  insoluble  compound, 
from  the  weight  of  which  the  amotmt  of 
acid  can  be  calculated.  When  the  substance  is 
a  liquid,  free  from  foreign  matter,  the  proportion 
of  acid  may  be  ascertained  by  determining  the 
specific  gravity  of  the  solution  by  means  of  a 
hydrometer,  but  in  case  of  mixtures  the  acidity 
of  a  solution  is  best  ascertained  by  the  volu- 
metric method,  which  is  described  under  Alkali- 

METEB. 

ACIDS,  fts^dz  (Lat.  aoidua,  sour).  A  large 
and  important  class  of  chemical  substances. 
They  all  contain  hydrogen,  part  or  all  of  which 
is  replaced  by  metals  wnen  the  acids  are  brought 
in  contact  with  metallic  hydroxides.  The  com- 
pounds formed  by  substituting  metals  for  the 
hydrogen  of  acids  are  termed  the  salts  of  those 
metals,  and  therefore  the  acids  themselves  may 
be  regarded  as  salts  of  hydrogen.  An  example 
may  render  these  definitions  more  clearly  intel- 
ligible. When  the  sour  principle  of  vinegar  is 
brought  in  contact  with  potassium  hydroxide, 
a  reaction  ensues,  resulting  in  the  formation  of 
a  new  substance.  A  chemical  analysis,  com- 
bined with  a  determination  of  the  molecular 
weight  of  the  sour  principle  of  vinegar,  shows 
that  the  molecule  of  the  latter  must  be  repre- 
sented by  the  formula  C^«Oa;  on  the  other 
hand,  the  substance  formed  with  potassium 
hydroxide  is  represented  by  the  formula  CaHaKO,. 
Evidently,  part  of  the  hydrogen  of  the  sour  prin- 
ciple of  vinegar  has  been  replaced  by  the  metal 
potassium  (K).  We  therefore  class  the  sour 
principle  of  vinegar  with  the  acids  (it  is  the  well- 
known  acetic  acid)  ;  and  we  class  the  substance 
obtained  by  its  action  on  potassium  hydroxide 
with  the  salts  (it  is  called  the  acetate  of  potas- 
sium, while  acetic  acid  itself  may  be  called  the 
acetate  of  hydrogen). 

Most  acids  have  a  sour  taste  and  change  the 
blue  color  of  litmus  to  red.  These  properties, 
however,  are  not  strictly  characteristic  of  acids, 
silicic  acid,  for  instance,  possessing  neither, 
though — like  a  true  acid — it  combines  with 
metallic  hydroxides  to  form  salts. 


ACIDS.  76 

According  to  the  maximum  number  of  their 
hydrogen  atoms  replaceable  by  metals  acids  are 
termed  mono-basic,  di-basic,  tri-basic,  etc.  No 
matter  how  great  the  excess  of  potassiimi  hydrox- 
ide employed,  only  one  hydrogen  atom  of  acetic 
acid,  C^E^Ot,  can  be  replaced  by  potassium,  the 
only  resulting  salt  having  the  formula  CsHsKOf 
Acetic  acid  is,  therefore,  said  to  be  a  mono-basic 
acid.  By  the  action  of  a  limited  amount  of 
potassium  hydroxide  on  sulphuric  acid  (HsSO^) 
a  salt  called  the  acid  sulphate  of  potassium 
(HKSO«)  may  be  obtained;  this  salt  is  formed 
by  substituting  the  metal  potassiimi  for  one  of 
the  hydrogen  atoms  of  sulphuric  acid.  But  if 
an  excess  of  potassium  hydroxide  is  used,  both 
of  the  hydrogen '  atoms  of  sulphuric  acid  are 
replaced  by  potassium,  and  the  salt  known  as 
the  neutral  sulphate  of  potassium  (K2SO4)  is 
produced.  Sulphuric  acid  is  therefore  said  to 
be  a  di-basic  acid.  In  like  manner  phosphoric 
acid  (HaPOi)  is  found  to  be  a  tri-basic  acid,  etc. 

Acids  containing  carbon  among  their  constit- 
uent elements  are  called  organic  acids,  because 
some  of  them  were  originally  found  in  the 
organic  world.  Most  organic  acids  are  found  to 
contain  one  or  more  carboxyl  groups  (COOH)  ; 
it  is  the  hydrogen  of  these  groups  that  is  replace- 
able by  metals.  These  acids  are  called  carboxylic 
acids,  and  their  basicity  is  determined  by  the 
number  of  carboxyl  groups  they  contain.  The 
carboxylic  acids  are  subdivided  into  carbocyclic 
and  fatty  acids,  according  as  their  molecules 
do  or  do  not  contain  those  rings  of  which  the 
so-called  aromatic  benzene-nucleus  is  the  most 
important.  Thus  benzoic  acid,  CACOOH,  is  a 
carbocyclic  acid;  acetic  acid,  CHsCOOH,  is  a 
fatty  acid.  An  interesting  group  of  substances 
belonging  to  the  aromatic  series  and,  like  acids, 
combining  with  metallic  hydroxides,  are  not 
included  among  the  true  aromatic  acids  because 
they  do  not  contain  the  carboxyl  group.  These 
substances,  called  phenols  (q.v.),  are  found  to 
be  weaker  than  the  weakest  carboxylic  acid 
known,  viz.,  carbonic  acid. 

The  specific  strength  of  an  acid  depends,  natu- 
rally, on  its  composition  and  chemical  consti- 
tution. But  the  precise  nature  of  that  relation  is 
as  yet  unknown.  The  correctness  of  the  very 
methods  of  measuring  the  strength  of  acids  is, 
according  to  some  eminent  authors,  still  subject 
to  doubt.  It  is,  however,  remarkable  and  cannot 
be  denied,  that  the  different  methods  employed 
yield  very  nearly  coincident  results. 

One  of  those  methods  consists  in  determining 
the  avidity  of  acids  for  a  metallic  hydroxide, 
as  shown  by  the  proportion  in  which  the  latter 
is  distributed  between  two  acids  when  brought 
in  contact  with  a  mixture  of  the  two,  the  amount 
of  metallic  hydroxide  employed  being  insufficient 
to  saturate  both  acids  completely.  For  example: 
sodium  hydroxide,  sulphuric  acid,  and  nitric 
acid  are  weighed  out  in  such  quantities  that 
the  sodium  hydroxide  is  just  sufficient  to  neu- 
tralize either  one  of  the  two  acids.  When  the 
three  substances  are  now  mixed  together^  in 
aqueous  solution,  it  is  found  that  two-thirds 
of  the  sodium  hydroxide  have  been  taken  up  by 
the  nitric  acid  and  only  one-third  by  the  sulphu- 
ric acid.  The  conclusion  is  drawn  that  nitric 
acid  is  twice  as  strong  an  acid  as  sulphuric  acid. 
It  is  similarly  found  that  hydrochloric  acid,  too, 
is  twice  as  strong  as  sulphuric  acid,  and  hence 
possesses  the  same  strength  as  nitric  acid.  Acetic 
acid  is  found  to  be  very  weak. 


▲GIBS. 

Another  interesting  method  of  determining  the 
relative  strength  of  acids  consists  in  measuring 
the  rapidity  with  which  various  acids  are  capa- 
ble of  effecting  the  inversion  of  sugar;  that  is  to 
say,  the  decomposition  of  sugar  into  dextrose 
and  levulose,  a  reaction  taking  place  tmder  the 
influence  of  acids,  according  to  the  follo¥mig 
equation: 

CuH«Ou    -h    H,0    =    C^Ejy.    -f    C,H^. 
Oaii»«i]«rar  Dextrose  Leynloee 

For  example,  if  equivalent  quantities  of  nitric 
and  hydrochloric  acids  are  added  to  two  equal 
portions  of  a  solution  of  cane-sugar,  it  is  found 
that,  under  the  same  conditions  of  temperature 
and  concentration,  the  inversion  takes  place  with 
equal  rapidity  in  both  cases;  the  conclusion  is 
drawn  that  nitric  and  hydrochloric  acids  are 
equally  strong  acids.  It  is  similarly  found  that 
these  acids  are  about  twice  as  strong  as  sul- 
phuric acid,  while  acetic  acid  is  found  to  be 
very  weak. 

When  an  acid  is  dissolved  in  water,  its  mole- 
cules are  assumed  to  become  dissociated  into 
ions,  some  of  which  are  charged  with  positive, 
some  with  negative,  electricity.  Thus  acetic 
acid  is  supposed  to  break  up  according  to  the 
following  equation: 

+  — 

CH,COOH    =    H    -f    CH.COO 
Acetic  add 

The  dissociation  is  usually  incomplete;  that  is 
to  say,  only  a  fraction  of  the  amount  of  acid 
in  solution  is  dissociated  into  ions,  the  rest 
remaining  undissociated.  So  that  a  solution  of 
acetic  acid,  for  instance,  contains  three  kinds 
of  particles,  viz.,    (1)    positive  hydrogen   ions, 

"T*  

H;  (2)  negative  ions,  CH,GOO;  and  (3)  electri- 
cally neutral  (undissociated)  acetic  acid  mole- 
cules, CHaCOOH.  The  magnitude  of  the  fraction 
dissociated,  or,  as  it  is  called,  the  degree  of 
dissociation  of  an  acid,  depends  (a)  upon  the 
amount  of  acid  in  solution;  (b)  upon  the  tem- 
perature; and  (c)  upon  the  nature  of  the  acid. 
Under  the  same  conditions  of  concentration  and 
temperature  the  number  of  free  ions  in  solutions 
of  different  acids  depends  upon  nothing  hut  the 
nature  of  the  acids.  And  as  according  to  the 
electrolytic  theory  the  capacity  of  an  acid  for 
conducting  electricity  depends  upon  nothing  but 
the  presence  of  free  ions  in  its  solution,  the 
electrical  conductivity  of  the  solution  piay  be 
taken  as  a  measure,  so  to  speak,  of  the  nature 
of  the  acid. 

Now,  when  the  acids  are  tabularly  arranged 
in  the  order  of  their  electrical  conductivity,  it  is 
found  that  the  order  is  the  same  as  when  they 
are  arranged  according  to  their  avidity  for 
metallic  hydroxides,  or  when  they  are  arranged 
in  the  order  of  the  rapidity  with  which  i^ey 
can  effect  the  inversion  of  cane-sugar. 

A  remarkable  relation  is  thus  seen  to  exist 
between  three  phenomena  having  apparently  no 
connection  with  one  another.  The  common  cause 
of  these  phenomena  is  assumed  to  be  the  pres- 
ence of  free  hydroeen  ions  in  an  acid  solution. 
Furthermore,  on  this  assumption  the  neutrali- 
zation of  acids  by  metallic  hydroxides  is  ex- 
plained in  the  following  manner.  The  fact  that 
pure  water  is  a  non-conductor  of  electricity 
proves  that  its  molecules  are  not  dissociated 
into  ions.    If  ions  formed  by  the  elements  of 


AGIDS. 

water  meet  in  a  aolution,  tbey  must  immediately 
combine  to  form  undissociated  molecules  of 
water.      Now,   while    the    solution    of    an    acid 

contains  electro-positive  hydrogen  ions,  H,  the 
solution  of  a  metallic  hydroxide  contains  electro- 
negative hydroxyl  ions,  OH.  When  the  solutions 
are  mixed,  these  ions  combine  into  neutral  mole- 
cules of  water,  according  to  the  following  equa- 
tion: 

■f  — 

H    -f    OH      =      H,0 

Water 

The  disappearance  of  free  hydroxyl  and  hydro- 
gen ions  as  such  causes  the  simultaneous  disap- 
pearance of  the  properties  both  of  the  basic 
hydroxide  and  of  the  acid;  and  the  acid  and 
base  are  said  to  have  neutralized  each  other. 

ACIBEAIiE,  a'ch«-r&-ri&  (Sicil.  lad).  A 
city  in  Sicily,  526  feet  above  the  sea,  at  the 
mouth  of  the  River  Aci,  which  descends  from 
Mount  Etna  to  form  a  small  harbor  here,  d 
miles  northeast  of  Catania  (Map:  Italy,  K  10). 
The  broad  streets,  spacious  houses,  and  high 
towers  rest  on  beds  of  lava,  from  which  many 
of  them  were  constructed.  The  climate  is  con- 
sidered very  healthful,  and  in  summer  the  Terme 
di  Santa  Venere  offers  baths  of  tepid  mineral 
water  containing  sulphur,  salt,  and  iodine.  There 
are  pleasant  walks  and  drives  to  neighboring 
Tillages  on  the  slopes  of  Mount  Etna,  and  the 
grotto  of  Galatea  and  the  cave  of  Polyphemus 
are  in  the  neighborhood.  The  coast  south  of 
Aeireale  is  steep,  and  has  risen  more  than  40 
feet  durine  the  historical  period.  In  the  sea 
near  by  rise  the  Scogli  de^  Ciclopi,  the  rocks 
whieh  according  to  tradition  were  hurled  after 
the  wily  Ulysses  by  the  blinded  Polyphemus. 
The  moet  bcAutiful  of  them  is  about  230  feet 
higli  and  2300  feet  in  circumference,  and  consists 
of  basalt  containing  wonderful  crystals  and  cov- 
ered with  hard  limestone  that  carries  fossil 
shells.  The  city  has  a  gymnasium  and  a  techni- 
cal school,  and  one  of  the  old  families  possesses 
m  splendid  collection  of  Sicilian  coins.  The  man- 
ufactures are  silk,  linen,  and  cotton  goods,  knives 
and  shears,  and  there  is  an  important  commerce 
in  flax  and  grain.    Pop.,  1881,  39,000. 

A^CIS  (Gk.  *Ajcic,'  Akia),  A  small  stream 
flowing  from  the  foot  of  Mount  Etna  in  Sicily. 
Legend  derived  the  name  from  Acis,  son  of 
Faunus  and  Symiethis,  beloved  by  the  nymph 
Galatea.  The  Cyclops  Polyphemus,  jealous  of 
the  boy,  crushed  him  under  a  rock,  and  his 
blood,  gushing  forth,  was  changed  into  the  river. 
Bee  Galatea. 

A'^CIS  AKB  QAI/ATWA.  The  title  of  a 
pastoral  serenata  or  cantata  composed  by  Handel 
and  produced  about  1720.  The  words  are  by 
Gay,  Pope,  and  Hughes.  It  was  acted  as  an 
opera  at  the  Haymarket  Theatre,  London,  in 
1732,  without  the  consent  of  the  composer,  and 
has  been  since  repeated  at  Drury  Lane. 

ACKEBHAKN,  ftk^er-mAn,  Konrad  Ehnst 
<  1712-71).  One  of  the  founders  of  German  dram- 
atic art.  He  began  his  career  as  an  actor  with 
tiie  famous  Sch5nemann  company  at  LQneburg  in 
January,  1740.  Upon  the  outbreak  of  the  dis- 
astrous Seven  Tears'  War  he  sold  a  theatre  he 
had  erected  in  KOnigsberg,  and  the  loss  thus  en- 
tailed eompelled  him  thenceforth  to  lead  a  waa- 


77 


ACKVOWIiEDGKENT. 


dering  life  with  his  troupe.  On  July  31,  1765, 
he  opened  a  new  theatre  at  Hamburg,  which, 
according  to  Lessing,  eventually  set  the  standard 
for  theatrical  performances  in  Germany.  Be- 
sides the  members  of  his  own  family,  the  com- 
panies organized  by  Ackerman  included  some 
of  the  ablest  talent  in  Germany.  The  theatre 
was  conducted  by  him  until  1767,  when  it  passed 
into  the  hands  of  twelve  citizens  of  Hamburg, 
and  was  thereafter  known  as  the  Deutaches  Na- 
tionaltheater.  Ackerman's  representations  were 
models  of  freshness  and  vigor,  and  although  he 
lacked  qualifications  re<]uisite  for  heroic  and 
emotional  parts,  his  acting  of  many  character 
rOles  was  remarkable. 

ACKEBMAKH,  Rudolph  (1764-1834).  A 
German-English  inventor  and  publisher.  He  was 
bom  at  Schneeberg,  Saxony,  and  followed  the 
occupation  of  coach  builder  and  saddler  in  vari- 
ous German  cities,  as  well  as  in  Paris  and  Lon- 
don. He  established  an  art  school  in  London  in 
1706.  In  1801  he  patented  a  method  of  render- 
ing paper,  cloth,  and  other  fabrics  waterproof, 
and  for  this  purpose  erected  a  factory  at  Chelsea, 
England.  He  also  contributed  ^eatly  to  the  de- 
velopment of  lithography.  It  is,  however,  as  a 
publisher  of  fine  art  subjects  that  Ackermann 
is  best  known.  His  greatest  achievement  in  this 
field  was  the  Jiepoaitory  of  Aria,  Literature, 
Faahiona,  Manufacturea,  etc.,  a  publication  which 
was  continued  regularly  until  1828,  when  forty 
volumes  had  appeared.  Many  of  the  plates  were 
supplied  by  Rowlandson  and  other  eminent  art- 
ists. Among  his  other  numerous  illustrative 
works  is  The  World  in  Miniature  (43  volumes, 
12mo,  637  plates,  1821-26). 

ACKNOWL^DGHEHT.  (1.)  An  admission 
by  a  person  that  he  is  owing  a  debt  or  is  subject 
to  a  liability,  which,  but  for  such  acknowledg- 
ment, would  be  barred  by  the  statute  of  limita- 
tions. It  need  not  be  in  any  set  form  of 
words,  but  it  must  be  a  clear  admission  of  an 
identified  liability,  and  modern  statutes  often  re- 
quire it  to  be  in  writing.  (2.)  The  term  is  also 
applied  to  the  formal  act  of  declaring,  before  a 
notary  public  or  other  proper  officer,  that  a  writ- 
ten instrument  executed  by  the  declarant  is  his 
act  and  deed.  It  is  applied  also  to  the  certificate 
of  the  oflioer  setting  forth  the  facts  connected 
with  such  declaration.  An  acknowledgment  is 
not  essential  to  the  validity  of  an  instrument,  un- 
less made  so  by  statute,  although  by  recording 
acts  (q.v.)  it  is  generally  required  in  order  that 
the  instrument  may  be  lawfully  recorded.  In 
England  and  in  manv  of  our  States,  a  deed  of  con- 
veyance or  release  of  dower  by  a  married  woman 
is  declared  invalid  by  statute,  unless,  upon  an 
examination  apart  from  her  husband,  she  ac- 
knowledges that  she  executed  the  deed  of  her 
own  free  will.  Such  a  conveyance  has  taken  the 
place  of  the  conveyance  by  fictitious  suit,  known 
as  a  fine  (q.v.).  The  object  of  this  legislation 
has  been  declared  by  the  United  States  Supreme 
Court  to  be  twofold:  not  only  to  protect  the 
wife  by  making  it  the  duty  of  the  officer  taking 
the  acknowledgment  to  certify  that  she  has  not 
acted  under  compulsion  of  her  husband,  or  in 
ignorance  of  the  contents  of  the  deed,  but  also 
to  facilitate  the  conveyance  of  the  estates  of 
married  women,  and  to  secure  and  perpetuate 
evidence  upon  which  innocent  grantees  as  well 
as  subsequent  purchasers  may  rely  that  the  re- 
quirements   of    the    statute   neoessaiy    to   give 


AGXNOWIiEBOMENT.  7$ 

▼alidity  to  the  deed  have  been  complied  with. 
Such  an  examination  and  certificate  ia  a  quasi- 
judicial  act,  and  can  be  impeached  and  invalided 
only  for  fraud.  Judges,  clerks  of  courts,  mayors, 
notaries  public,  commissioners  of  deeds,  and  jus- 
tices of  the  peace  are  authorized  in  most  States 
to  take  acknowledgments.  The  laws  of  the  State 
in  which  the  acknowledgment  is  to  be  used  de- 
termine its  sufficiency.  For  forms  of  acknowl- 
edgments consult  Hubbell,  Legal  Directory  for 
Lawyers  and  Duaineas  Men  (New  York,  revised 
annually) .  See  the  authorities  referred  to  under 
Deed. 

AC^LANDy  Chbistian  Henbixtta  Cabolinx 
( 1750-1815) .  Commonly  known  as  Lady  Harriet 
Acland,  the  wife  of  John  Dyke  Acland,  an  Eng- 
lish officer  in  the  American  revolution.  She  was 
married  in  1770,  and  in  1776  accompanied  her 
husband,  then  commander  of  grenadiers,  to  Amer- 


Acsra. 


AOLZlflO  UNS. 


lea,  and  with  him  endured  most  of  the  hard- 
ships of  the  Burgoyne  campaign.  Major  Acland 
became  dangerously  ill  in  Canada,  but  was 
nursed  back  to  health  by  her,  and  was  again 
tenderly  cared  for  by  her  after  being  wounded 
in  the  battle  of  Hubbardton  (July  7,  1777).  In 
the  second  battle  of  Saratoga  (October  7,  1777) 
he  was  severely  wounded  and  became  a  prisoner 
in  the  hands  of  the  Americans.  Lady  Acland, 
hearing  of  this,  bravely  entered  the  American 
camp,  where  she  was  received  with  the  utmost 
courtesy.  She  rejoined  her  husband  at  Albany, 
and  nursed  him  until  his  wounds  had  healed, 
when  she  returned  with  him  to  England.  Major 
Acland  died  in  1778,  as  the  result  of  a  cold  con- 
tracted while  fighting  a  duel  to  vindicate  the 
courage  of  the  Americans,  and  Lady  Harriet, 
contrary  to  the  usual  accounts,  did  not  marry 
again.  Consult:  Stone,  Sketch  of  Lady  Harriet 
Acland,  in  Ballads  and  Poems  Relating  to  the 
Burgoyne  Campaign  (Albany,  1893). 

ACLAND,  Sib  Henbt  Wewtwobth  Dyke 
(1816-1900).  An  English  physician.  He  was 
born  at  Exeter  and  was  educated  at  Oxford.  He 
was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Oxford  University 
Museum,  and  in  1859  published,  with  Ruskin, 
an  account  of  the  aims  of  that  institution.  He 
aocompanied  the  Prince  of  Wales  to  America  in 


1860.  In  1894  he  tendered  his  resignation  as 
regius  professor  of  medicine  at  Oxford,  which 
position  he  had  occupied  since  1858.  His  more 
important  publications  included  the  Memoir  on 
the  Visitation  of  the  Cholera  in  Oxford  in  185^, 
and  Village  Health  (1884). 

ACLAND,  John  Dtke.  See  Aclaitd,  Chbis- 
tian Henbietta  Caboline. 

ACLIN^IC  LINE  (Unbending,  unwavering, 
from  Gk.  d,  a,  priv.-|-  icAivrtv,  klinein,  to  incline). 
This  is  an  imaginary  line  around  the  earth  be- 
tween the  tropics  where  the  magnetic  needle  has 
no  inclination;  that  is,  where,  when  balanced 
free  to  turn  in  any  direction,  it  places  itself 
horizontal.  It  is  called  the  magnetic  equator, 
and  is  about  90  degrees  from  the  magnetic  poles. 
The  line  is  variable  and  irregular.  In  1901,  in 
the  Western  Hemisphere,  it  was  south,  and,  in  the 
eastern,  north,  of  the  geographical  equator.  See 
Magnetism,  Tebbestbiai.. 

AC^HITE  (Gk.  QK/i^,  akmS,  point,  edge).  A 
sodium-iron  silicate  that  crystallizes  in  the 
monoclinic  system,  has  a  vitreous  to  resinous 
lustre,  and  is  red  to  brown  and  green  in  color. 
It  occurs  in  the  older  rocks  in  Sweden  and 
Greenland,  and  in  the  United  States  minute 
crystals  have  been  found  in  northwestern  New 
Jersey,  w^hile  fine  prismatic  crystals,  frequently 
eight  inches  in  length,  occur  at  Hot  Springs  and 
Magnet  Cove,  Ark.  It  is  called  acmite  from  the 
sharp  pointed  extremities  of  its  crjrstals. 

ACNE  (probably  from  Gk.  &KfJtn,  akm€,  a 
point).  An  inflammatory  structural  disorder 
of  the  sebaceous  glands  or  follicles  of  the  skin 
(q.v.).  Dust  plugs  the  outlets  of  some  follicles, 
forming  "black  heads"  or  comedones.  Retention 
of  the  sebum  causes  irritation  of  the  follicle, 
leading  to  increased  secretion  and  congestion  of 
the  surrounding  tissue.  Pressure  with  a  watch 
key  or  the  finger  nails  causes  expulsion  of  the 
sebum  in  a  little  spiral  white  mass,  with  a  black 
point  or  anterior  end,  erroneously  regarded  as  a 
worm.  In  the  midst  of  the  white  mass  of  seba- 
ceous matter,  a  parasite,  Acarus  folliculorum,  is, 
however,  often  found.  Some  points  suppurate 
and  some  intermediate  follicles  become  innamed, 
and  pimples  (papules),  as  well  as  hardened 
masses,  appear.  This  variety  of  acne  is  called 
Acne  vulgaris.  Anaemia,  dyspepsia,  consti- 
pation, and  uterine  disorders  may  be  the  indirect 
causes  of  acne,  the  immediate  cause  being  the 
entrance  of  the  Staphylococcus  pyogenes  (the 
germ  of  suppuration)  into  the  sebaceous  follicles. 
Treatment  must  be  directed  against  the  indirect 
causes  mentioned,  and  also  vigorous  local  treat- 
ment must  be  employed.  Internal  remedies  in- 
clude aperients,  mineral  waters,  cod  liver  oil, 
hypophosphites,  malt  extract,  arsenic,  iron,  mer- 
cury, and  sulphur.  External  remedies  include 
salicylic  acid,  ichthyol,  mercury,  borated  alcohol, 
sulphur,  zinc,  and  caustic  potash.  Acne  rosacea 
is  a  chronic  hyperaemic  disease  of  the  face,  more 
especially  of  the  nose,  characterized  by  hyper- 
trophy, redness,  dilatation  of  the  blooa  vessels 
and  acne.  In  one  form  acne  papules  and  pus- 
tules are  plenty,  and  appear  on  a  background  of 
bright  red  infiltrated  skin.  In  the  other  form 
of  Acne  rosacea  there  is  a  general  erythema  or 
redness,  with  enlargement  of  the  superficial 
veins  of  the  skin,  and  frequently  a  hypertrophy 
of  the  nose  or  chin.  If  extensive,  and  if  the 
hypertrophy  becomes  exceesive,  the  term  Acne 


79 


ACONITB. 


bjpertrophica  is  applied  to  these  cases.  If  the 
usual  acne  treatment  fails,  scarification  or  re- 
moral  of  the  surface  with  the  knife  is  necessary 
in  Acne  rosacea  and  Acne  hypertrophica.  In 
Acne  atrophica,  which  usually  occurs  upon  the 
temples  and  border  of  the  scalp,  wings  of  the 
nostrils  and  between  the  eyebrows,  there  is  ne- 
crosis of  the  tissues  with  resulting  contractions 
and  pits.  In  Acne  keloid  there  is  a  deep  infil- 
tration of  the  true  skin  with  destruction  or  al- 
teration of  the  hair.  Its  favorite  seat  is  on  the 
back  of  the  neck,  where  it  appears  as  nodulated, 
hard  tumors.    Cauterization  is  the  treatment. 

ACOCK^IIX.    See  Anchob. 


.,  is'A-me't^  (Gk.<&,  a,  priT.+ 
aMftaohat^  koimaMihaiy  to  sleep).  A  class  of 
Greek  monks  called  watchers,  who  chanted  service 
continuously  dav  and  night,  dividing,  like  sailors, 
into  three  watches.  They  originated  about  400 
A.D.  on  the  Euphrates,  later  appeared  in  Con- 
stantinople, and '  established  many  monasteries, 
the  chief  one  being  the  Studium  in  Constanti- 
nople itself,  erect^  by  the  consul  Studius  in 
471.  Thev  were  excommunicated  in  534  by  Pope 
John  II.  for  opposing  the  formula,  "One  of  tne 
Trinity  suffered,"  and  thus  placing  themselves 
on  the  Nestorian  side. 

ACX>IK,  Sk'Mn.  A  white  crystalline  sub- 
stance, soluble  in  water,  derived  from  guanin, 
and  closely  related  to  caffeine  and  theobromine. 
Chemically,  it  is  di-para-anisyl-mono-phen-ethyl- 
guanidin-chlor-hydrate.  Experimente  have  shown 
that  it  is  less  toxic  than  cocaine  (q.v.), 
like  which  it  is  employed  as  a  local  ansesthetic 
in  the  eye.  It  has  been  used  by  dropping  an 
aq[Qeous  solution  upon  the  conjunctiva,  causing 
more  pain  than  cocaine,  and  also  seeming  less 
•iTective  than  cocaine  in  cases  in  which  there  was 
oongestion.  In  other  cases  it  has  been  found 
as  rapidly  efficient  as  cocaine,  but  producing  no 
eluinge  in  the  pupil,  accommodation  or  intra- 
ocular tension.  After  cocainizing  the  conjunc- 
tiva it  may  be  injected  without  pain. 

ACOIXA8,  A'k^'lA^  I^mile  (1826-91).  A 
French  jurist  and  publicist.  He  was  bom  at 
L*  ChAtre,  and  was  educated  at  Bourges  and 
Paris.  He  was  one  of  the  most  conspicuous  rep- 
re^entetives  at  the  Congress  at  Geneva  in  1867, 
when  the  formation  of  a  general  European  demo- 
cratic confederation  was  advocated,  and  upon  his 
return  to  France  was  condemned  to  one  year's 
imprisonment  for  his  active  participation  in  the 
deliberations  of  that  party.  In  1871  the  Paris 
Commune  nominated  him,  during  his  absence  in 
Switzerland,  president  of  the  legal  faculty,  and 
in  1880  he  was  appointed  inspector-general  of  the 
penitentiaries.  Among  his  numerous  publica- 
tions, all  of  which  emphasize  the  principles 
**  Droit  et  Liberte/'  the  most  important  is  Coutm 
H&mentnxTe  de  droit,  a  work  consisting  of  seven 
volumes,  published  in  the  form  of  manuals. 

ACOLYTES,  flk^Mlts  (Gk.  atcdkovOog,  ak<h 
Umihos,  a  follower).  A  name  occurring  first 
about  the  third  century,  and  applied  to  fimc- 
tionaries  who  assisted  the  bishops  and  priests  in 
the  performance  of  religious  rites,  lighting  the 
candles,  presenting  the  wine  and  water  at  the 
communion^  ete.  They  were  considered  as  in  holy 
orders,  and  ranked  next  to  sub-deacons.  These 
senrioes  have  since  the  seventh  century  been  per- 
formed by  laymen  and  boys,  who  are  improperly 
odlcd  ibcolytes;  but  in  the  Roman  Church  as: 


piranta  to  the  priesthood  are  still  at  one  stage 
consecrated  as  acolytes,  and  receive  candles  and 
cups  as  the  symbols  of  the  office.  See  Orders, 
Holt. 

AGOMA,  ft^6-m&.  An  Indian  pueblo  in 
Valencia  County,  New  Mexico,  about  70  miles 
west  of  Albuquerque  (Map:  New  Mexico,  E  2). 
Population,  in  1900,  492;  in  1902,  estimated,  660. 
With  Isleta  it  has  the  distinction  of  occupying 
its  sixteenth-century  site,  and  is  the  oldest  con- 
tinuously occupied  town  in  the  United  States. 
It  was  visited  (1640)  by  memb-^rs  of  Coronado's 
expedition,  by  Espejo  (1683),  and  Juan  de  Ofiate 
(1698).  Espejo  named  it  Acoma;  previously  it 
was  known  as  Acus,  Acuco,  and  Coco.  In  De- 
cember, 1598,  Juan  de  Zaldivar,  of  Ofiate's  force, 
visited  Acoma  and,  with  half  his  party  of  30, 
was  killed  by  the  natives.  In  the  next  month  his 
brother  Vicente  killed  half  the  Acoma  population 
of  3000  and  partly  burned  the  pueblo.  Francis- 
cans labored  here  before  1629  and  later  esteb- 
lished  the  San  Estevan  Mission.  The  Acomas 
successively  occupied  many  village  sites  in  pre- 
historic times,  the  last  before  Acoma  being  Kat- 
zimo,  the  enchanted  mesa,  three  miles  distent. 
Water  in  the  Acoma  mesa  is  obteined  from  natural 
cavities  in  the  rocky  summit  (357  feet  high). 
The  Acoma  reservation  comprises  96,792  acres. 
Consult:  H.  H.  Bancroft,  History  of  Arizona 
and  New  Mewico  (San  Francisco,  .1889) ;  Lum- 
mis.  Land  of  Poco  Tiempo  (New  York,  1893); 
and  Hodge,  "The  Enchanted  Mesa,"  in  National 
OeographAoMagamne,YolMu,{W&Bhmgton,lSW). 

ACONCAQXrA,  ft'kdn-ka^gw& ;  Span.-Amer. 
pron.  k&'w&.  An  extinct  volcano  in  the  southern 
part  of  the  Andes,  situated  in  lat.  32''  39^  S., 
long.  70**  W.,  on  the  boundary  line  between 
Chile  and  Argentina,  and  belonging  to  the  lat- 
ter (Map:  Chile,  C  10).  It  is  usually  consid- 
ered the  loftiest  mountein  in  America,  its  es- 
timated height*  being  about  23,000  feet.  A  river 
of  the  same  name  rises  on  the  southern  slope  of 
the  mountein  and  enters  the  Pacific  after  a 
course  of  over  200  miles.  Consult:  E.  Fitzger- 
ald, *'The  First  Ascent  of  Aconcagua,"  in  Afc- 
Clur^9  Magazine,  Volume XI.  (New  York,  1898) ; 
Sir  M.  Conway,  "Aconcagua  and  the  Volcanic 
Andes,"  Harper's  Magazine^  Volume  C.  (New 
York,  1899). 

ACONCAGXTA  A  central  province  of  Chile, 
bounded  by  the  Chilean  provinces  of  Coouimbo 
on  Uie  north,  Santiago  on  the  south  and  Valpa- 
raiso on  the  southwest,  Argentina  on  the  east, 
and  the  Pacific  on  the  west  (Map:  Chile,  C  10). 
It  covers  an  area  of  6226  square  miles.  The 
mounteinous  regions  which  occupy  the  larger 
part  of  the  province  are  mostly  barren,  while  the 
valleys  of  the  Aconcagua  River  and  other 
streams  are  highly  fertile  and  produce  different 
kinds  of  fruit,  as  well  as  hemp  and  some  grain. 
The  province  also  conteins  considerable  deposits 
of  copper.  The  population  in  1895  was  113,165. 
Capital,  San  Felipe  (q.v.). 

AC^ONITE,  AooNTTUM  (Lat,  aoonitum,  Ok. 
&k6vitcv^  akoniton,  wolf's-bane).  A  genus  of 
plante  of  the  order  Ranunculaceie,  having  five  ir- 
regular sepals,  the  upper  one  hooded  and  two 
spurred  petels  concealed  under  the  hood.  The 
roots  are  usually  fusiform  and  clustered.  The 
whole  plant  is  very  poisonous,  conteining  a  num- 
ber of  alkaloids,  among  which  are.  aconinfiy  aoon* 


AOOHITXL  80 

itine,  and  isaconitine.  Some  of  these  are  em* 
ployed  in  medicine,  being  administered  in  small 
doses  for  nervous  and  other  disorders.  The 
Wolf*s-bane  or  Monk's-hood  {Aoonitum  napellua) 
is  often  cultivated  for  its  racemes  of  handsome 
blue  flowers.  A  number  of  species  is  said  to 
be  employed  in  India  in  the  manufacture  of  the 
hikh  poison.  Aconitum  album,  with  white  flow- 
ers, and  Aconitum  lycoctonum,  with  yellow  flow- 
ers, European  species,  are  often  met  with  in 
flower  gardens.  Aconitum  uncinatum,  which  has 
blue  flowers,  and  Aconitum  reclinatum,  with 
white  flowers,  are  found  in  the  eastern  United 
States,  while  Aconitum  columbianum  is  common 
from  the  Rocky  Mountains  to  the  Pacific.  It  is 
reputed  poisonous  to  stock,  especially  to  sheep. 
Consult:  H.  G.  L.  Reichenbach,  Manographia 
Generis  Aconiti  (Leipzig,  1820) ;  W.  Weil,  trans- 
lated b}'  H.  D.  Millard,  A  Monograph  upon  Aco- 
nite (New  York,  1860) ;  L.  H.  Bailey,  Cyclopcedia 
of  American  Horticulture  (1900-1901).  For 
illustration,  see  Plate  of  Acacia. 

ACOKTinS,  &-k5n'shI-tls  (Gk.  ^AkAvtloq, 
Akontioa).  The  hero  of  a  classic  love  story  con- 
tained in  a  lost  poem  of  Callimachus,  and  also 
given  by  Ovid  {Heroidea  xx.  21).  He  is  a 
youth  from  Ceos,  who,  being  at  Delos  and  in 
love  with  Cydippe  (q.v.),  throws  at  her  feet  an 
apple  on  which  he  has  written,  "I  swear  by  the 
sanctuary  of  Artemis  to  marry  Acontius."  In- 
advertently she  reads  the  words  aloud,  and  in 
spite  of  her  inclination  to  have  nothing  to  do 
with  the  youth,  is  held  by  the  goddess  to  her 
vow  thus  made.  Consult:  Morris,  "The  Story  of 
Acontius  and  Cydippe,"  in  The  Earthly  Paradise, 
part  lii.  (London,  1872). 

ACOBNy  A^ktlrn  (properly,  fruit  of  the  field, 
A.  S.  wcer,  a  field).  The  nut-like  fruit  of  dif- 
ferent species  of  oak.  It  consists  of  the  nut 
proper  and  the  cupule,  or  saucer  or  cup.  The 
acorns  from  different  species  differ  much  in  size, 
form,  color,  and  taste.  In  some  the  cup  is  deep 
and  very  rough;  in  others  it  is  smooth  and  shal- 
low. A  few  kinds  of  acorns  are  sweet  and  not 
unlike  chestnuts  in  flavor,  but  most  are  bitter 
and  more  or  less  astringent  in  taste,  owing  to 
the  presence  of  quercin,  or  some  similar  bitter 
principle,  and  tannin.  On  an  average,  fresh  acorns 
have  the  following  percentage  composition:  Wa- 
ter, 37.12;  protein,  4.11;  fat,  3.05;  nitrogen 
free  extract,  45.27;  crude  fibre,  8.95;  and  ash, 
1.60.  The  shell  makes  up  14  per  cent,  of  the 
total  fruit,  the  fiesh,  85  per  cent.  Acorns  are  a 
favorite  food  of  wild  hogs,  and  have  been  used 
since  earliest  times  as  feeding  stuff  for  domestic 
animals,  especially  pigs.  It  is  customary  to  let 
the  pigs  gather  tbis  food.  Acorns  and  beechnuts 
are  commonly  spoken  of  as  mast.  The  agreeable 
flavor  of  the*pork,  ham,  and  bacon  of  the  razor- 
back  hog  of  the  southern  United  States  is  attrib- 
uted in  no  small  degree  to  its  being  fed  on 
acorns.  On  the  other  hand,  an  excess  of  acorns 
may  produce  a  soft,  spongy  flesh  and  an  oily 
lard.  This,  however,  is  usually  obviated  by  feed- 
ing com  for  two  or  three  weeks  before  slaughter- 
ing. Acorns  have  been  successfully  fed  to  milch 
cows  and  to  poultry.  Horses  also  are  said  to 
eat  them.  In  the  United  States  acorns  are  not 
much  eaten  by  men.  Under  the  name  "Biotes," 
the  fruit  of  Quercus  Emoryii  is  used  as  food  in 
the  southwest.  Sweet  acorns  are  eaten  occasion- 
ally in  different  regions,  mainly  by  children.  The 
Indians  of  the  Pacific  coast  region  from  north- 


A008TA. 


em  California  to  Mexico  use  acorns  in  consider- 
able quantities.  Dried  and  pounded,  they  are 
made  into  a  sort  of  mush,  and  also  into  bread. 
The  acorn  meal  is  usually  leached  to  free  it  from 
tannin  and  whatever  bitter  principle  is  present. 
When  the  meal  is  used  for  bread  a  kind  of  clay 
is  sometimes  mixed  with  it.  In  several  regions 
of  Italy,  notably  Umbria,  Tuscany,  Emilia,  and 
the  Marches,  acorns  made  into  a  sort  of  bread 
with  the  addition  of  two-thirds  ground  grain  are 
a  common  article  of  diet.  The  bread  is  black 
and  heavy  and  not  readily  digestible.  Dried 
acorns  are  sometimes  used  as  a  substitute  for 
coffee.    See  Oak. 

ACOBN-SHELL,  ft^ctlm-shftl.    A  sessile  bar- 
nacle of  the  family  Balanidse.    See  Barnacle. 

AG^OBUS  (6k.  iKoao^^  akoros,  sweet-fiag). 
A  genus  of  plants  of  the  natural  order  A  races. 
(Sm  Abum.)  The  plants  of  this  genus  have  a 
leaf-like  scape,  which  bears  upon  its  side  a  dense, 
cylindrical,  greenish  spike  of  fiowers.  Here  be- 
longs the  Sweet-fiag  {Acorus  calamus),  which 
was  brought  to  Europe  from  Asia  in  the  fifteenth 
century,  out  has  become  naturalized  in  Eng- 
land, Germany,  etc.,  growing  in  marshes  and 
ditches.  In  North  America  it  is  found  from  Nova 
Scotia  to  Flor^a,  and  west  through  Minnesota 
and  Iowa.  Its  root  (rhizome)  is  perennial,  di- 
vided into  long  joints  about  the  thickness  of  the 
thumb,  has  a  bitterish,  acrid  taste,  and  is  very 
aromatic.  It  is  a  powerful  medicine  of  transient 
tonic  effect,  occasionally  used,  especially  in  cases 
of  weak  digestion.  In  many  places  on  the  Conti- 
nent of  Europe  it  is  found  in  confectionery  shops 
sliced  and  prepared  with  sugar.  It  is  also 
used  to  correct  the  empyreumatic  odor  of  spirits 
and  to  give  them  a  peculiar  fiavor.  It  is  called 
Calamus  root.  In  Great  Britain  it  is  chiefly  em- 
ployed by  perfumers  in  the  manufacture  of  hair 
powder.  The  other  species  of  Acorus  are  like- 
wise aromatic,  and  are  applied  to  the  same  uses. 
Acorus  gramineus  is  cultivated  in  China.  Some 
fossil  species  of  Acorus  have  been  found  in  rocks 
of  the  Tertiary  Age  in  North  America  and  on  the 
island  of  Spitzbergen,  and  in  later  formations  in 
other  parts  of  the  world. 

ACOSTAy  &-kos't&,  Gabbiel,  later  Uriel 
(15947-1647).  A  Portuguese  philosopher,  de- 
scended from  a  Jewish  family.  He  was  bom  at 
Oporto.  After  being  educated  in  the  doctrines 
of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  when  twenty-five 
years  of  age  he  became  skeptical,  and  then  adopt- 
ed the  Jewish  faith;  but  as  the  profession  of 
such  was  not  allowed  him  in  his  own  country, 
he  fled  to  Amsterdam,  where  he  was  formally  re- 
ceived into  the  Jewish  community,  and  changed 
his  name,  which  had  been  Gabriel,  to  Uriel.  But 
what  he  conceived  to  be  the  Pharisaism  and  spir. 
itual  pride  of  the  Amsterdam  Jews  disgusted 
him,  and  he  opposed  many  of  their  ideas,  and  es- 
pecially denied  that  the  doctrine  of  immortality 
had  an^  Mosaic  sanction.  Hence  he  became  in- 
volved in  a  controversy  with  his  rabbinical  teach- 
ers. On  account  of  his  work,  entitled  Ewamen 
dos  tradiifoens  Phariseas  conferidas  con  a  ley 
escrita  ("Examination  of  Pharisaic  Traditions 
Compared  with  the  Scrioture"),  1624,  he  was 
charged  with  atheism  by  the  Jews  before  the  city 
magistracy  and  fijied.  He  was  also  excommuni- 
cated, and  so  remained  for  seven  years,  when  he 
recanted  after  ignominious  treatment.  He  died 
in  1647  by  suicide.  His  autobiography  was  first 
published  by  P.  Limbozch  in  Latin,  1087;  £ng* 


AOOSTA. 


81 


AooxrsTicaL 


Ibh  translation,  London,  1740;  Latin  and  Ger- 
man edition,  H.  Jellinek,  Leipzig,  1847.  He  is 
the  hero  of  an  effective  tragedy  by  Gutzkow. 

ACOSTA,  Joaquin  (  T-1852).  A  South  Ameri- 
can geographer.  He  was  bom  at  Guaduas, 
Colombia.  In  1834  he  made  a  tour  with  the 
botanist  C^spedes  through  the  valley  of  the  Socor- 
ro as  far  as  the  Magdalena,  and  seven  years 
afterward  traveled  from  Antioquia  to  Anserma 
for  the  purpose  of  studying  the  history  and  cus- 
toms of  the  native  tribes.  Besides  an  excellent 
map  of  New  Granada,  Acosta  published  the  fol- 
lowing interesting  and  valuable  works:  Com- 
pendio  hi9t^ico  del  deaouhrimiento  y  coloniza- 
eidn  de  la  Nueva  Oranada  en  el  siglo  d6cimo 
Bexto  (Paris,  1848);  Semenario  de  la  Nueva 
OranadGf  Miscelldnea  de  cienciaa,  literatura, 
artes  e  induetria,  with  portraits  and  map,  pub- 
liBhed  in  conjunction  with  Laserre  under  the  di- 
rection of  Francisco  Jos^  de  Caldas  (Paris,  1849). 

ACOSTA,  Jest  DE.  (1539-1600).  A  Spanish 
Jesuit.  He  was  born  at  Medina  del  Gampo, 
Spain.  He  entered  the  Society  of  Jesus  and 
went  as  missionary  to  Peru,  where  he  labored 
for  many  years.  Upon  his  return  home  he  be- 
came superior  of  the  Jesuit  Seminary  of  Valla- 
doHd,  and  afterward  rector  of  the  University  of 
Salamanca,  where  he  died.  His  fame  rests  upon 
bis  work  on  the  natural  history  of  the  New 
World  and  the  efforts  put  forth  for  its  evangel- 
ization, published  in  Latin  at  Salamanca  in 
1589,  and  in  Spanish  (Seville,  1590).  The  last- 
named  publication  was  under  the  caption  HiS' 
ioria  natural  y  moral  de  las  Indias,  and  was 
several  times  reprinted  and  translated  into 
French,  I>utch,  and  English  {The  Ifaturale  and 
Morale  Historie  of  the  East  and  West  Indies, 
London,  1604). 

AOOnCHT,  &-k^sh«,  or  ACtJCHI.  See 
Aooun. 

ACOTTIEETEB.,  A-kou^m6-tSr  or  k-kS^-,  or 
AG^rrsnC'ETEB  (Gk.  aKoOetv,  akouein,  to 
hear  -|-  fUrpov,  metron,  measure).  An  in- 
strument used  to  determine  the  acuteness  of 
bearing.  It  is  a  small  steel  bar  which,  when 
struck  07  a  hammer,  gives  a  uniform  sound. 

AOOXTSTICS,  &-kou'stIks  or  A-kSl^-  ( Gk.  axov^ 
crutdc,  akaustikos,  relati^  to  hearing,  from  dicoih- 
et9,  akouein,  to  hear).  'The  name  applied  to  the 
icience  of  the  phenomena  of  sound.  The  name 
"sound"  is  given  to  the  sensation  perceived  by 
the  auditory  nerves,  and  it  is  a  matter  of  every- 
day experience  that  the  immediate  cause  of  the 
•ensation  is  some  vibrating  body,  e.g.,  a  violin 
string,  a  drum  head,  a  hammer  when  striking  a 
nail.  This  was  early  recognized,  and,  so  far  as 
acoustics  is  considered  as  a  science  dealing  with 
the  vibrations  of  matter  and  with  the  waves  pro- 
duced in  the  air  by  this  motion,  the  history  of 
its  development  is  identical  with  the  progress 
of  mathematics  and  dynamics  from  the  time  of 
Galileo  and  Newton  to  the  present.  Few  dates 
can  be  assigned  to  definite  discoveries.  The 
laws  of  vibrations  of  a  stretched  string  were 
flrst  deduced  mathematically  by  Brook  Taylor  in 
1715  and  by  Daniel  Bernoulli  in  1755,  although 
they  had  been  discovered  experimentally  by 
MerMnne  in  1636.  Longitudinal  and  torsional 
vibrations  of  bars  were  first  investigated  by 
Chladni  (1756-1827).  Daniel  Bernoulli  was  the 
first  to  attack  the  problem  of  the  lateral  vibra- 
tioDi  of  bars ;  but  the  mathematical  treatment  of 


the  question  is  still  of  interest.  Poisson  (1829) 
was  the  first  to  give  a  correct  mathematical  so- 
lution of  the  free  vibrations  of  a  membrane,  and 
good  experimental  work  on  the  subject  has  been 
done  by  Savart,  Bourget,  and  Elsas.  The  vibra- 
tions of  plates  have  been  studied  mathematically 
by  Poisson,  Kirchhoff,  and  more  recent  writers, 
and  experimentally  by  Chladni,  Savart,  and 
Wheatstone.  A  full  account  of  the  history  of 
the  mathematical  side  of  acoustics  will  be  found 
in  Rayleigh's  great  work  on  the  Theory  of 
Sound. 

The  history  of  that  portion  of  acoustics  which 
considers  the  phenomena  of  the  sense  of  hear- 
ing, harmony,  discord,  pitch,  etc.,  besins  un- 
doubtedly with  the  earliest  days  of  civilization. 
It  was  known  to  Pythagoras  (sixth  century  b.o.) 
— ^and  to  whom  before  him  no  one  can  tell — that 
sounds  were  in  harmony  when  produced  by  two 
stretched  strings  of  the  same  material,  cross-sec- 
tion and  tension,  provided  their  lengths  were  in 
the  ratio  of  1  :  2,  2  :  3,  or  3  :  4.  Mersenne  discov- 
ered in  1636  that  the  frequencies  of  such  vibrat- 
ing strings  varied  inversely  as  their  lengths,  and 
so  proved  that  for  two  notes  to  be  in  harmony  it 
was  necessary  for  their  frequencies  to  bear  sim- 
ple numerical  relations  to  each  other.  No  ex- 
planation of  this  fact  was  given  until  the  great 
research  of  Helmholtz,  be^n  in  1854,  the  results 
of  which  were  published  in  1862  in  his  classical 
work  on  the  Sensations  of  Tone,  Helmholts 
was  the  first  to  discover  the  existence  of  summa- 
tional tones,  although  the  differential  tones  were 
discovered  probably  by  Komieu  in  1743,  and  cer- 
tainly by  Sorge,  the  court  organist  at  Loben- 
stein,  in  1745.  Helmholtz's  tiieory  of  vowel 
sounds  is  still  under  discussion.  Most  interest- 
ing work  on  audition  has  been  done  in  recent 
years  by  Rudolf  KOnig  of  Paris  and  Professor 
Mayer  of  Hoboken. 

Many  of  the  physical  properties  of  sound  are 
matters  of  common  experience  and  can  readily 
be  appreciated.  In  the  first  place,  it  is  well 
known  that  an  interval  of  time  elapses  between 
the  vibration  of  the  bodv  and  the  perception  of 
the  resulting  sound  if  the  vibrating  bodv  is  at 
a  considerable  distance ;  thus  the  flash  of  a  gun 
is  seen  before  the  sound  is  heard.  It  was  shown 
by  Otto  von  Guericke  that  if  a  bell  is  set  ringing 
in  a  glass  jar  from  which  the  air  has  been  ex- 
hausted no  sound  is  heard;  so  that  the  presence 
of  some  material  medium  between  the  vibrating 
body  and  the  ear  is  essential  for  the  production 
of  sound.  This  medium  need  not  be  air,  but 
may  be  water,  or,  in  fact,  any  gas,  liquid,  or 
solid  which  can  carry  waves.  The  whole  mecha- 
nism is,  then,  as  follows:  The  vibrations  of  the 
body,  e.g.,  a  drum-head,  produce  waves  in  the 
medium  in  contact  with  it,  e.g.,  the  air;  these 
waves  spread  out  through  the  medium  and,  after 
a  certain  interval  of  time,  reach  the  ear;  in  the 
ear  the  waves  produce  motions  of  the  ear-drum 
and  corresponding  effects  in  the  internal  ear 
where  the  auditory  nerves  have  their  endings. 
It  should  be  noted  that  not  every  vibration  will 
produce  waves  in  a  fluid  medium ;  because  if  the 
number  of  vibrations  per  second  is  too  small,  the 
fluid  will  simply  flow  around  the  body  as  it 
vibrates,  and  so  will  not  be  compressed;  conse- 

?[uently,  in  order  to  produce  waves  in  a  fluid,  the 
requency  of  the  vibrations  of  the  body  must 
exceed  a  certain  number,  which  depends  upon  the 
viscosity  and  density  of  the  fluid.  Further,  it 
is  evident  that,  since  fluids  can  carry  only  com* 


ACOUBTICa 


82 


AOOXrSTICS. 


pressional  (i.e.,  longitudinal)  waves,  the  pro- 
duction of  the  sound-sensation  is  due  to  waves  of 
this  kind.  The  difference  between  the  longitu- 
dinal and  the  transverse  wave  can  be  appreciated 
by  reference  to  the  accompanying  diagram,  Fig.  1. 


f, 

a 

•  •  • 

«       • 

.  •  • 

•       • 

« 

•       •              •       • 
•  •  •                 •  •  • 

i 

i          %          4 .   ' 

Pro.  I. 

In  this  illustration  1  represents  a  row  of  par- 
ticles at  rest;  these  particles  displaced  to  form 
a  simple  transverse  wave  are  shown  in  2,  while 
a  longitudinal  wave  is  shown  in  3.  Here  each 
particle  moves  to  and  fro  in  the  direction  of  the 
line  of  propagation  of  the  wave,  and  the  ampli- 
tude of  the  wave  is  the  distance  that  each  par- 
ticle moves  from  its  position  of  rest,  while  the 
wave-length  is  the  distance  between  similar 
points  of  condensation  and  rarefaction,  as  from 
4  to  4.  Although  sound  is  produced  by  longi- 
tudinal waves,  there  is  no  reason  for  believ- 
ing that  all  compressional  waves  will  produce 
sounds;  some  may  be  too  long  or  too  short  to 
affect  the  nerves  of  the  ear. 

Our  sense  of  hearing  distinguishes  between 
two  great  classes  of  sounds:  noises  and  musical 
notes.  A  noise  is  recognized  as  being  abrupt, 
discontinuous,  and  exceedingly  complex;  a  musi- 
cal note  is  smooth,  continuous,  and  with  a  definite, 
regular  character.  We  distinguish,  further,  be- 
tween different  musical  notes  as  being  simple  or 
complex,  meaning,  by  the  latter,  a  note  in  which 
we  can  recognize  the  presence  of  several  simple 
tones.  Thus,  if  a  piece  of  paper  is  torn,  or  two 
blocks  of  wood  struck  together,  we  call  the  re- 
sulting sound  a  noise.  The  vibrations  of  a  tun- 
ing-fork cause  a  simple  musical  note;  while  if 
a  banjo  string  is  plucked  we  hear  a  complex 
note.  Complex  notes  differ  greatly  in  tneir 
character.  They  are  said  to  have  "quality"  or 
"timbre;"  thus,  a  sound  produced  by  an  organ- 
pipe  has  a  quality  entirely  different  from  one 
produced  by  a  piano  or  by  a  drum.  Simple  notes 
may  differ  in  loudness  and  in  shrillness  or 
''pitch;"  thus,  a  note  of  a  definite  pitch  may  be 
loud  or  feeble,  and  the  pitch  of  a  piccolo  note 
is  quite  different  from  that  of  a  note  produced 
by  a  flute. 

Waves  and  Vibbatigns.  Since  the  direct 
cause  of  a  sound  is  the  reception  into  the  ear  of 
waves  in  the  air,  it  is  necessary  to  analyze  the 
nature  of  these  waves.  W^e  may  have  an  irregu- 
lar, isolated  disturbance,  which  is  analogous  to 
a  "hump"  passing  along  a  stretched  rope,  or  to 
the  effect  of  dropping  several  stones  at  random 
intervals  into  a  pool  of  water ;  or  we  may  have  a 
regular  continuous  succession  of  waves  identical 
in  all  respects,  which  is  called  a  "train  of 
waves."  The  simplest  kind  of  train  of  waves 
is  what  is  called  a  "simple  harmonic"  train, 
such  as  is  produced  in  any  medium  by  a  simple 
harmonic  vibration  of  the  body  which  is  causing 
the  waves.  (Vibrations  of  a  pendulum  are  simple 
harmonic.)  Such  a  train  of  waves  is  character- 
ized by  its  "wave-number"  and  "amplitude;" 
the  wave-number  being  the  number  of  individual 
waves  which  pass  a  given  fixed  point  in  one 


second,  while  the  amplitude  is  the  extent  of  the 
path  of  vibration  of  any  particle  of  the  medium 
through  which  the  waves  are  passing.  The 
velocity  of  waves  of  a  definite  character,  e.g., 
compressional  ones,  in  any  definite  homogeneous 
medium  depends  upon  the  properties  of  the  me- 
dium itself,  not  on  the  wave-number  or  ampli- 
tude of  the  waves.  So,  if  A  is  the  wave-length, 
i.e.,  the  distance  from  one  point  in  the  medium 
to  the  next  point,  measured  in  the  direction  of 
advance  of  the  waves,  where  the  conditions  are 
identical  with  those  at  the  first  point,  and  if  ^V 
is  the  wave-number,  the  velocity  of  the  waves  V 
is  given  by  the  formula 

Consequently,  if  V  is  known,  A  can  be  calculated, 
and  vice  versd;  and  the  characteristics  of  the 
simple  harmonic  train  of  waves  may  be  said  to 
be  its  wave-length  and  its  amplitude.  If  sev- 
eral trains  of  waves  are  passing  through  the 
same  medium  at  the  same  time,  the  resulting 
waves — called  a  "complex"  train — is  simply  the 
sum  of  the  individual  waves,  the  motion  of  any 
particle  of  the  medium  being  the  geometrical 
sum  of  the  motions  which  it  would  have,  owing 
to  each  of  the  separate  trains  of  waves.  (This 
is  rigidly  true  only  if  the  amplitudes  of  these 
separate  trains  are  very  small  compared  with 
their   wave-lengths,    as    in   general    they    are.) 


Fio.  9. 

This  is  shown  in  Fig.  2,  where  A  and  B  are  two 
sets  of  simple  harmonic  waves  which  form  the 
resultant  wave  C.  This  wave  is  obtained  by 
taking  the  algebraic  sum  of  the  motion  of  the 
particles.  The  point  6"  is  obtained  by  taking 
a"6",  equal  to  the  sum  of  a  &  and  a'6',  c"  d"  is 
the  sum  of  c  d  and  c'd',  the  latter,  as  it  occurs  be- 
low the  axis,  considered  as  having  a  negative 
sig^.  Conversely,  it  may  be  shown  that  any  com- 
plex train  of  waves  may  be  analyzed  into  simple 
harmonic  trains.  Therefore,  complex  trains  of 
waves  may  differ  in  several  ways:  1.  The  num- 
ber of  the  component  simple  harmonic  trains. 
2.  Their  wave-numbers  and  amplitudes.  3. 
Their  relative  "phases,"  for  two  waves  are  in 
different  phase  if  the  maximum  displacement  due 
to  one  train  does  not  coincide  in  position  with 
that  due  to  the  other;  or,  looked  at  in  another 
way,  the  component  trains  may  have  been 
started  at  irregular  intervals.  Since  waves  are 
due  to  the  vibrations  of  some  elastic  body  (e.g., 
a  tuning-fork,  the  air  in  an  organ-pipe  or  horn), 
it  is  necessary  next  to  analyze  the  nature  of 
vibrations.  We  may  have  an  irregular  vibra- 
tion, consisting  of  only  a  few  to  and  fro  motions, 
then  a  sudden  change  into  another  vibration  of 
a  different  character,  the  whole  motion  lastins 
only  a  short  time,  e.g.,  when  a  piece  of  stiff 
paper  is  torn  or  when  a  scratching  pen  is  used 
in  writing;  or  we  may  have  a  regular  continuoaa 


AOOUSTIOfl.                           88  AOOUSTICa 

periodic  Tibration.  The  simplest  possible  peri-  phases  of  the  component  trains  of  waves  do  not 
odic  vibration  is  like  that  of  a  simple  pendulum,  cause  differences  In  the  quality  of  the  sound 
and  It  Is  called  "simple  harmonic.**  It  is  char-  heard.  In  other  words,  two  complex  trains  of 
acterized  by  a  definite  number  of  vibrations  per  waves  made  up  of  the  same  simple  waves  will 
second,  i.e.,  its  "frequency,"  and  by  the  extent  produce  the  same  sound,  regardless  of  the  phases 
of  the  swing,  I.e.,  its  "amplitude.**  If  a  second  in  the  two  trains.  This  may  be  explained  by 
pendulum  is  suspended  from  the  bob  of  the  first,  saying  that  the  ear  automatically  resolves  a 
and  a  third  from  the  bob  of  the  second,  the  vi-  complex  train  of  waves  into  its  simple  harmonic 
bration  of  the  third  and  lowest  bob  is  no  longer  component  trains,  hears  the  simple  tones  due  to 
simple  harmonic  In  general.  Its  vibration  is  each  of  these,  and,  therefore,  has  a  complex  sen- 
called  ** complex;**  and  it  is  evident  that  it  is  sation.  This  statement  is  called  "Ohm*s  law  for 
the  sum  of  the  vibrations  of  the  sei>arate  pen-  sound-sensation.** 

dulums.      Complex    vibrations    may,    therefore,  Fundamental,  Partial,  akd  Combinational 

differ  in  the  number  of  the  component  vibrations,  Vibrations.     Musical  instruments  may  be  di- 

and  in  their  frequencies,  amplitudes,  and  rela-  vided  roughly  into  two  classes,  wind  and  strinff 

tiye  phases.  instrtunents.     In  the  former  class  are  included 

Sound  Sensation.    It  would  be  expected  that  organ-pipes,   horns,   fiutes,   etc.;    in  the   latter, 

there  should   be  some   connection  between   the  pianos,  violins,  harps,  etc.     In  all  wind  instru- 

nature  of  the  vibrations  of  the  vibrating  body,  ments  a  column  of  air  inclosed  in  a  metal  or 

that   of   the   waves   produced,  and  that  of  the  wooden    tube    is    set    in    vibration   by   suitable 

sound  heard.    Such  is  the  case.    A  noise  is  al-  means,   and  this   vibrating  mass   produces   the 

frays  produced  by  an  irregular,  disconnected  dis-  waves  in   the  surrounding  air.     in   string  in- 

torbance  in  the  air;  and  this  in  turn  is  due  to  etruments,  flexible  strings  are  stretched  between 

an  irregular  succession  of  vibrations,  each  last-  pegs  fastened  to  a   solid   frame — in  general   a 

ing  for  a  brief  interval.    A  simple  musical  note  wooden  board — and  they  are  set  in  transverse 

is  always  due  to  a   simple  harmonic  train  of  vibration  by  bowing,  plucking,  or  striking.     As 

waves,  and  this  to  a  simple  harmonic  vibration,  a  result  of  the  vibration  of  the  string,  the  frame 

The  loudness  of  the  note  varies  directly  with  the  holdinff  the  pegs  is  itself  set  in  vibrations  of  the 

amplitude  of  the  waves;  whatever  increases  the  same  frequency,  and    it,  as  well  as   the  string 

amplitude  of  the  waves  increases  the  loudness  of  Itself,  produces  the  waves.     The  importance  of 

the  sound,  and  vice  versa.    It  is  increased,  there-  the  so-called  sounding-board  is  at  once  evident, 
fore,  by  an  increased  amplitude  of  the  vibration; 
and  it  decreases  as  the  distance  from  the  ear  to 
the  vibrating  body  is  increased.    (It  should  not 

be  thought,  however,  that  numerical  values  can  ^^ 
be  given  the  loudness  of  a  sound,  or  that  there 

is  any  fixed  numerical  relation  between  the  am-  ^, 
plitude  of  the  waves  and  the  intensity  of   the 

sensation.)    The  pitch  of  the  note  depends  upon  '^, 
the  wave-number  of  the  waves  entering  the  ear; 

whatever  increases  the  wave-number  "  raises  '*  the  Pi^^  ^ 
pitch,  and  vice  versa.    Therefore,  if  the  ear  and 

the  vibrating  body  are  at  a  fixed  disUnce  apart,  ^  stretched  fiexible  string,  ^  fi,  can  vibrate  in 
and  at  rest  with  reference  to  their  positions  in  many  waves:  as  a  whole,  with  Its  middle  point 
space,  the  pitch  will  vary  directly  with  the  fre-  ^^  p^int  of  greatest  amplitude,  as  in  1  (fig.  8); 
quency  of  the  vibrating  body ;  thus  we  often  use  jq  ^^q  parts,  with  iU  middle  point,  6,  at  rest, 
the  expression,  "a  pitch  of  300,"  meaning  the  and    the    two    halves    vibrating    like    separate 
pitch  of  a  sound  produced  by  a  vibrating  body  strings  in  opposite  phases,  as  in  2  (fig.  3);  in 
which  makes  300  complete  vibrations  in  one  sec-  three  parts,  with  two  points,  c  and  6,  at  rest,  di- 
ond.     If,    however,   the   vibrating   body   is   ap-  viding  the  string  into  three  equal  vibrating  seg- 
proaching  the  ear,  or  if  the  ear  is  approaching  menU,  as  in  3  (fig.  8),  etc    The  frequencies  of 
the  vibrating  body,  the  nimaber  of  waves  enter-  these   different   modes  of   vibration    are   in  the 
hig  the  ear  is  greater  than  it  would  be  if  there  i^tios  of  1:2:3:4,  etc.    The  vibration  of  the 
were  no  such  motion;  and  so  the  wave-number  string  as  a  whole  is  called  the  "fundamental;" 
is  greater  than  the  frequency  of  the   vibrating  the  others,  the  "upper  partials."    The  frequency 
body,  and  the  pitch  of  the  sound  is  raised.    Sim-  of  the  transverse  vibrations  of  a  stretched  fiex« 
ilariy,  if  the  disUnce  between  the  ear  and  the  jy^  string  is  given  by  the  formula 
vibrating  body  is   increasing,  the   wave-number  _ 
is  less  than  the  frequency  of  the  vibration,  and  2V=— i/Z* 
the  pitch  Is  lowered,    llils  change  of  pitch,  due  2  Lj   j^ 
to  the  relative  motions  of  the  ear  and  the  vibrat- 
ing body  in  the  surrounding  medium,  is  known  where  T  is  the  stretching  force  or  tension,  m 
as  Doppler's    Principle  (q.v.),  and  is  illustrated  is  the  mass  of  each  unit  length  of  the  string.  L 
bv  the  sadden  drop  in  pitch  if  one  sUnds  on  the  is  the  length  of  the  vibrating  segment.     Thus, 
platform  of  a  railway  sUtion  and  listens  to  the  in  the  fundamenUl,  L  is  the  length  of  the  string; 
whistle  of  a  locomotive  passing  at  a  high  speed,  in  the  first  upper  partial  it  is  one-half  the  length 

A  complex   musical  note  is  always   due  to  a  of  the  string,  etc.     When  the  string  is  set  vi- 

oomplex  train  of  waves,  and  this,  in  turn,  to  a  brating  by  a   random  blow   or   bowing,  it  will 

complex  vibration,  if  there  is  only  one  vibrating  make    complex    vibrations,    resulting   from    the 

body.     Further,  two  notes  which  differ  in  qual-  combination  of   the    fundamental    and    some  of 

Ity  may  be  shown  to  be  due  to  complex  trains  the  upper  partials,  the  number  and  relative  in- 

of  waves    which  differ   in   complexity.     But   it  tensities  of  these  depending  largely  on  the  point 

should  be  noted  that  all  experimental  evidence  where  the  blow  is  struck,  or  the  bow  applied^ 

points  to  the  idea  that  differences   in   relative  and  on  the  character  of  the  Impulse.    So,  when^ 


AOOirSTICS.  84 

ever  a  musical  tone  is  produced  by  a  string 
instrument,  the  ear  can  recognize  in  the  complex 
sound  simple  tones  due  to  the  fundamental  and 
the  upper  partials;  and  differences  in  the  qual- 
ity of  soimds  caused  by  different  string  instru- 
ments, which  have  fundamentals  of  Uke  same 
frequency,  are  due  to  differences  in  the  number 
and  character  of  the  upper  partials,  which  de- 
pend in  turn  on  the  material  of  the  string,  the 
point  where  the  impulse  is  applied  to  set  the 
string  in  motion,  and  the  character  of  this  im- 
pulse.  Similarly,  the  vibrating  column  of  air  in 
organ-pipes,  horns^  etc.,  can  vibrate  in  different 
ways;  and  in  a  complex  vibration  there  is  a 
fundamental  and  upper  partials  whose  frequen- 
cies are  in  the  ratios  oi  1  :  2  :  3  :  4,  etc.  The 
frequency  of  the  vibrations  of  the  fundamental 
in  an  open  organ-pipe  is  given  by  the  formula: 


ACOXTBTICa 


N= 


2  L 


where  V  is  the  velocity  of  waves  in  the  gas 
which  fills  the  pipe,  and  L  is  the  length  of  the 
pipe  approximately.  The  similar  formula  for  a 
"stopped"  pipe  is: 

(In  stopped  organ-pipes  the  vibrations  are  in 
the  ratios  1:3:6:7,  etc.)  In  other  in- 
struments than  wind  and  string  ones,  such  as 
drums,  cymbals,  etc.,  there  are  upper  partials 
besides  the  fundamental;  but  there  is  no  simple 
mathematical  relation  between  their  frequencies. 
When  two  organ-pipes  on  the  same  wind-chest 
are  "sounded"  loudly,  the  resulting  waves  in  the 
air  are  not  due  simply  to  each  fundamental  and 
its  upper  partials,  but  also  to  certain  extra  vi- 
brations due  to  the  combined  action  of  the  two 
vibrating  columns  of  air  on  the  surrounding  air. 
Thus,  if  the  fundamentals  of  the  two  pipes  have 
frequencies  1000  and  000,  there  will  be  present 
waves  showing  the  existence  of  vibrations  whose 
frequencies  are  1000  +  000  and  1000—600.  The 
sounds  heard  owing  to  these  vibrations  are  called 
"summationar'  and  "differential"  tones,  or,  in 
general,  "combinational"  tones;  they  are  always 
difficult  to  hear.  The  existence  of  both  partial 
and  combinational  vibrations '  may,  however,  be 
established  by  means  of  resonators  (q.v.). 

Harmony  and  Discord.  If  two  organ-pipes 
whose  frequencies  do  not  differ  much  are  sounded 
together,  the  ear  observes  a  fluctuation  in  the 
loudness  of  the  resulting  soimd.  It  is  first  loud, 
then  weak,  loud  and  weak,  etc.,  giving  rise  to 
what  are  called  "beats,"  the  number  of  beats 
per  second  being  equal  to  the  difference  in  the 
frequencies  of  the  pipes.  Thus,  two  pipes  of 
frequencies  280  and  285  produce  6  beats  per 
second.  The  explanation  of  the  phenomenon 
lies  in  the  superposition  of  the  two  resulting 
trains  of  waves;  for,  if  the  wave-number  of  one 
train  exceeds  that  of  the  other  by  five,  it  will 
happen  five  times  in  the  course  of  a  second  that 
when  one  train  of  waves  reaches  the  ear  in  a 


certain  phase,  the  other  train  will  reach  the  ear 
in  an  exactly  opposite  phase;  and  so  the  two 
waves  will  tend  to  neutralize  each  other's  action 
and  thus  make  the  sound  weak;  whereas,  in  be- 
tween these  instants  of  weakness  there  will  be 
others  when  the  two  waves  reach  the  ear  in  the 
same  phase,  and  so  reinforce  each  other  and  thus 
make  the  soimd  loud.  This  is  shown  diagram- 
matically  in  fig.  4,  where  there  are  two  trains  of 
waves  of  unequal  wave-number  which  interfere 
and  produce  beats.  The  wave-length  of  one  set 
is  A  d,  which  is  four-fifths  of  A.  I,  the  wave 
length  of  the  other.  The  two  waves  at  A  are  in 
the  same  phase,  and  there  is  increased  sound; 
but  as  the  motion  progresses,  one  train  loses  with 
respect  to  the  other,  until  they  are  in  opposite 
phase,  as  at  (7  and  Z>,  where  silence  ensues.  Beats 
are  disagreeable  to  hear,  for  the  same  reason 
that  a  flashing  light  is  unpleasant  to  see,  or  a 
tickling  feather  to  feel,  namely,  the  nerves  being 
first  stimulated,  then  allowed  to  partially  re- 
cover, then  again  stimulated,  etc.,  are  disagree- 
ably affected.  The  degree  of  unpleasantness  de- 
pends in  part  on  the  number  of  beats,  but  also 
on  the  pitch  of  the  note,  whose  intensity  is  fluc- 
tuating. Beats  can  be  formed  by  the  interfer- 
ence of  the  upper  partials  as  well  as  by  the  fun- 
damentals, and  by  the  combinational  vibrations 
also.  Thus,  if  two  organ-pipes  of  frequencies 
500  and  252  are  sounded  together,  the  first  upper 
partial  of  the  pipe  whose  fundamental  is  252, 
I.e.,  a  note  of  frequency  504,  will  beat  with  the 
other  fundamental  whose  frequency  is  500.  If, 
however,  two  organ-pipes  are  sounded  whose 
fundamentals  are  such  that  there  are  no  beats 
except  between  the  upper  partials  of  high  or- 
ders, the  sensation  should  be  a  pleasant  one; 
and  such  is  observed.  To  secure  such  a  condi- 
tion it  is  evident  that  the  ratios  of  the  frequen- 
cies of  the  fundamentals  must  be  simple  frac- 
tions, 1:1,  1:2,  1:3,  2:3,  1:4,  3:4,  etc. 
Such  combinations  of  two  notes  produce  what  is 
called  "harmony."  On  the  other  hand,  whenever 
beats  can  be  expected  between  two  notes  or  their 
partials,  or  their  combinational  notes,  an  un- 
pleasant sensation  called  "discord"  is  observed, 
it  being  possible  to  predict  the  d^ree  of  the  dis- 
cord from  the  number  of  beats  which  most  oc- 
cur. This  explanation  of  harmony  and  discord 
b  due  to  Helmholtz.  The  explanation  of  "mel- 
ody," that  is,  the  pleasant  sensation  perceived 
when  notes,  suitably  chosen,  are  sounded  consec- 
utively, is  undoubtedly  psychological^  not  physi- 
cal. For  the  discussion  of  the  formation  of  musi- 
cal scales  based  on  these  simple  harmonies,  see 
Major;  Minor. 

Limits  of  Hearing.  Atrial  waves  of  all  wave- 
numbers  do  not  affect  the  auditory  nerves  of  the 
normal  human  ear,  it  being  found  by  trial  that 
wave-numbers  less  than  30  do  not  produce  a 
musical  tone,  and  wave-numbers  exceeding  about 
20,000  do  not  produce  sound  at  all.  For  musi- 
cal purposes  the  extremes  are  about  40  and  4000. 
To  study  waves  whose  wave-numbers  exceed 
10,000  (and  in  fact  for  those  of  much  less  num- 


FTG.  4. 


AOOVflSIOfi. 

ber)  the  best  instrument  is  the  "sensitire  flame," 
which  consists  ordinarilj^  of  an  igpited  jet  of  ^;as 
escaping  from  a  small  circular  orifice  under  high 
pressure,  thus  giving  a  more  or  less  cylindrical 
flame  about  a  foot  high.  When  waves  of  a  great 
wave-number  fall  upon  such  a  flame  they  break 
throng  the  inclosing  envelope  separating  the 
gas  from  the  air,  thus  causing  the  jet  to  "flare" 
out  like  a  fan. 

VEix>cmr  OF  Sound.  The  waves  produced  in 
the  air  by  vibrating  bodies  are  often  called 
**somid  waves/'  although  the  name  is  not  a  good 
one.  Similarly,  compressions!  waves  in  any  me- 
dium, solid,  liquid,  or  ms,  are  called  "soimd 
waves"  in  these  media.  These  waves  spread  out 
from  the  vibrating  body  into  the  surrounding 
medium  with  a  velocity  called  the  "velocity  of 
sound,"  which  depends  alone  upon  the  elasticity 
of  the  medium  with  respect  to  a  compression  and 
upon  its  density,  if  the  medium  is  homogeneous. 
Like  all  waves,  they  may  experience  reflection, 
e.g.,  echoes;  refraction,  as  when  passing  from 
cold  air  to  hot  air,  or  dense  air  to  rare;  disper- 
sion; interference.  Reference  should  be  made 
to  a  paper  by  Professor  R.  W.  Wood  in  the  Philo- 
•aphical  Magazine,  Volume  XLVIII.,  p.  218, 1890, 
for  a  description  of  a  most  interesting  series  of 
experiments  on  these  properties  of  atrial  waves. 

The  best  determinations  of  the  velocity  of 
these  waves  are  given  in  the  following  table: 

(hues  at  0"  C. 

Air  (dry) 331.36  meters  per  second 

Hydrogen    1286.  •* 

Oxygen    317. 

Carbon  dioxide.     262. 

Solids  and  Liquids. 

Aluminium 5104.  «         «•        « 

Steel    4990.  "         ««        u 

Glass,  about....  5600.  "  "        " 

Water    1436. 

The  velocity  of  compressional  waves  varies 
greatly  witJi  the  temperature.  For  a  gas  the 
velocitj  at  f*  G.  equals  that  at  0"*  C.  multiplied 
by 


/ 


273 -f< 
273 


When  waves  pass  from  a  region  where  the  air 
is  cold  into  one  where  it  is  warm,  reflection 
takes  place  at  the  bounding  surface,  and  thus 
the  entering  waves  are  not  only  refracted  but 
also  weakened  in  intensity.  The  presence  of  fog 
by  itself  in  the  air  has  very  little  effect  upon  the 
waves,  unless  there  are  currents  or  layers  of 
hot  or  cold  air.  The  velocity  of  waves  in  air 
is  practically  independent  of  the  intensity  of  the 
vibration,  although  the  w^aves  prpduced  by  a  sud- 
den explosion  travel  at  first  slightly  faster  than 
do  ordinary  waves. 

Acoustic  Pbofekties  of  Halls.  When  an 
organ-pipe  or  any  elastic  body  is  sounded  in  a 
room  and  then  suddenly  stopped,  it  is  noticed 
that  the  sound  does  not  instantly  cease,  but  con- 
tinues for  several  seconds.  This  is  called  rever- 
beration; and  the  acoustic  success  of  a  room  de- 
penda  largely  upon  its  duration.  It  should  not 
exceed  two  seconds  by  more  than  a  few  tenths  of 
a  seeond  if  the  room  is  to  be  used  as  a  music 
hall  or  opera  house.  It  is  found  that  the  rever- 
beration in  a  given  room  is  practically  inde- 
pendent of  the  place  where  the  vibrating  body  is 


85  AOQxnsincn'. 

situated,  or  of  the  position  of  the  hearer;  it  de- 
pends upon  the  volume  of  the  room,  upon  the 
material  of  the  walls  and  floors,  upon  the  cush- 
ions, the  audience,  etc.,  and  to  a  certain  extent 
upon  the  intensity  of  the  sound.  The  following 
approximate  formula  has  been  developed  by  Pro- 
fessor Sabine  of  Harvard  University: 

(o  -h  6i  »i  -f  6,  »,  -f  etc.)  <  =  0.164  V 

Where  a  is  a  constant  depending  upon  the  ab- 
sorbing power  of  the  walls  of  the  room. 

6  is  a  coefficient  of  "absorption"  for  one 
square  meter  of  a  definite  material  put 
anywhere  in  the  room,  the  standard  of 
comparison  being  the  absorption  of  one 
square  meter  of  open  window. 

a  is  the  number  of  square  meters  of  the 
material. 

t  is  the  duration  of  reverberation. 

V  is  the  volume  of  the  room  in  cubic 
meters. 

The  absorption  coefficients  for  some  substances 
are  as  follows: 

Hard  pine  wood  sheathing 0.061 

Plaster  on  wood  lath 0.034 

Plaster  on  wire  lath 0.033 

Audience  (per  square  meter) ....  0.96 

Isolated  woman 0.54 

Isolated  man 0.48 

Carpet   rugs 0.20 

House  plants 0.11 

Upholstered  chairs 0.30 

Hair  cushions  (per  seat) 0.21 

The  duration  of  reverberation  in  certain  musio 
halls  and  auditoriums  is  as  follows: 

Old  Music  Hall,  Boston,  Mass 2.44 

New  Music  Hall,  Boston,  Mass 2.31 

Grewandhaus,  Leipzig,  (jrermany 2.30 

Sanders'  Theatre,  Cambridge,  Mass ....  3.42 

BiBLiooBAPHT.  Rayleigh,  Theory  of  Sound,  2 
volumes  (London,  1896),  a  mathematical  treat- 
ment, but  with  several  descriptive  chapters; 
Helmholtz,  Sensations  of  Tone,  translated  by 
Ellis  (London,  1895),  the  standard  authority  on 
harmony  and  music;  Sabine,  Architectural 
Acoustics  (Boston,  1900),  which  contains  the 
only  satisfactory  treatment  of  this  important 
Question;  Thomson  and  Poynting,  Sound  (Lon- 
don, 1899),  a  text-book  for  schools  and  colleges, 
and'  a  storehouse  of  accurate  information. 

ACQT7I,  ft^w6  (ancient  Aquw  Statiellas),  An 
episcopal  city  of  northern  Italy,  on  the  left  bank 
of  the  Bormida,  37  miles  northwest  of  Grenoa 
(Map:  Italy,  C  3).  Every  winter  more  than 
6000  persons  take  the  cure  at  the  hot  and  cold 
sulphur  springs  that  ^ave  it  its  name.  It  has 
a  Gothic  cathedral  of  the  eleventh  century,  a 
seminary,  a  college,  and  the  ruins  of  a  Roman 
aqueduct.  The  chief  trade  is  in  silk,  lace,  rope, 
and  wine.    Pop.,  1901,  13,786. 

AC'QTJISI^TION.  In  law,  a  term  which  has 
the  double  meaning  of  the  acquirement  of  ter- 
ritory by  the  state,  and  of  title  to  real  or  per- 
sonal property  by  the  individual.  In  the  case 
of  the  state  it  is  effected  in  three  ways :  ( 1 )  By 
occupation,  (2)  by  treaty  and  convention,  and 
(3)  by  conquest  (q.v.).  As  referring  to  the 
origin  of  title  to  lands  or  goods,  acquisition  is 
either  original  or  derivative.  The  former  com- 
prehends occupation,  accession,  and  prescription 


▲c^tnBinov. 

of  limitation;  the  latter,  the  more  usual  modes 
of  acquiring  title,  as  alienation  by  gift  or  sale, 
exchange,  inheritance,  and  transfer  by  will 
(qq.v.).  In  the  English  and  American  law  of 
real  property  the  whole  subject  is  dealt  with 
under  the  head  of  title  (q.v.).  Consult:  Black- 
stone,  Commentariea  on  the  Laws  of  England; 
Kent,  Commentaries  on  American  Law, 

ACQTJIiyTAL  (0.  F.  aquiter,  from  Lat.  ad, 
to  -f-  quietarey  to  quiet).  In  criminal  law,  the 
judicial  discharge  of  the  accused.  It  may  result 
from  some  technical  defect  in  the  proceedings, 
or  from  a  verdict  in  the  accused's  favor  on  the 
merits.  In  the  former  case,  it  is  not  a  bar  to 
a  second  prosecution  for  the  same  offense;  in 
the  latter  case,  it  is  a  bar,  as  well  by  common 
law  as,  in  this  country,  by  constitutional  pro- 
vision.   See  Autrefois  Acquit  and  Jeopabdt. 

ACBAOHA  (Gk.  d,  a,  priv.  -f  upaviov,  kran- 
ion,  skull).  A  group  of  vertebrates  having 
no  skull  or  heart,  and  represented  only  by  the 
lancelets.     See  Amphioxus. 

ACBA^IA  (Gk.  cLKpaala,  akrasia,  intemper- 
ance). A  beautiful  enchantress  in  Spenser's 
Faerie  Queen.  Her  name  denotes  her  character. 
She  dwells  in  a  "Bower  of  Bliss,"  on  a  floating 
island  of  sensuous  delight,  and  the  fairy  queen 
sends  Sir  Guyon  to  make  an  end  of  her  seductive 
abode. 

ACBA^ES  (Gk.  cucpar^c,  akratea,  intem- 
perate). A  male  character  in  Spenser's  Faerie 
Queen,  typifying  intemperance  in  the  pursuit  of 
pleasure. 

A'CBE.  A  word  identical  with  Lat.  ager,  Gk. 
&yp6c,  agros,  a  field,  and  the  Qer.  Acker,  which 
means  both  a  field  and  a  measure  of  land.  Most 
nations  have  some  measure  nearly  correspond- 
ing; originally,  perhaps,  the  quantity  which  one 
could  plow  in  a  day;  uniformity,  therefore,  is 
not  to  be  looked  for. 

The  English  statute  acre  consists  of  4840 
square  yards.  The  chain  with  which  land  is 
measured  is  22  yards  long,  and  a  square  chain 
will  contain  22  X  22,  or  484  yards;  so  that  10 
square  chains  make  an  acre.  The  acre  is  divided 
into  4  roods,  a  rood  into  4  perches,  and  a  perch 
contains  30^^  square  yards.  The  Scotch  acre 
is  larger  than  the  English,  and  the  Irish  than 
the  Scotch.  One  hundred  and  twenty-one  Irish 
acres  =196  English  nearly;  48  Scotch  acres  = 
61  English.  The  following  table  shows  the 
values  of  the  more  important  corresponding 
measures  compared  with  the  English  acre.  The 
German  Morgen  below  are  becoming  obsolete.  The 
German  Empire,  Austria- Hungary,  Spain,  and 
Portugal  have  adopted  the  French  metrical  system. 


English   acre    1.00 

Scotch        "       1.27 

Irish  "       1.02 

Austria,  joch   1.42 

Baden,    morgen 0.89 

Belgium,  hectare  (French) 2.47 

Denmark,  t^nde  land 5.05 

France,  hectare  (=100  ares) 2.47 

France,  arpent  (common) 0.99 

Holland,       *'  2.10 

Naples,  mogj^ia   0.83 

Portugal,  geira   1.43 

Prussia,  little  morgen 0.63 

Prussia,  great  morgen 1.40 

Russia,  desyatina 2.70 

Saxony,  morgen    1.36 


86  ACEOBAT. 

Spain,  fanegada 1.06 

Sweden,  tunne  land  1 1.13 

Switzerland,  faux  1.62 

"  Geneva,  arpent 1.27 

Tuscany,  saccata '.  1.22 

United  States,  English  acre 1.00 

WQrttemberg,  morgen 2.40 

Roman  .  jugerum   (ancient) 0.66 

Greek  plethron   (ancient) 0.23 

ACBE,  a^er  or  ft^er,  or  St.  Jeai^  d'Acbe. 
A  seaport  on  the  coast  of  Syria,  a  few  miles 
north  of  Mount  Carmel.  It  has  about  7000 
inhabitants.  The  harbor  is  partly  choked  with 
sand,  yet  is  one  of  the  best  on  this  coast. 
Acre  is  the  Aocho  of  the  Bible,  and  has  been 
known  at  different  periods  as  Acco,  Akka,  Aeon, 
Accaron,  and  in  Roman  times  Ptolem4ii8.  It  is 
first  mentioned  in  a  dispatch  sent  by  King  Bur- 
raburiash  of  Babylon  to  Amenhotep  TV.  (1400 
B.C.?).  It  was  tsiken  by  the  Assyrians  under 
Sennacherib  and  given  by  Esarhaddon  to  the 
King  of  Tyre,  with  which  it  came  subsequently 
into  the  possession  of  the  Seleucid  kings  of 
Syria.  The  Romans  made  it  a  colony.  In  638 
the  town  was  captured  by  the  Arabs.  In  1104 
it  was  taken  by  the  Crusaders;  in  1187  it  was  re- 
captured by  the  sultan  Saladin,  and  in  1191  fell 
once  more  into  the  hands  of  the  Crusaders,  and 
became  the  seat  of  a  bishop  and  of  the  Order  of 
St.  John.  It  was  the  last  stronghold  of  the 
Crusaders  in  Palestine,  being  surrendered  to  the 
Saracens  in  1291,  after  an  obstinate  defense  by 
the  crusading  orders.  In  1517  it  was  captured 
by  the  Turks.  In  1799  it  was  besieged  by  the 
IVench  under  Napoleon  Bonaparte  for  sixty-one 
days,  but  was  successfully  defended  by  the  garri- 
son, aided  by  a  body  of  English  sailors  and 
marines  under  Sir  Sidney  Smith.  In  1832  it 
was  stormed  by  Ibrahim  Pasha,  son  of  the  vice- 
roy of  Egypt,  and  continued  in  his  possession 
till  it  was  bombarded  and  taken  in  1840  by  a 
combined  English,  Austrian,  and  Turkish  fleet. 

See  EOTFT;   SEIXUGIDiB. 

AZORES,  Bob.  A  character  in  Sheridan's 
Rivals,  He  appears  as  a  somewhat  rustic  gen- 
tleman, of  bombastic  manners  and  ludicrous  cow- 
ardice, noted  particularly  for  what  he  calls  his 
"oath  referential  or  sentimental  swearing." 

ACRI,  ft^rd.  A  city  in  Calabria,  southern 
Italy,  13  miles  northeast  of  Cosenza  (Map:  Italy, 
L  8).  The  neighboring  country  is  beautiful, 
healthful,  and  fertile,  and  produces  oil,  wine, 
fruit,  and  cotton.    Pop.,  about  4000. 

ACRIiyiBiE.     See  Gbasshoffeb. 

ACROBAT  (Gk.  one  walking  on  tiptoe,  from 
dKpo^,  akros,  highest,  +  fiaiveiv,  hainein,  to 
go).  The  presence  of  the  word  in  very  early 
times  in  most  European  languages  may  be  taken 
to  indicate  the  remote  origin  of  the  exer- 
cise which  called  the  term  into  use.  Originally 
it  was  doubtless  used  to  denote  the  acrobatic 
feats  of  the  rope-dancers,  but  in  the  course  of 
centuries  its  meaning  has  extended  so  that  it  in- 
cludes many  things  which  were  unknown  to  the 
Greeks  and  Romans  as  familiarly  as  were  the 
rope-dancers,  who,  as  Terence  in  his  prologue  to 
Hecyra  complains,  distracted  the  attention  of 
the  public  from  his  play;  and  so  does  history 
repeat  itself,  a  writer  in  the  Tatter  expresses 
his  surpi'ise  at  finding  so  small  an  audience  at 
the  opera,  because  the  rope-dancer  was  not  in 
the  bill  that  night.    The  most  recent  celebrated 


AGBOBAT. 


87 


ACBOBTIO. 


exponent  of  the  original  art  was  Blondin,  who 
crossed  Niagara  Falls  on  a  rope,  carrying  a  man 
on  his  back.  But  this  was  no  unheard-of  feat, 
for  when  Isabel  of  Bavaria,  Queen  to  Charles  VI. 
of  France,  made  her  entry  into  Paris,  says  Frois- 
sart,  who  was  an  eye  witness,  a  cord  was 
stretched  from  the  highest  house  on  the  bridge 
of  St.  Michel  to  the  topmost  gallery  of  ^e 
Church  of  Our  Lady  and  an  acrobat  carried  two 
boys  holding  lighted  candles  over  it.  From  be- 
ing a  rope-dancer,  or  rather  balancer  only,  the 
acrobat  gradually  added  to  his  exhibits  other 
balancing  and  tumbling  acts.  Vaulting  and  jug- 
gling and  contortions  became  part  of  the  enter- 
tainments of  the  Middle  Ages.  Edward  III.  paid 
jugglers  handsomely  for  exhibiting  their  acro- 
batic skill  and  the  flexibility  of  their  bodies.  The 
austere  Queen  Mary  even  relaxed  at  their 
pranks;  and  when  Queen  Elizabeth  attended  the 
revels  at  Kenilworth  Castle,  which  Sir  Walter 
Scott  has  immoi*talized,  she  was  vastly  enter- 
tained by  acrobatic  tumblers.  Even  the  wonder- 
ful balancing  feats  of  the  Japanese  with  ladders 
at  right  angles,  up  and  down  which  a  second 
man  climbs  in  apparent  defiance  of  the  laws  of 
equilibrium,  had  their  prototypes,  if  not  equals, 
among  the  European  acrobats  of  two  hundred 
years  ago,  while  modem  .  somersault-throwing 
and  leaping  through  hoops  are  illustrated  in 
manuscripts  as  far  back  as  the  fourteenth  cen- 
tury. The  more  liberal  interpretation  of  the 
word  now  includes  performances  on  the  trapese, 
the  horizontal  bar,  and  the  other  pieces  of  appa- 
ratus usually  found  in  gymnasiums  for  the  de- 
velopment of  the  suppleness  of  the  body.  Con- 
sult: Le  Roux  and  Gamier,  Acrobats  and 
Mouniebanka,  translated  by  A.  P.  Morton,  illus- 
trated (London,  1890). 

▲CSOCESAtJ^HIA  (literally,  "Thunder- 
Heights,"  from  6k.  Axpoc,  akroa,  highest,  + 
KMpavpoc,  keraunoa,  thunderbolt).  The  north- 
western promontory  of  Epirus,  which  forms  the 
termination  of  tiie  Ceraunian,  or  Acroceraunian, 
Mountains.  It  was  a  dangerous  point  for  sail- 
ors, and  was  named  from  the  fre<}uent  thunder- 
storms that  occurred  there.  It  is  the  modem 
Cape  Glossa.         

AC'BOCOBIHTHTTB  (Gk.  'AicpoKdpiveoc, 
Akrokorinthoa) .  A  steep  hill  2000  feet  in 
height  which  was  the  citadel  of  ancient  Corinth, 
and  is  still  crowned  by  ruined  Byzantine  fortifi- 
cations.   The  hill  commands  a  superb  view. 

AGSOIiEIN,  &-krdn«-Tn  (Lat.  acer,  sharp  -f- 
olere,  to  smell) ,  CsHjCHO.  A  colorless  liquid  hav- 
ing an  extremely  irritating  odor.  It  is  produced 
in  the  incomplete  combustion  of  fats  and  when 
ordinaiy  glycerin  is  distilled  with  sulphuric 
acid  or  other  dehydrating  agents.  Some  acrolein 
is  produced  when  fats  are  overheated  in  cooking, 
snd  when  the  wick  of  a  candle  just  blown  out  is 
left  smoldering.  Its  reactions  show  that  it 
contains  the  atomic  group  CHO;  it  is,  there- 
fore, classed  with  the  aldehydes.  Bromine  adds 
itself  directly  to  acrolein,  forming  an  "additive 
product"  of  the  composition,  CsHsBrjCHO ;  which 
shows  that  acrolein  must  be  classed  with  the  un- 
aaturated  organic  compounds. 

ACKBOIJTHS  (Gk.  dxpoc,  akroay  highest,  ex- 
treme +  Ai6oc.  lithoa,  stone).  In  the  early 
development  of  Greek  art  there  came  a  period 
when  the  ideal  of  the  Hellenes  no  longer  permit- 
ted them  to  look  upon  a  god  as  a  mere  idol,  but 
as  a  being  endowed  with  mind  and  conscious- 


ness. Therefore,  instead  of  a  tawdry  representa- 
tion, they  conceived  a  worthier  image  carved  in 
wood.  The  body  was  ornamented  with  a  thin 
armor  of  gold;  the  head  and  lower  extremities 
were  formed  of  stone  or  marble.  The  figures  so 
constructed  were  called  acroliths. 

AC'BOHEG'ALT  (Gk.  &Kpoi:,  akroa,  high- 
est, extreme  +  fi^Y^f  megaa,  great).  A 
chronic  nervous  disease  characterized  by  a  grad- 
ual and  permanent  enlargement  of  the  head,  tho- 
rax, hands,  and  feet,  and  by  a  curvature  back- 
ward of  the  spine.  It  was  first  described  in  188(( 
by  Marie.  It  occurs  in  both  men  and  women,  be- 
ginning apparently  about  the  age  of  eighteen 
or  twenty.  Some  pains  and  functional  disturb- 
ances, as  well  as  aniemia,  accompany  its  on- 
set. Both  soft  tissues  and  bones  are  enlarged, 
the  lower  jaw,  tongue,  lips,  and  nose  being  very 
greatly  hypertrophied.  The  hand  sometimes 
reaches  8  inches  in  length,  the  foot  12  inches, 
while  the  circumference  of  the  head  may  reach 
26  inches.  The  cause  of  this  perversion  of  nutri- 
tion is  unknown.  Consult:  Dana,  Text-hook  of 
Nervoua  Diaeaaea  (New  York,  1901). 

A^CBOK  (Gk.  'AKpuv,  Akr6n).  A  physician 
of  the  fifth  century  B.C.,  native  of  Agri- 
gentum  in  Sicily.  Tradition  says  that  he  suc- 
cessfully combated  the  great  plague  in  Athens 
in  430  B.o.  by  building  large  fires  to  purify  the 
air.  The  Empiricists  claimed  him  as  the  father 
of  their  school.  His  medical  works  are  wholly 
lost. 

ACROP^OLIS  (Gk.  dxpoc,  akroa,  highest  + 
irtfXic,  polia,  city).  Originally  the  fortified  ref- 
uge of  a  district,  usually  containing  the  pal- 
ace of  the  chief.  For  this  purpose  a  natural 
stronghold  was  selected  and  strengthened  by  arti- 
ficial defenses.  Around  the  acropolis  a  city  fre- 
quently arose,  and  when  this  was  defended  by  a 
wall  the  acropolis  sometimes  lost  its  military 


•i.,i''.*v---v. 


v..  '■.,:.«:.vj5i>««tji 


,lji(^ 


▲OROPOLIS  OP  ATHKNB. 

A — Parthenon.  (7— Precinct  of  Artemln 
B— Foundation  of  Earlj  Brauronla. 

Temple.  J7— Temple  of  Victory, 

r— Muaeum.  / — Agrippa  Pedestal. 

D — Terrace.  J*— Plnacotheca. 

Jl?— Erechtheum.  JT— Altar  to  Rome  and 
JF*— Propjlasa.  Anenietus  Cffisar. 

character  and  was  given  over  to  temples,  as  hav- 
ing been  the  centre  of  the  oldest  cults.  The 
acropolis  of  Athens  is  the  best  example  of  this 
change,  and  is  also  the  most  celebrated.  (See 
Athens.)  Other  noteworthy  acropolises  are 
the  Larissa  at  Argos,  Acrocorinthus  at  Corinth, 
Mount  Ithome  at  Messene,  and  the  Cadmea  at 
Thebes.  The  name  is  frequently  applied  to  any 
fortified  hill  commanding  an  ancient  site;  so  at 
Troy,  Mycense,  Tiryns,  Pergamum,  Priene,  etc. 

ACBOS^IC    (Gk.    &Kpcv^    akron,   extremity, 
end  H-     orixoCi  atichoaf  line,  verse).     A  Greek, 
term  for  a  number  of  verses,  the  first  letters  of 


ACBOffFIO.  8 

which  follow  some  predet«nniii«d  order,  uaiull^ 
forming  a  word — most  commonly  b  name — or  a 
phrase  or  sentence.  Sometimes  the  flnal  letters 
spell  words  as  well  as  the  initial,  and  the  pe- 
culiarity wiU  even  run  down  the  middle  ot  the 
poem  like  a  seam.  Sir  John  Daviea  composed 
twenty-six  Hymns  to  Attrea  (Queen  Eliiabeth), 
in  every  one  of  which  the  initial  letters  of  the 
lines  form  the  words  Elisabetha  !Regina. 

In  the  acrostic  poetry  of  the  Hebrews  the  initial 
letters  of  the  lines  or  of  the  staniaa  were  made  to 
run  over  the  letters  of  the  alphabet  in  their  or- 
der. Twelve  of  the  psalms  of  the  Old  Testament 
are  written  on  this  plan.  The  llgth  Psalm  is 
the  most  remarkable.  It  is  composed  of  twenty- 
two  divisions  or  stanzas  (corresponding  to  the 
twenty-two  letters  of  the  Hebrew  alphabet) ,  each 
stanza  consisting  of  eight  couplets,  and  the  first 
line  of  each  couplet  in  the  first  stanza  begins  in 
the  original  Hebrew  with  the  letter  atepk,  in  tlie 
second  stanza  with  beth,  etc.  The  divisions  of  the 
psalm  are  named  each  after  the  letter  that  begins 
the  couplets^  and  thet^e  names  have  been  retained 
in  the  English  translation.  With  a  view  to  aid 
the  memory  it  was  customary  at  one  time  to 
compose  verses  on  sacred  subjects  after  the  fash- 
ion of  those  Hebrew  acrostics,  the  BUccessive 
verses  or  lines  beginning  with  the  letters  of  the 
alphabet  in  their  order.  Such  pieces  were  called 
Abecedortan  Bymns. 

ACBOIE'KZON  (Gk.  axpuT^iar,  akrBtS- 
ri^n,  the  suroioit  or  extremity).  A  term  in  archi- 


tecture for  a  statue- or  other  ornament,  often  a 
palmetto,  placed  on  the  apex  or  at  one  of  the 
lower  angles  of  a  pediment. 

ACT  (Lat.  actus,  the  doing  or  performing  of 
a  thing;  actum,  a  public  transaction,  record), 
A  term  of  law  applied  to  the  written  expression 
of  the  will  of  the  legislature  formally  declared. 
Aa  commonly  employed,  it  is  synonymous  with 
statute  (q.v,)-  The  term  is  derived  from  the 
acta  of  Roman  public  life,  which  comprehended 
all  public  ofGcial  procedure  as  well  as  the  offi- 
cial record  thereof.  An  act  of  one  legislature 
cnnnot  tic  the  hands  of  its  successors,  unless  it 
amount!)  to  a  contract,  so  that  its  repeal  would 
come  within  the  constitutional  inhibition  upon 
legislHtive  acts  which  impair  the  obligntton  ot 
contracts.  In  England  even  this  eiception  does 
not  exist,  each  Parliament  being  an  absolutely 
sovereign  legislature.  Still,  certain  acts  of  Par- 
liament have  been  passed  in  the  hope,  if  not 
with  the  intention,  of  arresting  "the  possible 
course  of  future  legislation;"  and  some  of  them 
have  commanded  a  respect  almost  equsl  tn  that 
accorded  in  this  country  to  written  constitiilions. 
To  this  cU»  belong  Uie  BiU  of  Rights  (q.v.;  i 


;  ACT. 

the  Act  of  Settlement  (12  and  13  Will,  in., 
c.  2)  Qzing  the  descent  of  the  crown;  the  Acts 
of  habeas  corpus  (q.v.)  ;  the  Acts  of  Union 
with  Scotland  {1  James  I.,  c.  1),  and  with  Ire- 
land (39  and  40  Geo.  III.,  c.  Rl)  ;  and  the  Sep- 
tennial Act  of  ITIS  limiting  the  life  of  a  Parlia- 
ment to  seven  years.  "Act  is  used  in  connection 
with  other  words  in  a  number  of  familiar 
phrases.  For  example,  act  of  honor,  the  accept- 
ance by  a  stranger  of  protested  paper  for  the 
honor  of   some   party  thereto;   act   of   Ood,  an 


of  slate,  act  done  or  commanded  by  the  govern- 
ment of  a  foreign  state,  for  which  the  person  in- 
jured has  no  redress  in  the  courts  of  his  own 
country,  but  must  seek  redress  through  the  dip- 
lomatic agencies  of  his  government. 

ACT.  In  the  drama,  the  name  for  one  of  the 
principal  parts  of  a  play.  In  performance  the 
acts  are  commonly  sepsrated  by  intervals,  during 
which  the  dropped  curtain  conceals  the  stage. 
An  act  which  may  in  turn  be  subdivided  into 
scenes  should  be  in  a  certain  sense  complete  in 
itself,  and  at  the  same  time  should  form  an  es- 
sential part  of  the  whole  drama.  As  every  dra- 
matic plot  naturally  divides  itself  into  three 
parts— the  exposition,  the  development,  and  the 
conclusion  or  catastrophe— a  division  into  three 
acts  seems  most  natural  j  but  practically  this 
would  often  require  undue  condensation,  and 
the  well-known  classic  custom  defined  by  Hor- 
ace in  his  Ars  Poetica  is  that  a  play  should  be 
in  five  acts.  Xormally,  the  first  act  indicates 
the  j(eneral  nature  of  the  drams,  introduces  the 
characters,  and  begins  the  action.  The  second 
act  leads  up  to  the  third,  which  develops  the 
crisis  of  the  plot.  In  the  fourth  the  conclusion 
or  catastrophe  is  prepared,  but  should  by  no 
means  be  anticipated  so  as  to  weaken  the  effect 
of  the  d(ni»tenienl,  which  is  reserved  for  the  flfth 
act.  The  Greeks  did  not  make  the  formal  dis- 
tinction of  acts  in  their  drama,  though  Greek 
tragedies  are  subjectively  capable  of  division 
into  parts  or  episodes,  which  are  indeed  prac- 
tically separated  b;  the  lyrical  part«  of  the  per- 
formance. (See  Chobus.)  In  modern  drama 
the  requirement  for  five  acts  began  early  to  be 
n^lected,  especially  in  comedy.  (See  Mou£kk.) 
On  the  present  stage  plays  are  common  in  any 
number  of  acts  below  five.    The  four-act  play  is 

ACT,  or  Cebeuont  of  "Inception."  The 
commencement  or  degree- taking  formerly  in 
use  in  English  universities,  but  now  discon- 
tinued (save  as  a  form  in  Cambridge).  The 
student  or  "respondent"  who  "keeps  the  act" 
reads  a  thesis  in  Latin  which  he  defends  against 
three  "opponents'"  named  by  the  proctors.  Some 
such  practice  survives  in  most  German  universi- 
ties. In  a  quaint  pamphlet  on  Near  England's 
First  fruils,  published  in  1643,  there  is  an  ac- 
count of  the  late  commencement  at  Harvard  in 
which  the  word  "acta"  is  familiarly  employed, 
as  one  may  sec  from  this  extract:  "The  Students 
of  the  first  Classis  that  have  beene  these  foure 
yeeres  trained  up  in  University- Learning,  for 
their  ripening  in  the  knowleilge  of  the  Tongues 
and  Arts,  and  are  approved  for  their  manners, 
a»  they  have  kept  their  publick  Acts  in  former 
yeares,  our  selves  being  present  at  them,  so  have 
they  lately  kept  two  solemne  Acts  for  their 
Commencement,    when    the    Qovernour,    Magis- 


ACT.  89 

trmtes,  and  the  Mtnisten  from  all  parts»  with  all 
sorts  of  SchoUars,  and  others  injnreat  numbers 
were  present,  and  did  heare  their  Exercises." 

ACVTA  D1UBNA9  PoFuu,   Urbana,  or   Pub- 
UCA  (acts  daily,  popular,  municipal,  or  public). 
A  sort  of  daily  chronicle  of  events  published  in 
ancient  Rome  giving  summaries  of  the  principal 
legal  and  political  orations,  the  decisions  of  the 
courts,  news  from  the  army,  and  the  latest  gossip 
of  the  town.    They  seem  also  to  have  contained 
aooounts  of  the  transactions  of  the  assemblies  of 
the  people,  also  of  births,  deaths,  marriages,  and 
divorces,  accidents,  prodigies,  and  the  like,  all  of 
which  were  preserved  as  sources  of  future  his- 
tory.    When  Antony  offered  Caesar  a  crown  on 
the  feast  of  the  Lupercalia,  Csesar  ordered  it  to 
be  noted  in  the  Acta  Diuma.    The  Acta  are  fre- 
quently said  to  have  been  introduced  by  Julius 
Caesar,  but  others  believe  them  to  have  existed 
long  before  Cesar's  time,  and  to  have  supplanted 
the  Annates,  which  fell  into  disuse  about  the 
year  131  B.C.    The  Latin  scholar  Httbner  has  ad- 
Vanced  strong  arguments  in  support  of  the  for- 
mer view,  although  it  was  the  practice  before 
Cesar's  time  for   scribes  to  compile  a   manu- 
script chronicle  of  public  events  in  the  city  of 
Rome,  which  was  often  forwarded  with  private 
letters  to  absent  friends.    The  Annates  took  note 
only  of  the  most  important  events,  whereas  mat- 
ters of  far  less  importance  were  included  in  the 
Acta  Diuma.     The  material  for  the  Acta  was 
gathered  by  reporters  called  octiMrii,  and  the 
Acta  were  exposed  in  public  places  to  be  read  or 
copied  by  any  who  chose  to  do  so.    After  a  rea- 
sonable period  of  time  the^  were  taken  down  and 
preserved  with  other  public  documents.    Persons 
in  Rome  were  accustomed  to  keep  their  friends 
^prho  were  sojourning  out  of  town  informed  of  the 
progress  of  events  and  of  the  news  generally,  as 

fathered  from  the  Acta  Diurna.  A  passage  in 
^troniuB  (cap.  53)  gives  an  imitation  of  the 
Acta.  From  this  it  would  appear  that  the  style 
^was  very  simple  and  that  only  the  bare  facts 
ivere  stated.  Consult:  Le  CHerc,  Des  joumauw 
ehez  les  Remains  (Paris,  1838),  a  treatise  to  be 
read  with  caution ;  and  HUbner,  De  Senatus  Pop- 
tUique  Romani  Actis  (Leipzig,  I860). 

ACTMT A  {Gk,  &KTia,  aktea,  elder  tree),  A  ge- 
nua of  plants  of  the  natural  order  Ranunculaoeie. 
Acl0a  spicata^  the  Baneberry  or  Herb  Christo- 
pher, is  a  native  of  the  north  of  Europe,  found 
in  bushy  places  in  some  parts  of  England.  It  is 
a  perennial  herbaceous  plant,  about  1  to  2  feet 
high,  with  tritemate  leaves,  and  the  leaflets  deep- 
ly cut  and  serrated,  the  flowers  in  racemes, 
the  berries  black  and  poisonous.  A  variety  of 
Acf4Fo  spicaia  var.  rubra  with  red  berries,  and 
Aci^a  alha  with  white  berries  are  common  in 
the  United  States,  where  they  are  known  as  Red 
and  White  Baneberry. 

ACTJB'Oir  (Gk.  'A«ra/uv,  AktaUin).  A 
mythical  personage,  a  grandson  of  Cadmus.  He 
was  trained  as  a  hunter  by  Chiron.  Having  of- 
fended Artemis,  he  was  changed  by  her  into  a 
stag  and  torn  in  pieces  by  his  own  dogs.  The  sin 
of  Actaeon  is  variously  stated.  According  to 
Euripides,  Artemis  was  jealous  because  ActaK)n 
had  boasted  that  he  excelled  her  in  hunting.  The 
most  populsr  version  in  later  times  was  that  he 
had  come  upon  the  goddess  while  bathing. 

AC^A  E^XTDITCKBITM  (Lat.    Proceedings 
of  the  Learned).    A  Latin  monthly  and  the  flrst 
German    literary    serial     (117    volumes,    1682- 
Vol.  L— e. 


ACTIHIABXA. 

1782).  It  was  founded  by  Professor  Otto 
Mencke  of  Leipzig,  and  was  owned  by  his  fam- 
ilv  till  1754,  after  which  it  rapidlv  deteriorated. 
The  series  contains  a  record  of  tne  progress  of 
science  to  1776. 

ACTA  KABTYBUX  (Lat.  Acts  of  the 
Martyrs).  A  name  given  by  the  ancient  Church 
to  the  records  of  the  trials  and  deaths  of  the 
martyrs  which  were  kept  for  the  edification  of 
the  faithful.  The  oldest  extant  refer  to  the 
death  of  St.  Ignatius  of  Antioch,  who  died  about 
the  year  107.  St.  Augustine  (fifth  century) 
speaks  of  these  records  as  being  read  to  the  peo- 
ple on  their  festival  days.  Eusebius,  the  church 
historian  (died  about  340),  collected  tiie  Acta 
Martyrum  in  his  two  works,  De  Martyrihus  Pat- 
(Fstinco  and  Synagoge  Martyrum,  the  latter  of 
which  has  perished,  but  the  former  is  the  appen- 
dix to  the  eighth  book  of  his  Church  History. 
See  McGiffert^  translation  (New  York,  1890). 

ACTA  PILATI  (Lat.  Acts  of  Pilate).  An 
account  of  the  trial  and  death  of  Jesus  CJhrist, 
purporting  to  have  been  written  by  Pontius 
rilate  or  imder  his  direction.  Although  Justin 
Martyr  (Apol.  i.,  76-86),  Tertullian  (Apol.  v., 
21),  and  Eusebius  (ii.,  2)  allude  to  some  ac- 
count rendered  by  Pilate  to  the  Emperor  Ti- 
berius, the  Acta  now  extant  in  the  Vatican  li- 
brary, as  well  as  the  so-called  Report  of  Pilate 
to  the  emperor  and  the  alleged  Bpistotcs  Pitati 
describing  the  resiirrection,  are  admittedly  spuri- 
ous. Consult:  Lipsius,  IHe  Pilatu8<icten  (Kiel, 
1871).  Various  English  translations  have  been 
published,  e.g..  Acta  Pitati  (Shelbyville,  Ind., 
1879),  and  also  one  in  the  Ante-Nicene  library. 

ACTA  SAirOTCXBXTM^  or  XABTYBTTK 

(Lat.  Acts  of  the  Saints  or  Martyrs).  The  col- 
lective title  given  to  several  old  writings  respect- 
ing saints  and  martyrs  in  the  Greek  and  Roman 
Catholic  churches,  but  now  applied  especially 
to  one  extensive  collection  begun  by  the  Jesuits 
in  the  seventeenth  century,  and  intended  to 
serve  as  a  better  arrangement  of  the  materials 
found  in  ancient  works.  This  great  undertak- 
ing, which  was  commenced  by  the  Jesuit  Heri- 
bert  Rosweyde,  of  Antwerp,  has  considerable 
importance,  not  only  in  a  religious  and  ecclesias- 
tical point  of  view,  but  also  with  regard  to  his- 
tory and  archeology.  After  Rosweyde's  death 
in  1629,  Johannes  Bolland  was  commissioned  by 
the  order  of  the  Jesuits  to  continue  the  work, 
and  with  the  assistance  of  Cknifried  Henschen  he 
prepared  two  volumes,  which  appeared  in  1643. 
After  the  death  of  this  editor  (1666)  the  work 
was  carried  on  by  a  society  of  learned  Jesuits, 
who  were  styled  **Bollandists,"  until  1794,  when 
its  further  progress  was  prevented  through  the 
invasion  of  Holland  by  the  French.  In  recent 
times  the  undertaking  has  been  resumed,  and  in 
1846  the  fifty-fourth  volume  was  published  at 
Brussels.  Several  additional  volumes  have  ap- 
peared since.  The  lives  are  arranged  in  the  or- 
der of  the  calendar.  A  new  edition  of  the  flrst 
fifty-four  volumes  appeared  in  1863-69.  The  six- 
ty-fifth voltune  appeared  in  1892.  For  notices 
of  other  and  similar  collections,  see  Saints; 
Mai^tr  and  Mabttroloot. 

ACTIAK  (fik^shan)  GAMES.    See  Actium. 

ACTINIA^BIA  (Gk.  o/tr/f,  aktis,  ra.j),  A 
group  of  anthozoan  coelenterates  comprising  the 
sea-anemones.  They  differ  from  all  other  antho- 
zxMins  in  the  complete  absence  of  a  skeleton  and 


ACmflABIA.  go  ACTZNOHOBPHT. 

in  the  large  aire  of  the  iiidividnale,  which  rardy  oonditjons,  of  iron  carbonate  or  ferrous  BiUcat« 
form  a  coIodj.  See  Anthozoa  and  Sba-Akem-  rocks,  particularly  in  the  virinitT  of  igneoua 
OKB.  maascB.     The  famous  iron-bearing  formations  of 

the  Lake  Superior  country  were  original!  v 
mainly  iron  carbonate  or  ferrous  Bilioate,  and,  by 
their  alteration,  have  yielded  iron  ore  on  the  one 
hand  and  actinolite-  or  grtlnerit^-schista  on  the 
other.  The  term  "schist"  as  applied  to  these  rocks 
is  frequently  a  misnomer.  Schists  show  a  paral- 
lel dimensional  arrangement  of  their  constitu- 
ents, but  commonly  the  actinolite  crystals  in 
BO-called  actinolite-schists  show  but  a  alight  de- 
gree, if  any,  of  parallelism.  The  parallel  struc- 
ture is  really  a  more  or  less  faint  banding  due 

He.  1.  Fio.  a.  to  the  segregation  of  different  kinds  of  minerals 

Acnnuau.  into  layers.     See  ScHiSTOsmr. 

„ii^^V&£i'W?t"Z^^T£^        AO-nBOK-ETm  (Ok.    M,.    Mi..  r.r  + 

nractnre  of  the  badf-will,  ibawiiig  Kpla.  /icr(Hv,nietron,  measure).  An  instrument  for  meas- 
uring the  effect  of  the  sun's  rays  in  producing 

ACTIir'OOBAFH  (Qk.    dirir,    dktU,   ray-f  chemical,     i.e.,    actinic     effects.     As    originally 

yp&^uv,     grapkein,     to   write).     An  instrument  devised   by   Sir   John   Herschel,   this   title    was 

for  recording  automatically  the  chemical  effects  applied   by   him   to  a   thermometer   whose   bulb 

of   radiations   from   any   source,   especially   the  ""b  filled  with  a  blue  solution  of  ammonia  and 

sun.     Formerly    the    actinic    or    chemical,    the  sulphate  of  copper;  the  expansion  of  this  solu- 

visual  or  optic,  and  the  thermal  or  heat  rays  tion  by  absorbing  the  sun^s  rays  was  supposed 

were  spoken  of  as  the  componenU  of  a  beam  of  to  measure  the  quantity  of  blue  light  or  chemical 

sunshine  as  though  all  kinds  of  rays  were  bound  ''"7*  '"  ^'^^  '>**'°  of  sunshine.     At  the  present 

up   therein.     But   we   now   know   that   the  sun  t'me  't  '»  known  that  actinometera,  properly  bo 

radiates  an  immense  variety  of  so-called  wavea  called,  measure  only   the   effects   of  the  energy 

or  rays  of  different  wave-lengths  and  that  appsr-  transmitted  to  us  in  apeciflo  portions  of  the  solar 

ently  any  one  of  these  waves  may  produce  chem-  spectrum.     In   some   arrangements    this   energy 

ieal,  visual,  or  thermal  effects,  and  perhaps  dec-  "   "^   turned   into   heat   and   measured   by   its 

trical,  depending  upon  the  molecular  nature  of  expansion   elTect     In  other  forms  of  apparatus 

the  object  that  it  strikes.     Thus  the  same  wave  '*■  ''"es  molecular  work  of  a  chemical  nature  and 

that  produces  a  special  blue  light  in  the  solar  '»  measured  by  these  effects,  as  when  a  mixture 

spectrum   will   produce  a   little  heat  it   it   fall  of  chlorine  and  hydrogen  is  converted  into  hydro- 

upon  ft  delicate  thermometer,  or  a  great  effect  chloric   acid   and   the  quantity  of  acid   that   is 

resulting  in  intense  beat  and  light  if  it  tall  upon  'ormed  in  years  of  time  is  the  measure  of  the 

a  proper  mixture  of  chlorine   and  hvdrogen  or  intensity.    This  includes  the  basis  of  the  methods 

other  chemicals.     It  is  no  longer  proper  to  speak  of   Draper   and    Bunsen   and   Roscoe.     When   a 

of  the  sun's  actinic  rays,  but  of  actinic  efrecU  mixture  of  ferric-oxalate  and   chloride   of   iron 

of  the  solar   radiation.     The  simplest   forms  of  dissolved   in   water   is   exposed   to   sunshine   it 

actinograph    are    those    that    expose    standard  «"■«*  <""*  carbonic  acid  gas;   this   is  the  basis 

photq^aphic  plates  or  films   (iodides,  chlorides,  of  Marohand's  apparatus.     A  photographic  plate 

or  bromides  of  silver)    to  the  sun's  action  for  exposed  for  a  short  time  receives  an  impression 

short,  definite  periods  of  time.     Those  that  ntil-  "l">ae  intensity  may  be  measured  on  a  scale  of 

ise  the  action  of  sunshine  to  cause  the  union  of  tints  or  shades  and  made  the  basis  of  a  deter- 

ehlorine  and  hydrogen  (Draper's  and  Bunsen'a),  mination  of  the  intensity  of  the  sunshine.     This 

or  the  precipitation  of  gold  from  a  solution  of  method   has  been   worked   out   by   Bi!;elow   and 

the   chloride   of   gold    and   oxalic   acid,   or   the  others.     In  general  any  apparatus  for  measuring 

evolution  of  oxalic  acid  from  a  solution  of  ferric-  the  chemical  effects  of  radiation  from  any  source 

oxalate   and   chloride   of   iron   require   complex  constitutes   an   actinometer   properly   so   called, 

measuring  arrangements  that  do  not  easily  lend  but   the   name  is   often    improperly   applied  _  to 


themselves  to  graphic  self- registration.  apparatus     that    measures     the    total     heating 


ACTIN'OLITE  (Ok.iicrir,  afcftf,  ray-f-  \iBo(, 


inect,  as  was  the  case  in  Herschel's  apparatus 


llrto..  .lon.l.  A  clcium-ii.Bl.e.im>.ipon  ^Z  ,''  "  ™"  "<"  W''.'"'  '«„"■•  Ar.m-D..7  •-■I 
phibol.  Iq.v.)  lh.l  ind.id«,  tta  rarlrtl,,  n™h.  "f  ChwolMn  app.r.tn.,  .11  ol  which  .ra,  prop- 
file,  ..bmloi    (q.v.l,  .mmedlle,   ,nd  «,.lil..  S ^ ''"j  j'"*' -£,j°"  j   'K  !  k" j   '■ 

..J.. i:,. i,„   i_   1 «„„   .   i._:„i,4. be  found  described  under  that  head. 

Actinolite  varies  ir  color   from  a  bright  green 

to  a  gravish  green,  and   usually  occurs   in   the  AC'TINOM'ETBT.     The  general   subject  of 

form  of  long,   slender  crystals   in   metamorphio  the  measurement  of   either  the  relative  or  the 

rocks   commonly  in  tale  absolute   effect   of   sunshine   or   other   radiation 

ACTINOtJTE  -  SCHIST,     or     QRONEHtTE-  either  by  visual,  thermal,  or  comical  methods. 

BCHIST.    A  rock  with  a  banded  or  foliated  struc  This  term   is   now  being  replaced  by  the  more 

ture,    which    contains    a    considerable   quantity  V'"^'  *°"*  ^"diometry. 

of  actinolite.  Commonly  the  actinolite  lies  in  ACTIWOMOB/PBT  (Gk.  nrric,  aktis,  ray 
single  crystals  or  in  sheaf-like  aggregates  in  a  +/inp^,  morphf,  form,  shape!.  In  botany ,_  a 
fine  grained  ground-mosR  of  quartz  or  of  quartz  term  of  symmetry  used  chiefly  in  connection  with 
and  feldspar,  and  its  common  associate  is  iron  flowers.  In  an  actinomorphic  flower  the  mem- 
oxide,  particularly  in  the  form  of  magnetite,  hers  of  each  set  are  similar  and  arranged  about 
althougii  many  other  minerals  may  be  present  a  common  centre,  as  are  the  parts  of  a  radiate 
in  smaller  quantities.  The  actinolite-achiBts  are  animal.  If  there  are  five  petals,  they  are  alike 
common  alteration  products,  under  deep'Seated.  and  ars  evenly  distributed  about  the  eentn  of 


ACmrOXOBFHY. 

the  ilow«r,  as  are  the  spokes  of  a  wheel  ahout 
the  hub.  Technically  defined,  an  actinomorphic 
flower  is  said  to  have  as  man^  planes  of  sym- 
metry as  there  are  members  in  a  cycle.  This 
Bieans  that  if  an  imaginary  plane  be  run  through 
each  sepal  or  petal  or  stamen  and  the  common 
centre,  the  two  resulting  halves  of  the  flower  will 
be  similar.  More  commonly  such  flowers  are 
spoken  of  as  "regular."    See  Fi^web. 

ACrriNOMYCCySIS  (Gk.  okt/c,  aktia,  ray, 
beam  +  A«^«^C>  mykest,  mushroom,  fimgus,  ex- 
crescence), Lumpy  Jaw,  or  Bio  Jaw.  A  specific, 
infectious  disease  produced  by  a  parasitic  micro- 
organism known  as  the  Ray  fungus  (Actinomy- 
cen  hovis).  The  micro-ox^anism  causes  local 
affections  in  the  form  of  tumors  ( Actinomy co- 
mata)  of  the  bone  and  other  tissues.  The  dis- 
ease is  usually  of  sporadic  occurrence,  but  some- 
times takes  the  form  of  an  enzoOty.  It  is  most 
frequently  found  in  cattle,  but  affects  also 
horses,  pi^,  sheep,  deer,  llama,  guanaco,  and 
man.  Actinomycotic  tumors  in  cattle  have  been 
recognized  since  1825,  although  they  have  fre- 

J|uently  been  mistaken  for  cancerous,  tubercu- 
ous,  and  other  kinds  of  tumors.  The  disease 
occurs  in  all  parts  of  Europe  and  North  and 
South  America.  The  Ray  fungus  is  found  in 
all  tumors  and  abscesses  of  this  disease,  wher- 
ever situated,  and  its  presence  may  be  detected 
by  the  form  of  small  yellow  spots  in  the  muscles 
and  soft  tissues  of  affected  animals.  When 
slightly  majpiified  these  spots  are  seen  to  consist 
of  a  radiating  structure,  which  is  characteristic 
of  the  growth  of  the  ray  fundus.  In  cattle  the 
seat  of  the  disease  is  usually  in  the  inferior 
maxillary  bones,  submaxillary  salivary  glands, 
in  the  tongue,  phar3mx,  and  oesophagus.  The 
common  names.  Big  Jaw,  Lumpy  Jaw,  Big  Head, 
and  Wooden  Tongue  are  descriptive  of  the  most 
frequent  forms  of  actinomycosis  in  cattle  and 
liorsea.  When  the  maxillary  bones  are  affected, 
a  large  bone  tumor  is  formed  which  shows  a 
highly  vacuolated  cancellate  structure.  Statis- 
tics collected  in  Russia  show  that  in  99%  of 
eases  actinomycosis  was  located  in  the  head. 
In  a  small  percentage  of  cases  the  lungs  and 
intestines  are  affect.  Maxillary  tumors  in 
cattle  are  almost  invariably  due  to  the  Ray 
fungus,  and  therefore  actinomycosis  may  be 
readily  diagnosed. 

Consideraole  difference  of  opinion  prevails 
regarding  the  systematic  position  of  the  Ray 
fungus.  It  has  been  supposed  that  the  organism 
has  a  plant  host  on  which  it  passes  part  of  its 
life  cycle.  The  agency  of  various  grasses  ( espe- 
cially such  as  have  sharp-pointed  awns)  in 
transmitting  actinomycosis  can  hardly  be  ques- 
tioned. Ahout  500  cases  of  this  disease  in  man 
have  been  reported  in  the  medical  journals,  the 
greater  number  of  cases  having  occurred  as  a 
result  of  eating  raw  meat. 

Actinomycosis  is  peculiar  in  that  it  yields  to 
a  direct  specific  treatment.  In  1886  Thomassen 
showed  that  recent  cases  of  the  disease  could  be 
cured  by  the  internal  administration  of  potas- 
sium iodide.  In  treating  actinomycosis  in  cattle 
the  ordinary  practice  is  to  give  daily  doses  of 
eight  to  twelve  grams  of  potassium  iodide  for 
wedclT  periods,  alternating  with  shorter  periods, 
in  order  that  the  animals  may  recover  from  the 
nmptoms  of  iodism.  Actinomycosis  follows  a 
slow  chronic  course  of  development. 

Hie  relationship  of  the  disease  to  the  public 
health  has  been  much  discussed.    Apparently 


91 


ACnOH. 


infection  most  frequently  takes  place  in  man 
and  cattle  through  diseased  teeth  or  abrasions 
of  the  mucous  membrane  of  the  mouth.  The 
identity  of  actinomycosis  in  man  and  cattle  is 
admitted  by  nearly  all  investigators,  but  most 
authorities  hold  that  its  direct  transmission 
to  man  through  eating  the  meat  of  affected 
animals  is  of  rare  occurrence.  Whether  an  ani- 
mal affected  with  actinomycosis  should  be  used 
for  human  food  is  a  question  the  answer  to  which 
depends  upon  a  variety  of  circumstajices.  It 
may,  however,  be  safely  asserted  that  animals 
in  which  the  disease  has  become  generalized 
should  be  condemned.  For  details  concerning 
actinomycosis  consult  D.  E.  Salmon,  "Investiga- 
tions Relating  to  the  Treatment  of  Lumpy  Jaw, 
or  Actinomvcosis,  in  Cattle,"  V.  8.  Department 
of  Agriculture,  Bureau  of  Animal  Industry, 
Bulletin  2  (Washington,  1893);  D.  E.  Salmon 
and  others,  "Special  Report  on  Diseases  of 
Cattle  and  on  Cattle  Feeding,"  Report  of  V.  S. 
Department  of  Agriculture  for  1892,  Bureau  of 
Animal  Industry  (Washington,  1892)  ;  **Tumeurs 
des  mftchoires  observ^es  dans  I'esp^  bovine," 
Journal  de  Midecine  VitMnaire  (Paris,  1826). 

ACTINOZCXA.     Same  as  Anthozoa    (q.v.). 

AC^nON  (Lat.  actio,  a  doing,  performing, 
an  action,  suit,  process).  A  term  which,  in  its 
broadest  sense,  includes  every  lawful  proceeding 
in  a  court  of  justice  for  the  enforcement  or 
protection  of  a  right,  the  redress  or  prevention 
of  a  wrong,  or  the  punishment  of  a  public 
offense.  Formerly  the  term  was  confined,  in 
English  law,  to  an  ordinary  proceeding  in  a 
common  law  court,  while  the  word  suit  was 
applied  to  a  proceeding  in  equity.  By  the 
reformed  procedure  in  many  of  our  States,  all 
distinction  between  actions  at  common  law  and 
suits  in  equity,  as  well  as  between  the  different 
forms  of  common  law  actions,  have  been  abol- 
ished, and  only  a  single  civil  action  is  recog- 
nized. If  the  prosecution  is  not  instituted  and 
carried  on  by  one  party  against  another,  it  is 
denominated  by  some  statutes  a  special  proceed' 
ing  (q.v.).  Tlie  earliest  classification  of  com- 
mon law  actions  was :  ( 1 )  real  actions,  or  those 
based  on  the  plaintiff's  right  of  property  in 
specified  lands,  so  called  because  the  res,  or  prop- 
erty itself,  was  sought  to  be  recovered;  (2) 
mixed  actions,  such  as  those  for  partition  of 
lands,  for  ejectment  or  for  waste;  (3)  personal 
artions,  or  those  against  a  particular  person 
for  a  money  judgment.  The  distinction  between 
real  and  personal  actions  is  the  foundation  of 
the  classification  of  property  as  real  and  per- 
sonal. (See  Pbopkrtt.)  This  third  class  was 
subdivided  into  actions  ea  contractu,  such  as 
debt  (q.v.)  and  covenant  (q.v.),  and  actions 
ew  delicto,  such  as  trespass  (c[.v.)  and  detinue 
(q.v.).  Again,  actions  are  divided  into  local 
and  transitory,  according  as  they  must  be 
brought  in  a  certain  coun^  or  state,  or  as  they 
may  be  brought  wherever  the  defendant  is  found. 
An  action  for  trespass  to  land  is  local,  and  it 
must  be  brought  in  the  State  where  the  land  is 
situated;  while  an  action  for  slander  of  title 
(<j.v.)  to  that  land  is  transitory.  (See  the  author- 
ities referred  to  under  the  various  titles  above 
named.)  The  action  of  account  at  common  law  was 
used  much  earlier  than,  and  is  distinct  from,  the 
action  upon  an  account  stated,  which  came  into 
the  law  as  a  common  count  (q.v.).  The  action 
of  account  would  lie  at  common  law,  and  bv  early 
English  statute  against  one  acting  in  a  fiduciary 


ACTION. 


92 


ACnOH. 


capacity  other  than  a  trustee,  or  against  one 
whose  duty  it  was  to  render  an  account  to  the 
plaintiff,  to  compel  the  defendant  to  render  an 
account  and  to  pay  the  amount  duo  on  such 
accounting. 

ACTION.  In  psychology,  a  term  used 
broadly  to  cover  all  forms  of  muscular  move- 
ment. We  speak,  e.g.,  of  the  action  of  the 
heart,  or  reflex  action,  etc.,  as  well  as  of  impul- 
sive or  voluntary  action.  There  is,  however,  a 
growing  tendency  to  reserve  the  word  action 
for  such  bodily  movements  as  have  conscious 
antecedents  and  concomitants  (movements  for 
which  there  are  conscious  motives,  and  of  which 
we  are  conscious,  as  they  run  their  course  in 
time),  and  to  employ  the  general  term  "move- 
ment'' for  movements  which  are  of  an  uncon- 
scious, purely  physiological,  character.  We 
shall  therefore  speak  in  this  article  of  impulsive 
and  voluntary  action,  but  of  reflex  movement. 

The  problem  which  action  sets  to  psychology 
is  twofold.  We  have,  in  the  first  place,  to  trace 
the  genesis  and  development  of  action;  and  in 
the  second  to  analyze  the  active  consciousness, 
to  determine  the  constituent  processes  in  the 
various  forms  of  motive. 

1.  There  are  two  opposed  theories  of  the  gen- 
esis of  action.  The  first  asserts  that  all  conscious 
actions  have  developed  from  reflex  movements. 
The  reflex  movement  is  the  direct  and  definite 
response  of  the  organism  to  a  particular  stim- 
ulus. A  frog  whose  brain  and  medulla  have 
been  removed  will  draw  up  its  leg  if  the  foot 
be  pinched ;  the  pupil  of  the  human  eye  contracts 
unaer  the  influence  of  light,  and  expands  again 
as  the  light  is  diminished.  Mechanical  and 
unconscious  movements  of  this  kind  are,  the 
theory  holds,  older  than  consciousness.  When 
mind  appears,  it  finds  such  movements  ready  to 
its  hand;  it  avails  itself  of  them  for  conscious 
purposes.  So  the  animal's  movements,  at  first 
automatic  and  simple,  grow  more  and  more  com- 
plex, and  have  more  and  more  of  the  element 
of  consciousness  imported  into  them.  The  main 
arguments  for  the  position  are  as  follows,  (a) 
Spontaneous  movements  are  to  be  observed  in 
children  and  young  animals:  movements  that 
are  neither  refiex  movements  nor  voluntary 
actions,  but  random  discharges  of  the  excess  of 
energy  stored  in  the  healthy  organism.  These 
movements  furnish  a  varied  supply  of  active 
experience,  certain  items  of  which  must,  by  the 
law  of  chance,  prove  to  be  positively  pleasur- 
able, while  others  will  at  least  be  less  unpleasant 
than  the  experiences  preceding  them.  When- 
ever active  experience  and  pleasure  are  thus  coin- 
cident, attention  is  drawn  to  the  movement, 
which  is  elaborated  into  voluntary  action,  (b) 
From  the  physiological  point  of  view,  the  move- 
ments of  the  lowest  organisms,  as  well  as  the 
movements  carried  out  by  means  of  the  lower 
nerve-centres  of  higher  organisms,  are  of  the 
reflex  type.  And  even  the  most  complex  of 
voluntary  actions  can  be  assimilated  to  this  type 
on  the  neural  side;  for  the  physical  correlate 
of  such  action  is  simply  the  reflex  arc,  with  its 
central  portion  made  longer  and  more  circuit- 
ous. 

Neither  of  these  arguments  is,  however,  free 
from  objections.  In  the  flrst  place,  different 
observers  differ  as  to  the  range  and  scope  of 
the  spontaneous  movements  of  infancy.  Some 
restrict  them  within  very  narrow  limits,  where 
the  play  of  chance  coincidence  would  be  incon- 


siderable; others  assert  that  they  can,  one  and 
all,  be  reduced  to  incipient  voluntary  actions 
and  imperfect  hereditary  reflexes.  Moreover, 
the  theory  presupposes  that  the  sensations  and 
perceptions  aroused  by  moving  appear,  in  point 
of  time,  before  the  pleasure  achieved  by  the 
movement  or  the  voluntary  impulse  toward  it. 
But  this  means  that  mind  is  built  up  piecemeal, 
whereas  there  is  reason  to  think  that  con- 
sciousness is  a  single  tissue,  every  strand  of 
which  is  given  with  every  other.  Again,  it  is 
diflicult  to  understand  the  mechanism  by  which 
pleasurable  movements  are  selected.  Granted 
that  a  movement  chances  to  bring  pleasure, 
how  is  its  repetition  brought  about?  Can  we 
form  any  clear  idea  of  the  way  in  which  a 
motive  is  prefixed  to  the  sensation  series?  As 
for  the  second  argument,  it  is  asserted  aa 
evident  that  the  simplest  form  of  sensory-motor 
coordination  need  not  be  the  earliest.  There  is 
a  primitive  simplicity;  but  there  is  also  a  sim- 
plicity of  reduction  and  refinement.  Again,  the 
statement  that  the  movements  of  the  lowest 
organisms  are  refiex  in  character  is  said  to  beg 
the  question:  the  original  theory  assumes  out- 
right that  there  is  a  strict  parallel  between  the 
growth  of  the  race  and  the  growth  of  the  indi- 
vidual, between  phylogeny  and  ontogeny,  and 
does  not  take  into  account  the  fact  that  the 
individual  comes  into  the  world  endowed  with 
a^  rich  inheritance  of  neuro-muscular  coordina- 
tions. And,  lastly,  even  if  the  neural  substrate 
of  voluntary  action  be  in  structure  no  more 
than  a  highly  complex  reflex  arc,  still  the  oppo- 
nents of  the  theoiy  point  out  functional  differ- 
ences: the  reflex  is  unconscious,  while  the  func- 
tioning of  the  central  cells  of  the  voluntary  arc 
is  accompanied  by  consciousness.  So  we  come 
face  to  face  once  more  with  our  original  problem. 
The  alternative  theory,  which  we  may  now 
examine,  affirms  that  the  earliest  organic  move* 
ments  are,  in  principle,  voluntary  actions. 
Mind,  according  to  this  theory,  is  as  old  as  life, 
and  the  first  movements  of  living  matter  are 
impulsive  actions,  i.e.,  actions  prompted  by  a 
single  determining  motive.  The  arguments 
which  this  position  brings  into  the  field  are  as 
follows,  (a)  All  reflex  and  instinctive  move- 
ments show  signs  of  adaptation;  they  subserve 
a  particular  end  or  purpose;  they  are  deQ^ite 
and  appropriate  responses  to  certain  circum- 
stances of  the  animal's  environment.  Now,  in 
the  first  place,  primitive  movements  should  be 
vague  and  purposeless ;  it  is  not  easy  to  conceive 
of  a  movement  that  should  be  at  once  rudiment- 
ary and  economical.  And,  in  the  second  place, 
our  best  criterion  of  the  presence  of  mind  in  a 
living  creature  is  the  creature's  capacity  of 
adaptation,  of  learning.  The  reflex,  pointing  as 
it  does  to  a  process  of  adaptation  in  the  past, 
points  also  to  the  existence  of  a  past  mind.  In 
a  word,  reflex  movements  appear  to  be  degen- 
erate, mechanized  impulsive  actions.  (6)  There 
can  be  no  doubt  that  such  mechanization  is 
possible.  We  are  constantly  in  the  course  of 
our  everyday  life  reducing  voluntary  actions  to 
"secondary  reflexes":  our  pen  dips  itself  in  the 
accustomed  inkstand,  our  coat  buttons  itself, 
our  bicycle  balances  itself,  without  any  of  the 
conscious  attention  that  we  gave  them  when  the 
movements  were  new.  Further,  what  we  see 
happening  here  in  the  course  of  a  few  days  or 
weeks  has  happened  also  in  the  life  of  the  race. 
We  wince  when  we  are  ashamed,  and  jump  when 


AOTXOH. 

we  are  startled;  and  the  jump  and  wince  are 
inexplicable  unless  they  are  the  degenerate 
descendants  of  voluntary  actions,  the  last  reflex 
remnants  of  the  cowering  and  shrinking  and 
leaping  aside  of  the  frightened  animal. 

The  only  point  of  fact  which  this  second  point 
of  view  leaves  unexplained  is  the  mode  of  origin 
of  the  first  impulse.  How  and  under  what  condi- 
tions the  primeval  organism  became  conscious 
of  the  impulse  to  move,  and  organic  movement 
appeared  in  the  natural  world,  we  cannot  say. 
But  neither  is  psychology  called  upon  to  say. 
No  science  explains  its  own  data;  it  takes  them 
for  granted.  As,  therefore,  the  physicist  as- 
sumes the  mechanical  universe,  and  the  biolo- 
gist the  phenomena  of  life,  so  may  the  psychol- 
ofrist  assume  without  cavil  the  existence  of  mind. 
Granted  the  starting-point,  and  the  rest  follows 
easily  enough.  The  first  organic  movement  is 
an  "action  upon  presentation,"  an  action  whose 
motive  (the  impulse)  is  given  with  the  presen- 
tation to  the  animal  of  a  pleasantly  or  unpleas- 
antly toned  stimulus.  Out  of  this  grows  impul- 
sive action  proper,  an  action  whose  motive  is 
blended  of  three  ideas:  that  of  the  stimulus, 
the  original  motive-idea;  that  of  the  result  of 
movement,  of  pleasurable  accomplishment;  and 
that  of  the  moving  itself,  the  "active  experience" 
of  the  first  theory.  The  course  of  development 
beyond  impulsive  action  takes  two  directions. 
Upward,  toward  greater  mentality,  it  rises  to  the 
more  complex  forms  of  voluntary  action:  to 
selective  action,  in  which  there  is  a  conflict  of 
impulses,  a  period  of  deliberation,  resulting  in 
the  victory  of  some  one  (the  actual)  motive 
over  other  less  strong  (potential)  motives;  and 
to  volitional  action,  in  which  the  conflict  is  not 
between  impulse  and  impulse,  but  between  an 
impulse  to  movement  on  the  one  hand  and  a 
group  of  ideas  prompting  to  no-action  on  the 
other.  Downward,  toward  less  mentality,  the 
impulsive  action  degenerates  into  the  reflex 
movement.  Selective  and  volitional  action,  as 
we  have  seen,  may  also  degenerate;  choice  and 
resolve  become  automatic;  the  complex  action 
slips  back,  first  of  all  into  an  impulsive  act, 
and  finally  into  a  secondary  reflex.  Note  the 
light  which  this  view  of  the  development  of 
action  throws  upon  the  problems  of  animal 
psychology  (q.v.).  Bethe  thinks  that  ants  and 
bees  are  automata,  while  popular  psychology 
dowers  them  with  all  sorts  of  conscious  motives 
and  purposes.  Now,  ants  and  bees  prove,  on 
trial,  to  be  unintelligent;  they  cannot  learn  to 
make  new  adaptations.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
adaptations  which  they  have  already  learned 
are  of  an  extremely  complicated  character.  It 
has  been  assumed,  therefore,  by  certain  author- 
ities that  these  creatures  represent  the  flnal 
stage  in  a  retrogressive  development  from  a 
fairly  high  level  of  mentality.  According  to 
this  theory  popular  psychology  is  right,  in  that 
ants  and  bees  once  possessed  a  good  deal  of 
mind;  it  is  wrong  in  interpreting  their  present 
movements  as  voluntary  actions.  If  it  be  object- 
ed that  the  unicellular  organisms,  the  most 
primitive  forms  of  life*  should  (on  the  present 
theory)  show  signs  of  rudimentary  impulsive 
action,  and  that  Jennings's  paramecia  proved,  on 
the  contrary,  to  be  as  automatic  as  Bethe's  ants, 
the  reply  is  that  these  protozoa,  simple  as  they 
are,  have  as  long  a  line  of  ancestry  as  we  have 
ourselves;  and  that  the  less  mind  there  is  to 
■tart  with  the  less  will  be  the  fall  from  impulse 


93  ACTION. 

to  the  reflex.  It  is  asserted  strongly  by  the 
supporters  of  this  hypothesis  that  if  a  sound 
view  of  mental  evolution  is  to  be  attained,  the 
investi^tor  must  accept  the  proposition  that 
all  animals  have  had  mind.  Whether  or  not 
they  have  it  now  depends  upon  the  direction 
which  their  development  has  taken  —  upward, 
toward  physiological  adaptability  and  elabora- 
tion of  mental  process,  or  downward,  toward 
specific  adaptation  and  the  lapse  of  conscious- 
ness. 

2.  We  have  already  said  something  by  way  of 
analysis  of  the  "typical"  motive  to  action,  the 
impulse.  On  its  intellectual  side,  this  motive, 
in  complete  form,  contains  the  three  ideas  (1) 
of  the  object  which  evokes  the  movement,  (2) 
of  the  movement  itself,  and  (3)  of  the  result 
which  the  movement  accomplishes.  The  affect- 
ive accompaniment  of  this  group  of  ideas 
may  be  pleasurable  or  unpleasurable,  but  must 
always  be  the  one  or  the  other;  we  may  jump 
for  joy  or  from  fright,  but  we  do  not  jump 
when  our  mood  is  that  of  indifference.  The 
essential  thing  in  the  active  consciousness,  how- 
ever, is  an  apperception  of  (attention  to)  some 
one  of  the  ideas  contained  in  the  motive.  (See 
Apperception;  Attention.)  (a)  In  the  case  of 
primitive  action  (action  upon  presentation)  we 
must  suppose  that  the  idea  of  object  is  the  idea 
that  stands  in  the  focus  of  attention ;  the  impul- 
sive action  is  indistinguishable  from  the  move- 
ment that  expresses  emotion.  (See  Expbbssion; 
ExFBEssiVE  Movements.)  "The  universal  ani- 
mal impulses — ^the  impulses  of  nutrition,  of  re- 
venge, of  sex,  of  protection,  etc. — are  indubitably 
the  earliest  forms  of  emotion."  (Wundt.)  The 
hungry  animal  perceives  food:  its  attention  is 
held  by  this  perception;  it  is  pleasurably  moved 
by  the  perception;  and  bodily  movement  toward 
the  food-supply  results,  (b)  As  the  organism 
grows  in  experience  of  movement,  the  impulse 
becomes  more  complex,  and  the  focus  of  atten- 
tion shifts  to  the  idea  of  our  own  movement 
(action  upon  representation)  ;  so  that  we  may 
lay  it  down  as  a  law  of  analytical  psychol- 
ogy that  the  condition  of  voluntary  action  is 
an  apperception  of  the  movement-idea.  We 
think  of  ourselves  as  moving,  and  find  that  we 
have  moved,  (c)  At  a  still  later  stage,  when 
the  voluntary  action  is  taking  the  downward 
path  toward  the  secondary  reflex,  the  idea  of 
movement  fuses  with  the  idea  of  result  into  an 
indissoluble  whole.  It  is  now  the  idea  of  result 
that  holds  the  attention.  We  feel  a  draught, 
and  rise  at  once  to  close  the  window,  thinking 
neither  of  the  object  of  movement,  the  window, 
nor  of  the  muscular  movements  that  take  us 
to  it,  but  simply  of  the  result  of  the  action, 
the  avoidance  of  a  cold.  So  the  emphasis  shifts 
from  term  to  term  of  the  threefold  complex; 
from  idea  of  object  to  idea  of  movement,  and 
from  that  again  to  idea  of  result.  But  the 
motive  remains  in  principle  the  same  thing:  an 
affectively  toned  group  of  sense-material,  given 
in  the  state  of  attention. 

The  conscious  antecedents  of  the  higher  forms 
of  voluntary  action  are  naturally  more  compli- 
cated. In  place  of  the  triad  of  simple  ideas  we 
have,  in  the  conflict  of  impulses  that  precedes 
volitional  and  selective  action,  elaborate  systems 
or  constellations  of  ideas,  representations  of  the 
total  "situation"  in  which  we  find  ourselves.  In 
place  of  the  simple  pleasantness  or  unpleasant- 
ness of  the  impulse,  we  have  equally  elaborate 


AOTXOK. 


94 


ACT  OF  BABIJAKENT. 


affectiye  formations— emotions  and  sentiments; 
the  feelings  of  obscurity,  of  contradiction,  of 
resolve,  of  decision ;  the  characteristic  oscillatory 
emotion  of  doubt;  the  emotions  of  relief,  of 
satisfaction  or  dissatisfaction,  of  hope,  of  disap- 
pointment; the  sentiments  of  power,  of  pride,  of 
Aesthetic  fitness,  of  moral  rigntness.  (See  Emo- 
tion.) And  in  place  of  the  passive  attention 
which  the  single  impulse-motive  commands,  we 
have  an  active^  effortful  attention  divided  among 
the  various  potential  motives  contained  in  the 
"situation."  It  is  the  business  of  descriptive 
psychology  to  unravel  the  processes  of  these 
motive-consciousnesses,  and  to  trace  the  single 
pattern  (the  impulse  pattern)  that  runs  through 
them  all.  It  is  the  business  of  experimen&l 
psychology  to  examine  the  impulse  under  stand- 
ard conditions;  to  build  it  up  from  the  given 
elements,  and  to  construct  artificial  selective 
and  volitional  actions  from  a  number  of  simple 
impulses.  This  task  it  accomplishes  by  aid  of 
the  reaction  experiment.  0)nsult:  A.  Bain,  The 
Emotions  and  the  Will  (London,  1880)  ;  H. 
Spencer,  Principles  of  Psychology  (New  York, 
1881) ;  W.  Wundt,  Vorlesungen  iiher  die  Men- 
schen-  und  Tierseele  (3d  ed.,  lb.,  1897;  trans,  as 
Human  and  Animal  Psychology,  London,  1896) ; 
id.,  OrundzUge  der  physiologischen  Psychologie 
.(6th  ed.,  Leipzig,  1902). 

ACKTIUm,  fik'shl-tim,  now  Akbi.  A  town  and 
promontory  on  the  west  coast  of  Greece  at  the 
entrance  of  the  Ambracian  Gulf,  now  the  Gulf  of 
Arta.  It  is  memorable  for  the  sea  fight  which 
took  place  near  it  September  2d,  31  B.C.,  between 
Octavius  (afterward  the  Emperor  Augustus)  and 
Marcus  Antonius.  These  two  had  for  some  time 
ruled  the  Roman  world  jointly,  the  former  in  the 
west,  the  latter  in  the  east.  It  now  came  to  a 
struggle  for  the  sole  soverei^ty.  The  two  armies 
were  encamped  on  the  opposite  shores  of  the  gulf. 
Octavius  had  80,000  infantry,  12,000  cavalry, 
and  260  ships  of  war;  Antony,  100,000  infantry, 
12,000  cavalry,  and  220  ships.  Antonyms  ships 
were  large  and  well  provided  with  engines  for 
throwing  missiles,  but  clumsy  in  their  move- 
ments; Octavius's  were  smaller  and  more  agile. 
Antony  was  supported  by  Cleopatra,  Queen  of 
Egypt,  with  sixty  vessels,  who  induced  him, 
against  the  opinion  of  his  most  experienced  gen- 
erals, to  determine  upon  a  naval  engagement. 
The  battle  continued  for  some  hours  undecided; 
at  last  Agrippa,  who  commanded  Octavius's  fieet, 
succeeded  by  a  skillful  manoeuvre  in  compelling 
Antony  to  extend  his  line  of  battle,  the  compact- 
ness of  which  had  hitherto  resisted  all  attempts 
of  the  enemy  to  break  through.  Cleopatra,  whose 
ships  .were  stationed  behind  Antony's  line,  ap- 

Srehensive  of  that  line's  being  broken,  took  to 
ight  with  her  auxiliary  fleet,  and  Antony  reck- 
lessly followed  her  with  a  few  of  his  ships.  The 
deserted  fleet  continued  to  resist  bravely  for 
some  time,  but  was  finally  vanquished;  the  land 
army,  after  waiting  in  vain  seven  days  for  An- 
tony's return,  surrendered  to  Octavius.  As  a 
memorial  of  the  victory  that  had  given  him  the 
empire  of  the  world,  and  out  of  gratitude  to  the 
gods,  Octavius  enlarged  the  temple  of  Apollo 
at  Actium,  dedicated  the  trophies  tie  had  taken, 
and  instituted  games  (Ludi  Actiaci)  to  be  cele- 
brated every  five  years.  He  also  built  on  the 
spot  where  his  army  had  been  encamped  the 
town  of  Nicopolis  (city  of  victory),  near  where 
Prevesa  now  stands.  The  battle  of  Actium  is  de- 
scribed in  Greek  by  Plutarch  (Life  of  Antony) 


and  by  Dion  Cassius  (bk.  L).    See  Antonius. 
Mabous;  Augustus;  Cleopatra. 

ACT  OF  FAITH.    See  Auto-da-f£. 

ACT  OF  PABLIAMENT,  pftrai-mfot.  A  res- 
olution or  law  passed  by  all  the  three  branches 
of  the  English  legislature,  the  king  (or  queen), 
lords,  and  commons;  or,  as  it  is  formally  ex- 
pressed, "by  the  King's  Majesty,  by  and  with  the 
advice  and  consent  of  the  Lords  Spiritual  and 
Temporal,  and  Commons,  in  Parliament  assem- 
bled, and  by  the  authority  of  the  same."  An 
act  of  parliament  thus  made  is  the  highest  le- 
gal aulJiority  acknowledged  by  the  constitution. 
It  binds  every  subject,  and,  with  a  few  excep- 
tions, every  alien  in  the  land,  and  even  the  sov- 
ereign himself,  if  named  therein.  And  in  England 
it  cannot  be  altered,  amended,  dispensed  with, 
suspended,  or  repealed  but  in  the  same  forms 
and  by  the  same  authority  of  parliament.  In 
Scotland,  however,  a  long  course  of  contrary 
usage  or  of  disuse  may  have  the  effect  of  depriv- 
ing a  statute  of  its  obligation ;  for  by  the  Scotch 
law  a  statute  may  become  obsolete  by  disuse 
and  cease  to  be  legally  binding.  It  was  formerly 
held  in  England  that  the  King  might  in  many 
cases  dispense  with  statutes,  especially  such  as 
were  of  a  penal  character;  but  by  the  statute 
1  W.  and  M.,  st.  2,  c.  2,  it  is  declared  that  the 
suspending  or  dispensing  with  laws  by  royal  au- 
thority without  consent  of  parliament  is  illegaL 

An  act  of  parliament  is  either  public  or  private. 
A  public  act  regards  the  whole  empire  or  one  of 
its  main  subdivisions,  in  which  case  it  is  gen^ 
eral;  or  a  subordinate  part,  in  which  case  it  is 
local;  but  the  operation  of  a  private  act  is  con- 
fined to  particular  persons  and  private  concerns. 
As  the  law  till  lately  stood,  the  courts  of  law 
were  bound  ea  officio  to  take  judicial  notice,  as 
it  is  called,  of  public  acts — ^that  is,  to  recognize 
these  acts  as  known  and  published  law,  without 
the  necessity  of  their  being  specially  pleaded  and 
proved;  but  it  was  otherwise  in  regard  to  pri- 
vate acts,  so  that  in  order  to  claim  any  advan- 
tage under  a  private  act  it  was  necessary  to 
plead  it  and  set  it  forth  particularly.  But  now, 
by  the  13  and  14  Vict.  c.  21,  s.  7,  every  act  of 
parliament  is  to  be  taken  to  be  a  public  one,  and 
ludicially  noticed  as  such  unless  the  contrary 
be  expressly  declared. 

An  act  of  parliament  begins  to  operate  from 
the  time  when  it  receives  the  royal  assent,  un- 
less some  other  time  be  fixed  for  the  purpose  by 
the  act  itself.  The  rule  on  this  subject  m  Eng- 
land was  formerly  different,  for  at  common  law 
every  act  of  parliament  which  had  no  provision 
to  the  contrary  was  considered  as  soon  as  it 
passed  (i.e.,  received  the  royal  assent)  as  hav- 
ing been  in  force  retrospectively  from  the  first 
day  of  the  session  of  parliament  in  which  it 
passed,  though  in  fact  it  might  not  have  re- 
ceived the  royal  assent,  or  even  been  introduced 
into  parliament,  until  long  after  that  day;  and 
this  strange  principle  was  rigidly  observed  for 
centuries.  The  ancient  acts  of  the  Scotch  par- 
liament were  proclaimed  in  all  the  county  towns, 
burghs,  and  even  in  the  baron  courts.  This 
mode  of  promulgation  was,  however,  gradually 
dropped  as  the  use  of  printing  became  common, 
and  in  1581  an  act  was  pass^  declaring  publi- 
cation at  the  Market  Cross  of  Edinbur^  to  be 
sufficient.  British  statutes  require  no  formal 
promulgation,  and  in  order  to  fix  the  time  from 
which  they  shall  become  binding  it  was  enacted 


ACT  OF  PABUAXEHT. 

by  33  Geo.  III.,  c.  13,  that  every  act  of  par- 
liament to  be  passed  after  April  8,  1793,  snail 
commenoe  from  the  date  of  the  indorsement  by 
the  clerk  of  parliament  stating  the  day,  month, 
and  year  when  the  act  was  passed  and  received 
the  royal  assent,  unless  the  commencement  shall 
in  the  act  itself  be  otherwise  provided  for. 

Acts  of  parliament  are  referred  to  by  the  year 
of  the  sovereign's  reign,  and  the  chapter  of  the 
statutes  for  that  year.  They  were  first  printed 
in  the  reign  of  Richard  III.,  originally  in  Latin, 
but  since  the  fourth  year  of  Henry  VII.  in  Eng- 
lish. The  collective  body  of  such  acts  constituSo 
the  Statutes  of  the  Realm.  See  Statxtte:  Pab- 
LIAVENT,  and  the  authorities  there  referrea  to. 

ACT  OF  SET^TLEMEKT.  The  second  chap- 
ter of  Statute  12  and  13,  William  III.  of  Great 
Britain  ( 1701 ) ,  which  provided  that  the  crown,  in 
default  of  issue  to  Anne  Stuart,  William's  pre- 
sumptive successor,  should  descend  to  the  House 
of  Hanover,  and  which  excluded  Roman  Catholics 
from  the  throne.  See  Elizabkth  Stuabt  (Queen 
of  Bohemia). 

ACT  OF  TT'ZTIFOE'UITY.  The  English  stat- 
ute of  13  and  14  Car.  II.,  c.  4,  1662,  which  pro- 
vides that  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer,  as  then 
recently  revised,  should  be  used  in  every  parish 
church  and  other  place  of  public  worship  in  Eng- 
land, and  that  every  school-master  and  person 
instructing  youth  should  subscribe  a  declaration 
of  conformity  to  the  liturgy,  and  also  to  the  ef- 
fect of  the  oath  and  declaration  mentioned  in 
the  act  of  13  Car.  II.,  st.  2,  c.  1.  It  further  en- 
acted that  no  person  should  thenceforth  be  cap- 
able of  holding  any  ecclesiastical  promotion  or 
dignity,  or  of  consecrating  or  administering  the 
sacrament,  till  he  should  be  ordained  priest  ac- 
cording to  Episcopal  ordination,  and  with  respect 
to  all  ministers  who  tiien  enjoyed  any  ecclesi- 
astical benefice  it  directed  that^they  should, 
within  a  certain  period,  openly  read  morning 
and  evening  service  according  to  the  Book  of 
Common  Prayer,  and  declare  before  the  congre- 
gation their  unfeigned  assent  and  consent  to  the 
use  of  all  things  therein  contained,  upon  the  pain 
of  being  deprived  of  their  spiritual  promotions. 
Two  thousand  of  the  clergy  who  refused  to  com- 
ply were  deprived  of  their  preferments.  Acts  to 
secure  uniformity  were  passed  under  Edward  VI. 
(1549)  and  Elizabeth  (1559). 

AGTONy  iik^ton.  A  suburb  of  London,  Eng- 
land. Durinff  the  Civil  Wars  it  was  one  of  the 
strongholds  of  Puritanism,  and  has  been  at  vari- 
ous times  the  place  of  residence  of  many  famous 
personages,  such  as  the  great  jurist  Sir  Matthew 
Hale,  the  novelist  Henry  Fielding,  and  the  ac- 
tress Mrs.  Barry.  Pop.,  1801,  24,200;  1901, 
37,700. 

ACTOVy  JoHir  EiCEBiCH  Edward  Dalbebq, 
first  baron  (1834-1902).  An  English  historian, 
bom  at  Naples.  He  studied  under  Dr.  (after- 
ward Cardinal)  Wiseman  at  St.  Mary's  Oscott, 
but  received  his  education  chiefly  from  Dr.  D5l- 
linger,  whose  "Old  Catholic*'  views  he  adopted, 
and  zealously  opposed  the  dogma  of  papal  infal- 
libility. He  was  regarded  as  the  leader  of  the 
''Liberal  Roman  Catholics"  in  England.  As  Sir 
John  Acton,  he  was  a  member  of  Parliament 
for  Carlow  (1859-65).  In  1869  he  was  raised 
to  the  peerage.  He  edited  and  contributed 
articles  to  magazines,  and  won  a  high  reputation 
both  for  learning  and  for  vigor  of  expression. 
He  received  the  degrees  of  LL.D.  and  D.C.L., 


95 


ACTS  OF  THB  APOSTLB& 


and  in  1895  he  was  appointed  regius  professor  of 
modern  history  at  Cambridge.  His  inaugural 
address  was  published  under  the  title.  Lecture 
on  the  Study  of  History  (1895). 

ACTON,  Sib  John  FbANCis  Edwabd  (1737- 
1811).  Prime  minister  of  Naples  under  Ferdi- 
nand IV.  He  was  born  at  Besangon,  France,  the 
son  of  an  English  physician.  He  served  in  the 
Tuscan  navy,  commanding  a  frigate  in  the  expe- 
dition against  Algiers  in  1775.  He  showed  such 
ability  that  he  was  invited  to  reorganize  the 
Neapolitan  navy,  and  soon  became  conunander- 
in-chief  of  the  sea  and  land  forces,  then  minister 
of  finance,  and  finally  prime  minister.  His 
measures  were  intolerant^  and  ultimatelv  caused 
a  reaction  against  the  roval  family  of  Naples 
and  in  favor  of  the  French  party  and  the  Car- 
bonari. When  the  French  entered  Naples  in 
1806  he  fled  to  Sicily,  where  he  died. 

ACTON,  Thomas  Coxon  (1823-98).  An 
American  financier  and  administrator.  He  was 
bom  in  New  York  City,  and  served  as  assistant 
deputy  county  clerk  (1850-53)  and  as  deputy 
register.  He  was  a  police  commissioner  of  the 
New  York  metropolitan  police  in  1860-69,  and 
during  the  last  seven  years  was  president  of  tibe 
board.  His  most  valuable  service  while  in  that 
ofiice  was  during  the  draft  riots  in  1863,  when 
for  a  week  he  personally  commanded  the  entire 
police  force  of  tne  city. 

ACTS,  Spurious  or  Afocbtfhal.  See  Afoo- 
BTPHA,  section  on  New  Testament, 

ACTS  OF  HOSTH/ITY.  Acts  which  may  in- 
volve nations  in  war.  The  tremendous  cost  of 
modem  war,  both  in  blood  and  treasure,  is  now 
so  keenly  felt  that  war  is  rarely  resorted  to  ex- 
cept as  the  court  of  last  resort.  The  growing 
and  widespread  demand  for  universal  arbitra- 
tion is  also  tending  to  limit  the  causes  which 
may  produce  war,  and  the  strength  of  this  ten- 
dency was  evidenced  by  the  call  of  the  Czar  of 
Russia  for  an  international  conference,  which 
was  held  in  1899,  and  is  known  in  history  as 
the  Hague  Peace  Conference.  Acts  of  hostility 
may  be  of  a  diplomatic,  commercial,  civil,  or 
military  character.  The  angry  nature  of  the 
French  ambassador's  (Count  Benedetti,  q.v.) 
interview  with  the  King  of  Prussia  at  Ems  in 
1870  is  an  example  of  a  hostile  diplomatic  act. 
The  French  embargo  on  British  ships  after  the 
peace  of  Amiens  (q.v.)  is  an  example  of  tJie  com- 
mercial phase ;  the  firing  at  an  armed  vessel  of  a 
friendly  nation,  or  the  invasion  of  territory,  is 
a  military  example;  and  the  detention  of  non- 
belligerents,  citizens  of  a  friendly  nation,  as  in 
the  case  of  France  and  England  (1803)»,  is  an 
example  of  a  civil  act  of  hostility. 

ACTS  OF  PIOLA.TE.    See  Apogbtpha. 

ACTS  OF  THE  APOS'TLES  (Gk.  Tlpd^eif 
rov  'AfToor^Ativ,  Prtnoeis  tdn  ApostolOn),  The 
fifth  book  of  the  New  Testament,  the  composition 
of  which  is  ascribed  by  tradition  and  by  the 
general  consent  of  critics  to  the  same  author  as 
that  of  the  Third  Gospel,  to  which  book  it  forms 
a  sequel.  As  the  Gospel  was  written  after  the 
destruction  of  Jerusalem  (70  a.d.),  the  date  of 
Acts  is  still  later,  beine  not  before  76  A.D.,  and 
not  after  95  A.D.,  most  likely  about  80  a.d.  Its 
place  of  composition  is  not  possible  to  determine. 
Its  purpose  is  apparent  from  the  plan  on  which 
its  material  is  selected  and  arranged,  when  com- 
pared with  the  declared  purpose  and  evident 


A0T8  OF  THS  APOSTLES.               96  AGUFUNCTITBE. 

plan  of  its  antecedent  book.     (See  Lttee,  Gospel  (Leipzig,     1860);     Ewald,     Die     drei     ersten 

OF.)     It  is  to  place  before  Theophilus,  who  was  Evangelien  und  die  Apoatelgeachickte    (G5ttin- 

either  a  convert  from  paganism,  or,   if  yet  a  gen,   1872)  ;   F.   C.   Cook,  in  Bible   [Speaker's] 

pagan,  well  on  the  way  toward  an  acceptance  of  Commentary    (New    York,    1881) ;    F.    Ndsgen 

Christianity    (see    Theophilus),    the    develop-  (Leipzig,    1882);    0.    Ziickler,    in    Strack    and 

ment  of  the  religion  of  Jesus  from  its  old  life  Z5ckler,    Kommentar    (Munich,    1894)  ;    H.    J. 

in  Judaism  to  its  new  life  in  Gentilism  as  provi-  Holtzmann,  in  HandrKommentar  zum  Weuen  Tea- 

dentially  directed  and  so  originally  intended  by  tament   (Freiburg,  1892)  ;  R.  Knowling,  in  Ex- 

its  divine  founder.    There  may  have  been  a  sec-  poaitor'a  Greek  Testament  (London,  1900).    In^ 

ondary  purpose,  to  show,  by  the  favorable  re-  troducticma :    Hilgenfeld    (Halle,   1875) ;   Holtz- 

ception  and  treatment  which  this  religion  re-  mann      (Freiburg,     1892)  ;     Salmon      (London, 

ceived  from  Roman  officials,  that  there  was  no  1894) ;     Weiss,     English     translation      (Edin- 

disposition  on  the  part  of  the  Government  to  burgh,  1888);  A.  JQhcher  (Leipzig,  1901);  Th. 

consider  Christianity  in  a  hostile  light.     Such  Zahn  (Leipzig,  1900)  ;  B.  W.  Bacon,  in  'Neu)  Tea- 

a  secondary  purpose  would  be  the  more  likely  tament  Handbook  Series  (New  York,  1900)  ;  J. 

if  Theophilus  were  yet  himself  a  pagan  and  the  Moffatt,   The  Hiatorical  Neto   Testament    (New 

book  were  composed  in  the  .early  Flavian  r^p^ime,  Y'ork   and   Edinburgh,    1901).     General   tporks: 

when  Christianity  was  under  imperial  suspicion.  A.  Neander,  Planting  and  Training  of  the  Chris- 

(See  Pebsecutions  of  the  Chbistians.)  tian  Church,  English  translation  in  Bohn*a  Ser- 

The  material  of  the  book  is  derived  partially  iea   (London,  1842-46)  ;  F.  C.  Baur,  Paul,  Eng- 

from  outside  sources,  both  oral  and  written,  the  lish  translation   (London,  1872-75)  ;  A.  Ritschl, 

presence  of  which   is  specially  evident  in  the  Die    Entatehung    der     altkatholischen    Kirche 

first  twelve  chapters,  which  treat  of  the  experi-  (Bonn,  1857)  ;  Th.  Lewin,  Life  and  Epistles  of 

ence  of  the  early  church  in  Jerusalem  and  Judea,  St.  Paul   (London,   1875) ;   C.  Weizs&cker,  The 

and  partially  from  personal  notes  of  the  mission-  Apostolic  Age,  English  translation    (Edinburgh, 

ary  experiences  of   Paul   and  his  companions,  IS9A)  ;W.M,B,eim^y,  The  Church  in  the  Roman 

taken,  as  the  critical  facts  in  the  case  would  Empire  Before  170  a.d.   (New  York,  1893)  ;  St, 

seem  to  make  clear,  by  the  author  himself,  who  Paul  the  Traveler  and  the  Roman  Citizen  (New 

thus  becomes  a  companion  of  Paul.    As  to  the  York,  1895)  ;  F.  J.  A.  Hort,  Judaistic  Christian- 

identity  of  this  companion  there  would  seem  to  ity    (Cambridge,    1894)  ;    J.    Weiss,    Veher   die 

be  no  valid  reason  against  the  tradition  that  he  Absicht   und   den   litterarischen   Character   der 

was  Luke,  mentioned  in  Paul's  Epistles  as  stand-  Apostelgeschichte  (GOttingen,  1897). 

ing  in  close  relationship  to  the  Apostle.     (See  AC'TUA'BIAL  SOCI'ETY  OF  AMEB^CA. 

Colossians   iv  :  14;    H.   Timothy  iv  :  11;    Phile-  ^  organization  for  the  promotion  of  actuarial 

mon,  verse  24.)     This  is  the  general  opmion  of  ^^^^J     j^  ^^^  founded  in  1889  and  in  1900 

crmcism.                                                  x  j  *    j.  bad  123  members  and  associates. 

Two  schools  of  criticism  have  attempted  to  dis-  *«-«»,.*««.    /-  ^               .           .    j.    « 

parage   the   credibility    of   Acts,   the    Tttbingen  ACTUARY    {Actuartus    m   ancient   Rome, 

School   (1845),  which  held  it  to  be  a  tendency  ^^^^  a  clerk  who  recorded  the  acto   (q.v.)   of 

writing,  so  manipulating  the  narrative  in  the  ^^^  8«^*^e  ^^^%  other  public  bodies,  and  also  an 

interests  of  the  union  movement  of  the  Church  accountant).    In  recent  times,  a  term  applied  to 

in  the  second  century  as  to  destroy  all  accuracy  <^*^®  officers  of  life  insurance  companies  and  cog- 

of  facts,  and  the  Documentary  School    (1890),  »*ate  enterprises,   who   supply   the  calculations 

which  held  it  to  be  a  complex  composite  writing,  upon  which  their  business  rests.    As  these  calcu- 

made  up  of  such  variant  documents,  of  such  va-  lations  involve  questions  of  the  probable  duration 

ried   origins,  and  of  such   differing  degrees  of  o^  human  life,  as  well  as  those  of  interest  and 

reliability  as  to  hopelessly  obscure  the  actual  costs,  the  function  of  the  actuary  might  be  briefly 

facts  of  the  history.     Neither  of  these  attempts  defined   as  the   application   of   the   doctrine   of 

has  proved  successful.    At  present  there  is  an  probabilities  to  the  affairs  of  life.     See  Pboba- 

effort  among  critics  to  subject  it  to  the  same  bilities. 

process   of   literary   criticism   as   has   been   so  AC'UPBES^UBE  (Lat.  acus,  needle  -U  P^^- 

largely  employed  in  the  Old  Testament.    This  sura,  pressure).     A  mode  of  arresting  nemor- 

would  present  it  as  a  writing  which  not  only  rhage  from  bleeding  vessels.    A  needle  is  passed 

gives  us  a  history  of  the  early  times  of  which  it  through  the  flaps  or  sides  of  the  wound,  or  the 

tells,  but  in  the  way  in  which  it  gives  that  his-  tissues  at  the  sides  of  the  vessel,  so  as  to  cross 

tory  so  reflects  the  later  times  in  which  it  was  over  and  compress  the  orifice  of  the  bleeding 

written  as  to  give  us  a  picture  of  its  own  age.  artery,  just  as  in  putting  a  flower  in  the  lapel 

By  the^e  critics  it  is  held  to  be  a  composite  writ-  of  one's  coat  one  crosses  over  and  compresses 

ing  of  not  earlier  origin  than  the  reign  of  Do-  the  flower-stalk  with  a  pin  pushed  twice  through 

mitian    (81-96    A.D.)f    compiled    by    a    Gentile  the  lapel.     Surgeons  now  seldom  use  acupres- 

Christian,  not  Luke  nor  any  companion  of  Paul,  sure. 

and,  outside  of  the  personal   diary  sections  in  AC'UPirNCTTrEE     (Lat.    acus,    needle    + 

the  latter  half  of   the  book,   which   may  have  ^^^         ^  pricking).     A  very  ancient  remedy, 

come  from  Luke,  of  no  necessary  historical  ac-  ^^^  ^^^  'practiced  Extensively  in  the  East,  for 

curacy.                        rxrni.                 4,  A  4.1.^4.  the  relief  of  pain,   swelling,  or  dropsy.     Steel 

Professor  Blass  of  Halle  has  su^sted  that  ^^j^,  „^  ^^^^  ^^  „,  ^^^^  ^^^^^  .^^^^  , 

It  was  written  originally  in  two  texts   a  longer  ^„^  ^^  .^  hBind\e».    The  surgeon,  by  a  rotato^ 

and  a  shorter  one,  the  former  being  the  earlier,  ^^^enient,  passes  one  or  more  to  the  desirei 

and    represented    in    the    text    of    the    peculiar  ^    ^^^  ^^  the  tissues,  and  leaves  them  there  from 

Codex  Beae    (D),   the   shorter   being  the   later  ^  J^^  ^j^^^^^  ^^  ^^  ^^^^     ^^  ^^ji^,  ^^  ^^ 

and   represented   in  the  canonical  text  of  the  ^j^^^^^  ^^  ^^^^  ^.^p,^  operation  is  sometimes 

lestament.                             ^     •       it  •»«          /  j  astonishing,  and  the  wounds  are  so  minute  as 

iterby'^^XG8t^ri?9l/; VrUtte  *«>  ^  ^^^''y  l-"-!--    ^he  n«^es  .re  some- 


ACUFUHCXTISB.  97 

times  used  as  conductors  of  the  galvanic  current 
to  deep-seated  parts,  for  the  destruction  of  moles, 
birthmarks,  etc.,  and  are  sometimes  made  hollow 
to  allow  of  a  small  quantity  of  some  sedative 
solution  being  injected  into  the  tissues  by  which 
pain  may  be  almost  immediately  relieved.  See 
Neuxalqia. 


dd^6.  A  town  of  the  kingdom  of  Hun- 
gary, situated  on  the  Theiss,  about  30  miles 
south  of  Szegedin  (Map:  Hungary,  G  4).  The 
inhabitants  are  chiefly  engaged  in  the  cultiva- 
tion of  grain  and  cattle  raising.  Pop.,  1890, 
11,000. 

ADAGIO,  A-d&'j6  (Ital.,  slowly,  leisurely, 
from  ad  agio,  at  ease).  In  music,  primarily  a 
slow  tempo  intermediate  between  largo  or  grave 
and  andante.  The  term  is  further  applied  to  the 
slow  movement  (usually  the  second)  of  a  musical 
composition,  as,  e.g.  of  a  sjrmphony,  sonata,  con- 
certo, or  overture.  It  serves  as  a  contrast  with 
the  rapid  and  energetic  preceding  (allegro)  and 
following  (scherzo)  movements  of  the  work,  and 
alTords  scope  for  a  flowing  and  expressive  slow 
melody  with  a  gracefully  varied  accompaniment, 
which  breaks  up  the  monotony  of  the  adagio  and 
heightens  its  effect.  A  clear  and  expressive  exe- 
cntion  of  an  adagio  is  an  unfailing  test  of  the 
artistic  standing  of  a  performer,  as  it  demands 
a  pure  and  beautiful  intonation,  a  true  reading 
and  phrasing  of  the  cantilena  even  in  its  most 
minute  details,  and  a  careful  attention  to  all 
points  of  effect.  The  old  masters,  Haydn,  Mo- 
zart, and  Beethoven,  have  left  in  their  works  the 
finest  specimens  of  the  adagio. 

ADAIBy  A-d&r^,  Jambs.  An  Indian  trader 
and  author.  He  lived  for  almost  forty  years 
among  the  southern  Indians,  and  chiefly  amons 
the  Chickasaws,  and  in  1775  published  a  val- 
uable work  entitled  The  History  of  the  Indian 
TribeSf  Particularly  Those  Nations  Adjoining  the 
Mississippi,  East  and  West  Florida,  Georgia, 
Bouth  and  North  Carolina,  and  Virginia. 
Though  impaired  in  value  by  the  author's  zeal- 
ous advocacy  of  the  Jewish  origin  of  the  Indian 
race,  this  book  gives  one  of  the  best  first-hand 
accounts  ever  written  of  the  habits  and  character 
of  the  native  tribes,  besides  containing  an  incom- 
plete but  valuable  vocabulary  of  various  Indian 
dialects.  Adair's  theory  of  the  origin  of  the 
Indians  was  adopted  and  elaborated  by  Dr.  Elias 
Boudinot  in  his  Star  of  the  West,  or  An  Attempt 
to  Discover  the  Long-Lost  Tribes  of  Israel 
(1816). 


John.  (1750-1840).  An  American 
soldier.  He  was  bom  in  Chester  County,  S.  C, 
bat  removed  to  Kentucky  in  1787.  He  served 
as  major  in  General  St.  Clair's  Indian  expedi- 
tion of  1791,  and  was  defeated  by  "Little  Tur- 
tle" in  November.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Ken- 
tudcy  Constitutional  Convention  ( 1702) ,  and  was 
a  United  States  senator  from  1805  to  1806.  He 
served  as  volunteer  aid  to  General  Shelby  in  the 
battle  of  the  Thames  (October  5,  1813),  and, 
as  brigadier-general  of  militia,  commanded  the 
Kentucky  troops  at  New  Orleans  in  1815.  He 
was  governor  of  Kentucky  (1820-24),  and  a 
monber  of  Congress  (1831-33). 


•f  RoBTX.      See  Robin  Adaib. 

f,  A-dUK.  A  narrow  tract  of  land  in  East 
Africa  extending  along  the  Red  Sea  from  the 
Gulf  of  Tajura  to  Massowah  (Map:  Africa,  J  3) . 
Hie  larger  part  is  included  in  the  present  Italian 


colony  of  Eritrea  (q.v.),  while  the  southern  end, 
bordering  on  the  Gulf  of  Tajura,  is  under  the 
protectorate  of  France.  Its  inhabitants  are  the 
Banakil. 

AIXAIiBEBT  (T-1072).  A  German  prelate. 
He  was  made  Archbishop  of  Bremen  in  1043 
by  Henry  III.,  whom  he  accompanied  to  Rome, 
where  he  declined  the  proposed  candidacy  for 
the  papacy,  when  he  might  have  been  elected. 
Leo  lA.  made  him  his  legate  in  the  north.  Dur- 
ing the  minority  of  Henry  IV.,  Adalbert  and 
Archbishop  Hanno,  of  Cologne,  usurped  the  ad- 
ministration of  the  empire;  but  he  became  ob- 
noxious to  the  princes  and  they  succeeded  in 
separating  him  from  the  Emperor.  He  soon  after 
regained  his  influence,  however,  and  kept  it  as 
long  as  he  lived.  His  dream  was  to  unite  Ger- 
many, England,  and  Scandinavia  into  a  patriar- 
chate independent  of  Rome. 

ADALBEBT  (7-097),  Saiivt.  A  Bohemian 
prelate  improperly  styled  ''the  apostle  of  the 
Prussians,"  whose  original  Bohemian  name 
was  Voitech  (comfort  of  the  host).  He  was 
educated  at  Magdeburg,  and  in  983  was  chosen 
Bishop  of  Prague,  but  soon  wearied  of  the 
perpetual  strife  with  the  essentially  heathen 
Bohemians  and  retired  to  a  monastery  near 
Rome.  He  went  back  to  Prague  in  992,  but  again 
retired  in  discouragement,  and  finally  went  as  a 
missionary  to  the  Poles  and  Prussians,  and  was 
murdered  by  a  heathen  priest  April  23,  997.  He 
was  first  buried  at  Gnesen,  and  then  transferred 
to  Pra^e  and  put  in  a  vault,  where  his  bones 
were  discovered  in  1880,  and  deposited  in  the 
cathedral.  For  his  life,  consult  C.  Heger  (K6n- 
igsberg,  1897),  H.  G.  Voigt  (Beriin,  1898). 

ADATJA,  &-dtt^6-A  (ancient  Attalia).  The 
chief  seaport  of  the  Turkish  vilayet  of  Konieh, 
situated  on  the  southern  coast  of  Asia  Minor,  in 
lat.  36^  52'  N.,  long.  30''  45'  E.,  about  200  mUes 
southeast  of  Smyrna  (Map:  Turkey  in  Asia,  D 
4).  The  streets  rise  like  the  seats  of  a  theatre 
up  the  slope  of  the  hill.  The  town,  built  on  a 
rocky  hill,  with  its  streets  rising  in  terraces  and 
studded  with  and  surrounded  by  beautiful  gar- 
dens of  orange,  fig,  and  mulberry  trees,  is  very 
picturesque. .  It  has  a  considerable  trade  in  tim- 
ber, wheat  and  other  agricultural  products.  Pop., 
about  30,000,  including  about  7000  Greeks. 

AIXAM.  The  name  given  in  the  book  of  (Gene- 
sis to  the  first  man.  The  word  Adam  is  orig- 
inally a  common  noun  applied  both  to  a  single 
human  being  and  to  mankind  in  general;  hence, 
as  a  designation  for  the  first  man  the  Old  Testa- 
ment almost  invariably  attaches  the  article  to 
adam,  which  thus  becomes  Ba-adam;  that  is, 
"the  man."  According  to  the  critical  school 
the  creation  of  Adam  and  Eve  has  come  down 
to  us  in  two  recensions  of  Genesis,  the  first, 
Genesis  i  :  26-30,  forming  part  of  the  so-called 
Elohistic  record  of  creation  (see  Cbeation)  ;  the 
second.  Genesis  ii  :  5-24,  embodied  in  the  Yahwis- 
tic  version.  According  to  the  former,  male  and 
female  are  created  at  the  same  time  (Genesis 
1  :  27 ) .  The  passage  is  somewhat  ambiguous,  so 
that  it  is  not  certain  whether  only  a  single  hu- 
man pair  is  referred  to  or  mankind  in  general, 
just  as  according  to  this  version  the  animal  world 
in  general  is  created  at  the  beginning.  In  the 
Yahwistic  version,  however,  a  Hingle  male  indi- 
vidual alone  is  formed  by  God,  who  molds  a 
man  out  of  the  "dust  of  the  ground"  and 
breathes  into  the  mass  the  "breath  of  life"  (Gen- 


98 


esis  li  :7).      The  word  used  for  "ground"  is 
adamah,  and  in  the  mind  of  the  writer  there  is 
evidently  a  close  connection  between  this  word 
and  Adam,     A  common  meaning  for  the  Hebrew 
stem  adam,  from  which  adamah  is  derived,  is 
"red;"  but  while  this  furnishes  a  satisfactory 
explanation  for  the  word  "ground/'  it  does  not 
follow  that  the  implied  biblical  etymology  for 
"adam"  as  man  is  correct.    The  stem  adam  oc- 
curs in  various  of  the  Semitic  languages,  and  ex- 
hibits a  variety  of  meanings,  such  as  "pleasant/' 
"to  make/*  "to  attach  one's  self"  ( hence,  to  be  so- 
ciable), and  scholarly  opinion  vacillates  between 
assuming  one  or  the  other  of  these  significations 
as    furnishing    the    explanation    of    the    name 
"Adam/'    If  any  conclusion  may  be  drawn  from 
ben  or  ihn,  which  is  the  common  Semitic  word 
for  son  and  child,  and  which  is  derived  from  a 
stem  signifying  ''build,"  the  weight  of  evidence 
would    be   in    favor    of   connecting   adam   with 
"make/'     In  Assyrian  we  have  a  word  "admu" 
(the  equivalent  of  the   Hebrew  Adam),  which 
actually  occurs  as  one  of  the  synonyms  of  "child" 
(see  Delitzsch,  Aasyrischea  Worterhuch,  p.  25). 
Coming  back  to  the   two  versions  of  creation, 
it  will  be  found  that  they  differ  in  many  re- 
spects; but  it  is  by  the  combination  of  the  two 
that  we  obtain  the  views  held  by  the  Hebrews 
regarding  the  first  man.      In  the  first  version, 
where  the  work  of  creation  is  distributed  among 
six  days,  humanity  is  created  on  the  last  day. 
Man  is  made  in  the  image  of  God,  and  given 
dominion  over  all  the  animals,  and,  indeed,  the 
entire  earth.    In  the  second  version  it  is  stated 
that  man  was  placed  in  a  garden  situated  in 
Eden  (Genesis  ii  :  8),  known  as  the  "Garden  of 
Eden/'  in  which  all  manner  of  trees  were  planted. 
(See  Eden.)     Man  is  put  there  to  till  the  ground 
and  to  keep  guard  over  it.    He  is  permitted  to 
eat  of  the  fruit  of  all  the  trees  with  the  ex- 
ception of  one,  known  as  the  "tree  of  knowledge 
of  good  and  evil,"  and  which  he  is  not  to  touch 
under  penalty  of  death.     A  woman  is  created 
as  a  helpmate  to  Adam  out  of  one  of  his  ribs, 
who  is  called  Eve,  a  name  subsequently  explained 
as  "the  mother  of  all  living."    The  close  attach- 
ment betweeii  Adam  and  bve  (see  Eve)   is  em- 
phasized, and,  although  not  distinctly  stated,  the 
narrative  implies  that  she  is  included  in  the 
prohibition  not  to  eat  of  the  one  tree  singled 
out.      Through    the    serpent,    who    assures    the 
woman  that  she  and  Adam  will  npi  die,  the  wo- 
man is  beguiled  into  eating  of  the   fruit  and 
gives  of  it  to  Adam.     The  first  consequence  of 
the  act  was  that  the  pair  recognized  their  naked 
state  and  made  loin  coverings  of  fig  leaves.  Adam 
pleads  in  extenuation  that  the  woman  gave  him 
of  the  fruit,  and  the  woman  pleads  that  the 
serpent  beguiled  her.      All  three  are  punished, 
the  serpent  by  becoming  the  cursed  one  among 
the  animals,  the  woman  by  increase  of  her  trou- 
bles and  pain,  particularly  in  child-bearing,  and 
the  man  by  being  obliged  henceforth  to  secure 
his  sustenance  by  the  sweat  of  his  brow  in  tilling 
the  ground.      God  makes  garments  of  skin  for 
the  pair,  and  in  fear  lest  they  eat  also  of  the 
"tree  of  life"  which  is  in  the  garden,  and  which 
is  to  secure  immortality,  he  drives  Adam  and 
Eve    out   of   their   first   habitation   and   places 
cherubim  with  flaming  swords  to  guard  the  way 
to  the  tree  of  life. 

In  the  continuation  of  the  narrative  (chapter 
iv  :  1-2),  the  birth  of  two  sons,  Cain  and  Abel, 
is  recounted;  but  beyond  that  we  learn  nothing 


further  of  Adam  and  Eve  xmtil  we  reach  a  totally 
different  document,  a  genealogical  list  in  chapter 
V,  in  which,  after  a  re-statement  of  the  creation 
of   humanity   and   the   assigning   of   the   name 
Adam  (Grenesis  v  :  2)  to  mankiM  in  general,  the 
birth  of  Seth,  in  the  130th  year  of  Adam's  life, 
is  recounted,  no  mention  being  made  of  Cain  or 
Abel.    Adam  is  stated  to  have  died  at  the  age 
of  930  years,  after  having  begotten  sons  and 
daughters.     In  the  narrative  about  Adam  thus 
pieced  together  from  various  documents,  a  further 
distinction  must  be  made  between  the  story  as 
told  in  the  first  three  chapters  of  Genesis  and 
the  notes  in  the  fifth  chapter.    The  genealogical 
list  appears  to  be  in  reality  a  list  of  dynasties, 
drawn  up  on  the  basis  of  a  tradition  which  be- 
longs to  the  same  category  of  semi-legendary 
lore,  as  the  lists  preserved  by  Eusebius  and  Syn- 
cellus  of  early  Babylonian  rulers  who  lived  be- 
fore the  flood  (see  Rogers'  History  of  BahyUmia 
and  Assyria,  i.,  p.  328)  ;  whereas  the  story  of 
Adam  and  Eve  m  the  flrst  three  chapters  of 
Genesis   is   a   composite   production   embodying 
various  popular  tales  of  myths,  some  elements  of 
which  revert  to  tradition  held  in  common  at  one 
time  by  Hebrews  and  Babylonians,  but  which, 
having  passed  through  an  independent  develop- 
ment among  the  Hebrews,  have  been  interpreted 
in  the  light  of  the  monotheistic  conception  of  the 
universe,  and  preserved  as  an  effective  means  of 
illustrating  the  specifically  Jewish  document  of 
the  creation  of  man  and  of  his  fall  froih  divine 
grace,  as  an  explanation  of  the  toil  and  ills  with 
which  human  existence  is  filled.     It  is  this  dis- 
tinctly theological  conception  of  Adam  which  be- 
comes uppermost  as  the  religious  ideas  of  the  Old 
Testament  become  fixed  in  men's  minds.     The 
story  of  Adam  becomes  with  the  growth  of  Chris- 
tian  theology  the   most   importent  sourcje   for 
the  doctrine  of  the  origin  of  sin,  and  over  against 
him  is  put  the  second  Adam,  the  first  being  the 
fountain  of  sin,  the  second  the  source  of  salva- 
tion.   This  conception  is  fully  brought  out  in  the 
teachings  of  St.  Faul  (see  especially  Romans  ▼  : 
12-21;    I.  Corinthians  xv  :  22,  and  45-49).     In 
Jewish   theology   proper   the  doctrinal   develop- 
ment in  general  is  arrested  after  the  separation 
from  Judaism  of  the  new  sect  made  up  of  the  fol- 
lowers   of    Jesus.     The    predominant    position 
henceforth  occupied  in  Judaism  by  obedience  to 
the  minute  ceremonial  prescriptions  brings  about 
a  concentration  of  Jewish  thought  on  theoretical 
discussions  of  the  intricacies  of  biblical  and  Tal- 
mudical  laws,  while  in  place  of  doctrinal  elabora- 
tion we  have  the  homiletical  interpretation  of 
the  narrative  in  Genesis,  which  leads  to  numer- 
ous additions  to  rabbinical  literature  of  the  bib- 
lical narrative  of  Adam  and  of  the  creation  in 
general,  as  well  as  of  the  stories  of  the  patri- 
archs in  the  Book  of  Genesis.  These  stories  about 
Adam   are   collected    in   the   so-called    Midrash 
Rabba  to  Genesis,  a  German  translation  of  which 
was  published  by  Wunsche  ( Der  Midrasch  Rabha 
zu  Oenesis,  1882).     From  the  Jews  the  stories 
made  their  wav  to  the  Arabs,  and  snatches  of 
them  are  embodied  in  the  Koran.     Consult.  Sale's 
Translation  of  the  Koran  and  notes    (London, 
1877),  especially  to  Suras  15  and  17. 

ADAM.  In  Shakespeare's  As  Tou  Like  It 
(q.v.),  an  old  servant  who  follows  the  fortunes 
of  Orlando.  His  age,  he  apologetically  says,  "is 
as  a  lusty  winter,  frosty  but  kindly"  (Act  II., 
Scene  3).  The  part  is  one  which  Shakespeare 
himself  is  traditionally  said  to  have  played. 


90 


The  name  of  a  distinguished  family 
of  British  architects  of  the  eighteenth  century. 
WxLLiAH  Adam  (  M748)  was  the  author  of  the 
library  and  university  of  Glasgow  and  of  many 
public  and  private  buildings  at  Dundee  (town 
nail)  and  Edinburgh.  His  four  sons,  especially 
RoBKBT  (1727-92)  and  Jamxs  (M794),  wer« 
proliflc  and  successful  architects,  and  under 
Robert's  leadership  did  a  great  deal  to  remodel 
London.  Robert's  studies  in  Italy  and  Dalmatia 
preceded  his  settling  in  London,  and  his  book 
on  Diocletian's  palace  at  Spalato  increased  his 
reputation,  as  also  did  the  publication  of  en- 

f  ravings  of  the  brothers'  designs.  The  Adelphi 
errace  and  buildings  are  by  Robert,  as  are  also 
the  Register  House  at  Edinburgh,  Kedleston 
Hall,  near  Derby,  Lansdowne  House,  and  many 
blocks  of  London  houses,  to  whose  interior  deco- 
ration and  arrangement  the  brothers  paid  great 
attention. 


A'dftN^  Adolphe  Chables  (1803-56). 
A  French  composer  of  operas.  He  was  bom  and 
died  in  Paris.  Though  originally  intended  for 
a  scientific  career,  he  entered  the  conservatory  in 
1817  and  studied  composition  under  Boieldieu, 
mainly  writing  transcriptions  for  the  piano. 
In  1829  his  one-act  opera,  Pierre  et  Oatherine, 
was  produced  with  success,  and  fifty-two  more 
followed,  of  which  Le  chdlei  and  Le  poatillon  de 
Longjumeau  (1836)  are  the  most  famous.  The 
latter,  and  his  Caniique  de  Noelt  and,  besides, 
the  ballets  Fauai  and  Le  Coraaire,  are  his  best 
known  works  in  the  United  States.  His  chief 
merits  are  the  characteristic  French  daintiness 
and  finish.  He  was  made  professor  of  compo- 
sition at  the  conservatory  m  1849.  His  auto- 
biography and  souvenirs  were  published  (Paris, 
1860).  Consult:  A.  Pouzin,  Adolphe  Adam,  ea 
vie,  etc.  (Paris,  1876). 
ADAJffy  Book  of.    See  Afoobtfha  and  Afoo- 

ALTFTIC  LlTERATUBE. 

AT>Air^  Sib  Fbederick  (1784-1853).  An 
English  general.  He  was  educated  at  Woolwich 
Military  Academy  and  greatly  distinguished  him- 
self in  the  Peninsular  campaign.  Although  se- 
verely wounded  at  the  battle  of  Alicante,  he 
reentered  the  service  upon  his  recovery.  He 
repelled  the  last  charge  of  the  French  guards  at 
Waterloo. 

ATfcAir^  Gbakme  HixBCEB  (1839—).  .A  Cana- 
dian author  and  editor.  He  was  bom  at  Loan- 
head,  Midlothian,  Scotland.  After  some  experi- 
ence with  the  Blackwoods,  he  emigrated  to  To- 
TontOy  where  he  became  a  partner  in  a  success- 
ful publishing  house.  In  1876  he  opened,  in 
conjunction  with  John  Lovell  of  Montreal,  a 
branch  house  in  New  York,  which  has  since  de- 
veloped into  the  John  W.  Lovell  Publishing  Com- 
pany. Returning  to  Toronto  in  1878,  he  subse- 
?[uent]y  edited  the  Canadian  Bookseller; 
ounded,  in  conjunction  with  Groldwin  Smith, 
the  Canadian  Monthly  (1872);  started  the 
Canadian  Educational  Monthly  (1879)  ;  and  was 
for  several  years  connected  with  the  Bystander 
as  assistant  to  Goldwin  Smith,  and  contributed 
extensively  to  other  periodicals.  Coming  again 
to  New  Vork  (1892),  he  became  identified  with 
several  publishing  houses  as  "reader,"  wrote  re- 
views and  compiled  several  books.  In  1896  he 
removed  to  Chicago  to  become  editor  of  tSclf-Cul- 
lure.  Among  Adam's  numerous  separate  publi- 
cations are  The  Canadian  North-Weat  (1805); 
Outline  Hiatory  of  Canadian  Literature  (1886) ; 


topographical  and  descriptive  boolu  of  Canada, 
encyclopedias,  and  school  books.  In  collabora- 
tion with  Ethelwyn  Wetherald  he  wrote  a  suc- 
cessful historical  romance  entitled  An  Algonquin 
Maiden  (1886). 

ADAM,  Jean  (1710-66).  A  Scotch  poet. 
She  was  bom  near  Greenock.  In  her  earlier  life 
she  was  a  teacher,  but,  compelled  to  give  up  her 
school,  she  became  a  street  vendor.  She  lived  a 
joyless  life,  and  died  in  the  Glasgow  poorhouse. 
She  published  a  volume  of  religious  poems  in 
1734.  By  some  she  is  believed  to  be  the  author 
of  There's  nae  Luck  Ahoot  the  House,  a  beautiful 
lyric.  (See  Mickle,  Whxiam  Julius.)  Con- 
sult Ward's  English  Poets  (London,  1880). 

ADAM,  &'dttN^  Mine.  Jxtliette  (1836 — ). 
A  Parisian  writer  and  editor.  She  was  bom  at 
Verberie  (department  of  Oise),  October  4,  1836. 
Her  first  book,  Le  si^ge  de  Paris,  journal  d'une 
Parisienne,  is  an  account  of  her  experiences  in 
1870-71,  when  her  husband  (died  1877)  was  pre- 
fect of  police.  Her  Nouvelle  Revue,  founded  in 
1879,  and  her  salon,  have  both  been  politically  in- 
fluential. She  has  written  much  for  periodicals 
on  politics,  literature,  education,  and  the  posi- 
tion of  women.  Her  fiction,  e.g.,  Lalde  (1878), 
Orecque  (1879),  Paienne  (1883).  is  militantly 
hedonistic,  a  passionate  protest  against  what  she 
would  call  the  anti-natural,  and  others  the  su- 
pernatural, in  Christianity.  The  most  note- 
worthy of  her  works  are:  Souvenirs  personnels, 
La  patrie  hongroise  ( 1884) ,  and  Le  g4n4ral  Sko- 
heleff  (1886).  Manv  of  her  books  appeared  un- 
der the  pen  names  of  Juliette  Lamber  and  Comte 
Paul  Vasili. 

ADAM,  Lambert  Sigisbebt  (1700-59).  A 
French  sculptor.  He  was  born  at  Nancy  and 
was  educated  at  the  School  of  the  Academic, 
Paris,  where  he  received  the  Prix  de  Rome  in 
1723.  During  his  sojourn  at  the  Academic  de 
France  he  executed  for  Pope  Clement  XII.  a 
bas-relief  representing  the  apparition  of  the  Vir- 
gin to  St.  Andrew  Corsini,  for  which  he  received 
the  title  Acad6micien  de  St.  Luc.     His  subse- 

?[uent  artistic  career  in  Paris  was  very  success- 
ul.  Some  of  his  best  known  works  are:  "La 
Seine  et  la  Mame"  (Palace  of  St.  Cloud) ;  "Nep- 
tune et  Amphitrite"  (Versailles,  1740) ;  "V^nus 
au  Bain"  (designed  for  the  ChAteau  de  Choisy, 
1742) ;  "La  Chasse  et  La  Peche"  (Potsdam) ; 
'Neptune  calmant  les  Plots"  ( Mus^  du  Louvre, 
1737).  He  published  Recueil  de  sculpture* 
antiques  grecques  et  romaines, 

ADAM,  Paul  (1862 — ).  A  French  author, 
bom  in  Paris.  He  participated  in  the  Boulangist 
movement  (1889),  and  was  an  unsuccessful  can- 
didate for  a  seat  in  the  Chamber  of  Deputies. 
His  earliest  appearance  in  literature  was  made 
with  Chair  molle  (1885).  Others  of  his  works 
of  fiction,  chiefly  in  the  manner  of  the  "symbol- 
ist" school,  are  Robes  rouges  ( 1891 ) ,  Le  mystere 
des  foules  (2  volumes,  1895),  and  La  hataille 
d'Uhde  (1897).  With  J.  Morfias  he  wrote  La 
thS  chez  Miranda  (1887).  In  addition  to  the 
above,  his  drama,  L*automne  (1893;  with  G. 
Mowrey),  may  be  mentioned. 

ADAM,  QuiRiN  Fban<;'ois  Lucien  (1833 — ). 
A  French  magistrate  and  philologist.  He  was 
born  at  Nancy.  Among  his  numerous  works 
on  philology,  some  of  which  deal  with  the 
languages  of  the  native  tribes  of  America,  and 
the  dialects  of  Lorraine,  the  following  are  the 


100 


ADAIOTAV. 


moet  important:  Orammaire  de  la  langue 
mandchoue  ( 1873J  ;  Eaquisae  d^une  grammaire 
comparSe  du  Cr^e  et  du  Chipp6way  (second  edi- 
tion, 1876) ;  Etudea  8ur  six  languea  amMcaines 
{ 1878 ) ;  Les  paioia  lorraina  ( 1881 )  ;  Lea 
idiomea  nigro-aryena  et  nuU4o-aryena  (1883). 

ATVATW^  Testament  of.  See  Apogstpha,  Old 
Teatament, 

A-HATir^  WnjJAM  (1751-1839).  A  British 
lawyer.  He  was  bom  in  Scotland  and  in  1774 
entered  Parliament,  where  he  attached  himself 
to  the  party  of  Lord  North.  Four  years  after- 
ward he  fought  a  duel  with  Fox  (1778),  in 
which  Fox  was  wounded.  He  took  an  important 
part,  however^  in  effecting  the  coalition  between 
Fox  and  North  and  Shelbume,  and  was  one  of 
the  few  to  maintain  his  allegiance  to  his  former 
adversary  at  the  time  of  the  French  Revolution. 
He  was  one  of  the  managers  appointed  by  the 
Commons  to  conduct  the  impeachment  of  Warren 
Hastings  (1788).  He  presided  over  the  Civil 
Jury  Court  in  Scotland  from  the  time  of  its  es- 
tablishment (1816)  until  his  death.  Consult 
his  Life,  by  6.  L.  Craik,  in  the  Dictionary  of  the 
Society  for  the  Diffuaion  of  Uaeful  Knowledge. 

AIVAMANT  (6k.  a,  a,  priv.  -f  dafidv,  daman, 
to  tame).  The  name  of  any  substance  of  ex- 
traordinary hardness.  The  name  was  attached  to 
a  supposed  stone,  or  mineral,  as  to  the  properties 
of  which  vague  notions  long  prevailed.  It  was 
identified  with  the  lodestone  or  magnet,  and  often 
used  as  synonymous  with  it  by  early  writers. 
This  confusion' ceased  with  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury, but  the  word  for  a  long  time  had  currency 
among  scientific  writers  as  a  synonym  with  dia- 
mond. The  use  of  the  term  to  denote  the  lode- 
stone  seems  to  have  been  due  to  the  early  Latin 
medical  writers,  who  apparently  derived  the 
word  from  the  Latin  adamare,  ''to  nave  an  attrac- 
tion for." 

AiyAKAK^TINE  SPAB.   See  Corundum. 

ADAMAWA,  H'dA-mft^wft,  or  Fumbina. 
One  of  the  subordinate  States  of  the  Sokoto  Em- 
pire which  constitutes  the  greater  portion  of 
Northern  Nigeria  (Map:  Africa,  F  4).  Its 
boundaries  are  uncertain,  but  its  area  is  esti- 
mated at  about  60,000  square  miles.  The  coun- 
try is  elevated  in  its  southern  part,  where  some 
of  the  mountains  reach  an  altitude  of  about 
8000  feet.  It  is  traversed  by  the  River  Benue 
and  several  other  streams,  and  its  soil  is  very 
fertile.  The  climate  and  the  flora  and  the 
fauna  are  tropical.  Politically,  Adamawa  is 
more  or  less  autonomous,  and  is  ruled  by  a 
native  sultan.  The  eastern  part  of  Adamawa,  as 
far  as  the  confluence  of  the  Faro  with  the  Benue, 
is  included  in  the  German  Kamerun,  while  the 
western  part,  including  the  capital,  Yolo,  forms 
a  part  of  northern  Nigeria.  The  principal  settle- 
ments are  Yolo,  with  a  population  estimated  at 
from  12,000  to  20,000;  Banjo,  the  centre  of  the 
ivory  trade,  and  Nganudere.  The  population 
of  Adamawa  is  estimated  at  over  three  million, 
but  these  figures  are  mere  conjecture.  The  pre- 
dominant part  of  the  population  consists  of 
Fulbe.  (See  Fulahs.)  The  first  European  to 
visit  Adamawa  was  Dr.  Barth  in  1851.  Con- 
sult: S.  Passarge,  Adamaua  (Berlin,  1895). 

AIXAM  BEDE.  The  title  of  a  novel  by  George 
Eliot  (see  Eliot,  George),  first  published 
in  1859.  The  name  is  that  of  its  principal 
character,  a  young  English  workingman  of  in- 


tellectual tastes  and  a  keen  conscience.  He  is 
the  lover  of  Hetty  Sorrel,  but  in  the  end  marriea 
Dinah  Morris. 

AIXAH  CTT^ID.  A  name  applied  to  Cupid 
in  Shakespeare's  Romeo  and  Juliet,  Act  IL, 
Scene  1.  According  to  Upton  there  was  an 
archer  named  Adam,  whose  skill  was  famous  in 
Shakespeare's  time,  so  that  the  significance  of 
the  epithet  is  evident.  Upton  cites  in  confirma- 
tion. Much  Ado  Ahout  Nothing,  Act  I.,  Scene  1: 
"And  he  that  hits  me  let  him  be  clapped  on  the 
shoulder  and  called  Adam."  Other  critics  main- 
tain that  the  original  was  "Abram,"  a  corruption 
from  Auburn,  since  the  early  foUos  and  quartos 
give  "Abraham"  in  the  passage. 

ADAM  DE  IiA  HALITE,  k'd&TX^  de  U  &K 
(1235-1287?).  One  of  the  early  founders  of 
the  French  drama.  His  Play  of  Adam,-  or  Le 
jeu  de  la  feuille,  as  it  was  also  called,  written 
for  .citizens  of  his  native  Arras  for  popular  per- 
formance, is  the  earliest  French  comedy.  Adam 
de  la  Halle  was  also  a  musician,  and  his  Rohif^ 
et  Marion  is  the  first  European  comic  opera. 
His  musical  compositions,  chiefiy  songs  and  mo- 
tets, form  a  connecting  link  between  the  work  of 
the  French  dichanteura  and  the  Flemish  contra- 
puntists. His  works  are  edited  by  Coussemaker 
(Paris,  1872).  Consult:  Ambros,  Qeachichte 
der  Muaik,  Volume  IT.  (Breslau,  1862) . 

AJXAMT,  John  George  (1862  — ).  An  Eng- 
lish pathologist.  He  was  born  at  Manchester; 
was  educated  at  Owens  College,  Manchester,  and 
Christ's  College,  Cambridge,  and  studied  at 
B'reslau,  Paris,  and  Manchester.  He  became  house 
physician  to  the  Manchester  Royal  Infirmary,  and 
demonstrator  of  pathology  at  Cambridge  in  1887. 
In  1891  he  was  elected  fellow  of  Jesus  College, 
Cambridge,  and  in  1892  professor  of  pathology 
at  McGill  University  in  Montreal,  Canada.  He 
has  also  been  at  the  head  of  thepathological  de> 
partment  of  the  Royal  Victoria  Hospital  at  Mon- 
treal since  1894,  and  in  1896  became  Middleton 
Goldsmith  lecturer  to  the  New  York  Pathological 
Society.  He  has  published  numerous  papers  on 
pathological  topics,  and  articles  on  inflammation 
for  AUbutt's  Syatem  of  Medicine. 

AD^AMITES.  ( 1)  An  obscure  and  probably 
non-existent  sect  mentioned  by  Epiphanius  (^cpr. 
52)  as  extant  in  the  middle  of  the  fourth 
century,  and  so  called  because  they  imitated  Ad- 
amic  simplicity  in  going  without  clothing  while 
at  worship.  They  are  said  to  have  practiced  abso- 
lute continence.  (2)  A  sect  of  fanatics  founded  by 
a  certain  Picard,  who  became  numerous  in  Bo- 
hemia and  Moravia  in  the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth 
centuries,  but  had  no  connection  with  the  Hus- 
sites. Picard  styled  himself  Adam,  the  son  of 
God,  rejected  the  sacrament  of  the  supper  and 
the  priesthood,  and  advocated  the  community  of 
women.  After  his  death  his  followers  increased 
in  Bohemia  under  several  leaders.  They  even 
fortified  themselves  on  an  island  in  a  tributary 
of  the  Moldau  and  committed  various  depreda- 
tions. They  were  detested  as  much  by  the  fol- 
lowers of  Huss  as  by  the  Catholics.  Ziska  made 
war  against  them  and  slew  great  numbers, 
but  they  were  never  entirely  rooted  out.  In 
fact,  it  is  said  that  in  1849  a  similar  sect  ap- 
peared in  Austria. 

AIXAMNAN,  Saint  (625-704).  An  Irish 
nhbot,  properly  Adam,  of  which  Adamnan  is  a. 
diminutive.    He  was  born  at  Drumhome,  south- 


101 


ADAICS. 


west  Don^al,  the  extreme  northwest  county, 
about  the  year  625,  but  entered  the  monastery 
of  lona.  Uis  father,  Ronan,  was  the  great- 
great-grandson  of  the  uncle  of  St.  Columba, 
and  also  claimed  kin  with  many  Irish 
kings.  The  paternal  grandfather  was  Tinne, 
from  whom  came  the  patronymic  TJa  Tinne,  or 
grandson  of  Tinne,  an  appellative  which  is  occa- 
sionally found  coupled  with  Adamnan's  name. 
Ronnat,  the  mother  of  Adamnan,  was  descended 
from  Enna,  son  of  Niall,  whose  race,  the  Cincl 
Enna,  possessed  themselves  of  the  tract  lying  be- 
tween the  channels  of  the  Foyle  and  Swilly, 
which  was  called  the  Tir  Enna,  or  Land  of  Enna, 
and  answers  to  the  modem  barony  of  Raphoe. 
In  the  year  607  he  was  elected  abbot  of  lona. 
His  rule  over  that  community  was  not,  however, 
destined  to  be  peaceful  and  fortunate.  The  Irish 
Church  then  held  the  Oriental  views  about 
dates  for  observing  Easter  and  the  form  of 
the  tonsure.  In  his  intercourse  with  the  Saxon 
Church,  Adamnan  had  adopted  the  Roman  or 
orthodox  views,  as  they  are  termed,  and 
endeavored  to  put  them  in  practice  in  his 
own  community.  He  was  thwarted  in  this 
object,  and  it  is  said  that  mortification  at 
the  failure  caused  his  death.  He  died  in  lona, 
September  23,  704.  He  left  behind  him  an  ac- 
count of  the  Holy  Land,  containing  matters 
which  he  says  were  communicated  by  Arculfus, 
a  French  ecclesiastic  who  had  lived  in  Jerusa- 
lem, which  is  valuable  as  the  earliest  informa- 
tion we  possess  of  Palestine  in  the  early  ages  of 
Christianity.  But  far  more  valuable  is  his  Vita 
Sancti  ColumlHB,  his  life  of  St.  Columba,  the 
converter  of  the  Picts,  and  founder  of  lona. 
Along  with  miracles  and  many  other  stories 
palpably  incredible,  this  book  reveals  a  great 
deal  of  distinct  and  minute  matter  concerning 
the  remarkable  body  to  which  both  the  author 
and  his  hero  belonged.  The  standard  edition  of 
the  book  is  that  of  William  Reeves,  D.D.,  edited 
in  1857  for  the  Bannatyne  Society  of  Edinburgh, 
and  the  Irish  Archeological  Society  (Dublin, 
1857 ) ,  which,  with  an  English  translation,  forms 
the  sixth  volume  of  Bisiorians  of  Scotland 
(Edinburgh,  1874),  reissued  with  additional 
notes  by  J,  T.  Fowler  (Oxford,  1895).  Nearly 
all  the  information  to  be  had  about  the  early 
Scoto-Irish  Church  is  comprised  in  that  volume. 

AIXAK  OF  BREMEN.  A  German  his- 
torian. He  was  bom,  probably,  at  Meissen,  Sax- 
ony (the  date  uncertain),  and  came  to  Bremen 
in  1067  from  Magdeburg,  and  became  a  canon 
of  the  cathedral,  and  in  1068  principal  of  the 
cathedral  school.  He  won  x)erpetual  fame  by 
writing  (between  1072  and  1076)  from  all  avail- 
able sources,  including  the  oral  testimony  of 
Svend  Estridson,  Kin^  of  Denmark,  to  see  whom 
he  made  a  special  journey,  a  history  of  the 
Hamburg  Church,  which  is  one  of  the  most  pre- 
cious of  mediaeval  histories.  The  best  edition 
of  this  great  work,  Gesta  Hammaburgensis  Ec- 
clesia  Pontificum,  is  by  Lappenberg  (Hanover, 
1876).  The  third  edition  of  the  German  trans- 
lation, by  J.  C.  M.  Laurent,  appeared  in  the  series 
Die  Oeschichtschreiber  der  Deutschen  Vorzeit 
(Berlin,  1803).  As  the  appendix  to  the  third 
and  last  book  Adam  gives  a  general  account  of 
the  lands  belonging  to  the  Danes  and  Swedes,  and 
of  Norway.  In  it  occurs  this  interesting  passage 
referring  to  America:  "Besides  this  he  (Svend 
Estridson,  King  of  Denmark)  told  of  still  an- 
other island  that  had  been  found  by  many  in 


that  ocean  (the  Atlantic).  It  is  called  Wine- 
land,  because  vines  spring  up  there  spontane- 
ously, producing  excellent  wine.  I  mention 
this  confidently,  for  I  have  learned  from  no  fab- 
ulous rumor,  but  through  definite  information 
from  Danes,  that  crops  also  grow  there  in  abun- 
dance without  having  been  sown."  (Cap.  247, 
or  §  38).  In  his  book  Adam  quotes  from  preced- 
ing chroniclers,  from  Cicero^  from  the  Latin 
poets,  Vergil,  Horace,  Lucan,  Juvenal,  and  Per- 
sius;  from  the  Latin  Fathers,  Jerome^  Ambrose, 
Gregory  the  Great;  from  Bede«  Cassiodorus,  and 
Paulus  Diaconus.  But  the  style  is  defective 
and  the  Latin  difficult  and  faulty,  notwithstand- 
ing that  he  took  Sallust  as  his  master.  Al- 
though the  day  of  his  death,  October  12,  is  known 
from  the  church  record  of  Bremen,  the  year  is 
not,  but  probably  it  was  about  1076. 

ADAK  OF  ST.  VIC^OS  ( rc.ll92) .  A  mo- 
nastic poet  of  France.  Nothing  is  known  of  him 
except  that  he  died  in  the  abbey  of  St.  Victor 
in  Paris.  Yet  he  was  "the  most  promineht  and 
prolific  of  the  Latin  hymnists  of  the  Middle 
Ages."  His  works-— complete  as  far  as  discov- 
ered, but  doubtless  far  from  being  really  so — 
were  edited  by  L^on  Gautier  (third  edition, 
Paris,  1894;  English  translation,  London,  1881, 
3  volumes).  Consult:  Julian,  Dictionary  of 
Eymnology  (1888) ;  French,  Sacred  Latin  Po- 
etry (1874) ;  and  Duffield,  Latin  Hymns  (1888). 

AD^AMS.  A  town,  including  the  villages  of 
Renfrew,  Maple  Grove,  and  Zylonite,  in  Berk- 
shire Co.,  Mass.,  16  miles  north  of  Pittsfield,  on 
the  Hoosac  River  and  the  Pittsfield  and  North 
Adams  branch  of  the  Boston  and  Albany  Rail- 
road (Map:  Massachusetts,  A  2).  Within  the 
town  limits  is  Greylock  Mountain  (3535  feet), 
the  highest  point  in  Massachusetts.  The  town 
has  a  public  library  of  over  7000  volumes,  and 
manufactures  cotton  and  woolen  goods,  paper, 
foundry  products,  shirts,  etc.  Laid  out  and  set- 
tled as  ''East  Hoosuck"  in  1749,  Adams  was  in- 
corporated under  its  present  name  (in  honor  of 
Samuel  Adams)  in  1778.  It  originally  included 
both  North  and  South  Adams.  The  goverzunent 
is  administered  by  town  meeting.  Pop.,  1890, 
9213;  1900,  11,134.  Consult:  J.  G.  Holland, 
History  of  Western  Massachtuetts  (Springfield, 
1855). 

ADAMS,  Abigail  Smith  (1744-1818).  The 
wife  of  John  Adams,  second  President  of  the 
United  States,  and  daughter  of  Rev.  William 
Smith,  minister  of  the  Congregational  church  at 
Weymouth,  Mass.  She  was  born  at  Weymouth, 
Mass.,  and  died  at  Quincy,  Mass.  Through  her 
mother,  Elizabeth  Quincy,  she  was  descended 
from  the  Puritan  preacher,  Thomas  Shepard  of 
Cambridge,  and  though  of  defective  education, 
delicate  health,  and  nervous  temperament,  she 
was  one  of  the  most  influential  women  of  her  day, 
and  one  of  its  most  vigorous  and  elegant  stylists, 
owing  little  to  teaching  but  much  to  influence 
and  environment.  During  and  after  the  Revolu- 
tionary War,  she  was  at  times  separated  from  her 
husband,  who  was  a  delegate  to  Congress  and  who 
afterward  engaged  in  diplomatic  business  in  Eu- 
rope. Joining  him  in  France  in  1784,  she  accom- 
panied him  to  London,  where  she  had  unpleasant 
social  experiences.  From  1789  to  1801  she  lived  at 
Washington,  then  till  her  death  at  Braintree, 
in  what  is  now  Quincy,  The  Familiar  Letters 
of  John  Adams  and  His  Wife,  published  with 
a  memoir  by  C.  F.  Adams    (1876),  show  her 


ADAMS. 


102 


ATlfHrff 


to  have  been  a  woman  of  keenness,  sagacity,  and 
ffeniality,  and  throw  very  valuable  light  on  the 
history  and  social  life  of  her  time. 

ADAMS,  Alvin  (1804-77).  The  founder  of 
Adams  Express  Company  of  America.  He  was 
bom  at  Andover,  Vt.,  and  in  1840  established 
between  New  York  and  Boston  an  express  route 
which,  subsequently  extended,  led  in  1854  to  the 
incorporation  of  the  Adams  Express  Company. 
Consult:  Stimson,  History  of  the  Express  Busi- 
ness (New  York,  1881). 

ADAMS,  Brooks  (1848  — ).  An  American 
lawyer  and  social  essayist.  He  was  born  at 
Quincy,  Mass.,  a  son  of  Charles  Francis  Adams 

(q.v.).  He  was  educated  in  Quincy,  in  Wash- 
ington, and  in  Europe,  according  to  the  changes 
of  his  father's  residence.  He  graduated  at  Har- 
vard in  1870,  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  and  prac- 
ticed law  till  1881.  He  has  since  contributed 
much  to  magazines,  and  has  published  The  Qold 
Standard,  The  Emancipation  of  Massachusetts 

(1887),  a  study  in  the  evolution  of  religious 
freedom,  an  historical  essay.  The  Law  of  Civili- 
zation and  Decay,  and  Americans  Eoonomio 
Supremacy  (1900).  His  works  are  character- 
ized by  subtlety  and  originality. 

ADAMS,  Charles  Bakes  (1814-53).  An 
American  naturalist.  He  was  bom  at  Dorches- 
ter, Mass.  He  graduated  at  Amherst;  assisted 
Prof.  Edward  Hitchcock  in  the  geological  survey 
of  New  York;  became  tutor  at  Amherst,  1836; 

Srofessor  of  chemistry  and  natural  history  in 
[iddlebury  College,  Vermont,  1838  to  1847,  and 
was  professor  of  astronomy  and  zoology  at 
Amherst  from  1847  till  his  death.  From  1845 
to  1847  he  was  State  geologist  of  Vermont.  He 
went  several  times  to  the  West  Indies  in  the 
interest  of  science;  wrote  on  conchology,  and 
with  the  assistance  of  Prof.  Alonzo  Gray,  of 
Brooklyn,  published  an  elementary  work  on 
geology. 

ADAMS,  Charles  Follen  (1842 — ).  A 
humorous  dialect  poet.  He  was  born  at  Dorches- 
ter, Mass.,  and  was  educated  in  the  common 
schools.  He  served  in  the  Civil  War,  and  was 
wounded  and  captured  at  Gettysburg.  In  1872 
he  began  poetic  production,  cultivating  the  bal- 
lad in  German  dialect.  His  verses  are  collected 
under  the  titles  Leedle  Yawcoh  Strauss  and 
Other  Poems  ( 1878 ) ,  and  Dialect  Ballads  ( 1887 ) . 

ADAMS,  Charles  Francis  (1807-80).  An 
American  diplomat  and  statesman,  the  son  of 
President  J.  Q.  Adams.  He  was  born  in  Boston ; 
spent  the  years  1800  to  1817  with  his  father  in 
Europe,  chiefly  in  Russia  and  England ;  prepared 
for  college  at  the  Boston  Latin  School,  and  grad- 
uated at  Harvard  in  1825.  He  then  spent  sev- 
eral years  in  Washington,  and  later  studied  law 
in  the  office  of  Daniel  Webster  (at  Boston)  from 
November,  1828,  to  January,  1829,  when  he  was 
admitted  to  the  bar,  though  he  never  practiced. 
During  the  next  ten  years  he  devoted  himself 
chiefly  to  literary  pursuits,  contributing  many 
papers  to  magazines,  writing  an  able  political 
pamphlet  entitled,  An  Appeal  from  the  New  to 
the  Old  Whigs  (Boston,  1835),  and  editing  the 
Letters  of  Abigail  and  John  Adams  (1840-41). 
From  1841  to  1846  he  was  a  member  of  the 
State  Legislature,  serving  three  years  in  the 
House  and  two  in  the  Senate;  and  from  1846 
to  1848  he  was  editor  of  the  Boston  Whig,  and  as 
Biic^  was  the  leader  of  that  wing  of  his  party 


called  the  "Conscience  Whigs."  In  1848  he  pre- 
sided over  the  Free  Soil  Convention  at  Bufifalo, 
and  was  unanimously  nominated  for  vice-presi- 
dent, but  after  the  election  retired  to  Quincy, 
Mass.,  and  spent  several  years  in  editing  the 
Works  of  John  Adams  (10  volumes,  1850-56). 
In  1858  he  was  elected  to  Congress  as  a  Republi- 
can, and  served  with  marked  ability  until  May, 
1861,  when  he  was  sent  as  United  States  Minis- 
ter to  England.  Here  he  remained  for  seven 
years,  and  during  the  Civil  War  rendered  inval- 
uable services  to  his  government.  In  face  of 
the  pronounced  sympatny  for  the  South  mani- 
fested by  the  aristocracy  and  the  upper  social 
classes  generally  and  of  the  favoritism  at  times 
of  the  British  government  itself,  he  preserved 
throughout  a  dignified  demeanor  and  performed 
his  duties  with  such  ability  as  to  earn  for  him- 
self a  place  second  only  to  that  of  Franklin  in 
the  history  of  American  diplomacy.  Indeed, 
many  years  later  Lowell  said :  "None  of  our  gen- 
erals in  the  field,  not  Grant  himself,  did  us  better 
or  more  trying  service  than  he  in  his  forlorn  out- 
post in  London."  He  returned  to  America  in 
1868,  and  was  elected  to  the  presidency  of  Har- 
vard in  the  following  vear,  but  declined  to  serve. 
In  1872  he  barely  failed  of  a  nomination  to  the 
presidency  at  the  hands  of  the  Liberal  Repub- 
licans. He  was  the-  arbitrator  for  the  United 
States  at  Geneva  in  1871  and  1872  (see  Atabama 
Claims),  and  to  him  is  due  in  great  part  the 
credit  for  the  successful  settlement  of  all  difficul- 
ties with  England  growing  out  of  the  controversy 
of  the  Civil  War.  On  his  return  he  was  engaged 
for  several  years  in  editing  the  Diary  of  John 
Quincy  Adams  (12  volumes,  1874-77).  Both  in 
politics  and  diplomacy  Mr.  Adams  was  austere^ 
dignified,  eminently  sincere,  and  independent  to  a 
fault.  As  an  authoritative  biography  consult  C. 
F.  Adams,  Jr.,  Life  of  Charles  Francis  Adams 
(Boston,  1900) 9  in  the  American  Statesmen 
Series. 

ADAMS,  Charles  Franois,  Jb.  (18S6 — ). 
An  American  soldier,  financier,  and  writer.  He 
is  a  son  of  Charles  Francis  Adams,  and  was 
born  in  Boston,  Mass.,  May  27,  1835.  He  grad- 
uated at  Harvard  in  1856,  studied  law  in  the 
office  of  Richard  Henry  Dana,  Jr.,  and  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1858>  He  entered  the 
Union  Army  as  first  lieutenant  in  a  Massachu- 
setts cavalry  regiment  in  1861,  became  a  captain 
in  1862,  served  as  chief  of  squadron  at  Gettys- 
burg, and  at  the  close  of  the  war  was  in  com- 
mand, as  colonel,  of  a  regiment  of  colored  cav- 
alry. In  May,  1865,  he  was  brevetted  brigadier- 
?:eneral  in  the  regular  army,  and  in  July  retired 
rom  active  service.  From  1884  to  1890  he  was 
president  of  the  Union  Pacific  Railroad  Com- 
pany. From  1803  to  1895  he  was  chairman  of  the 
Massachusetts  Park  Commission,  and  as  such 
took  a  prominent  part  in  planning  the  present 
park  system  of  the  State.  Since  about  1874  he 
has  devoted  much  of  his  time  to  the  study  of 
American  history,  and  in  recognition  of  his  work 
in  this  field  was  chosen  president  of  the  Massa- 
chusetts Historical  Society  in  1895,  and  of  the 
American  Historical  Association  in  1901.  His 
writings  and  addresses  both  on  problems  of  rail- 
way management  and  on  historical  subjects  are 
marked  by  a  singular  clarity  of  statement  and 
a  degree  of  intellectual  independence  that  has 
frequently  ^iven  rise  to  widespread  controversy. 
He  has  written:  Railroads,  Their  Origin  and 
Prohlenis  (New  York,  1878) ;  Notes  on  Baihoaff 


ADAICS. 


103 


ADAMS. 


Aoeidenia  (New  York,  1S70) ;  Richard  Henry 
Dana:  A  Biography  (Boston,  1891) ;  Three  Epi- 
sodes of  Massachuaetta  History  (Boston,  1892), 
a  work  which  gives  an  account  of  the  settlement 
of  Boston  Bay,  of  the  Antinomian  controversy, 
and  of  church  and  town  government  in 
early  Maasachuaetts ;  MaaBaohuaetts :  Ita  HiatO' 
riana  and  Ita  Hiatory  (Boston,  1893),  an  excel- 
lent Life  of  Charlea  Francia  Adama  (Boston, 
1900),  in  the  American  Statesmen  Series,  and 
7>€e  at  Appomattox,  and  Other  Papera^  (1902). 
In  collaboration  with  his  brother,  Henry  Adams, 
he  also  published  Chaptera  of  Erie,  and  Other 
Eaaaya   (New  York,  1871). 

ADAMS,  C?HABLES  Kendall,  LL.D.,  J.U.D. 
( 1835-1002).  An  American  educator  and  histo- 
rian. He  was  bom  in  Derby,  Vt.;  removed  to 
Iowa  in  1855,  and  in  1861  graduated  at  the 
University  of  Michigan,  where  he  was  assistant 
professor  of  Latin  and  history  from  1863  to 
1867,  and  full  professor  of  history  from  1867  to 
1885.  Having  studied  in  Germany,  France,  and 
Italy  in  1867  and  1868,  he  followed  the  German 
method  of  instruction,  and  in  1869  and  1870 
established  an  historical  seminary  which  proved 
of  sreat  value  in  promoting  the  study  of  history 
and  political  science.  In  1881  he  was  made 
non-resident  professor  of  history  at  Cornell,  and 
in  1885  succeeded  Andrew  D.  White  as  president 
of  that  university.  This  position  he  resigned 
in  1892,  and  from  then  until  1902  was  president 
of  the  University  of  Wisconsin.  In  1890  he  was 
president  of  the  American  Historical  Association. 
He  was  editor-in-chief  of  Johnson's  Universal 
Cyclopadia  (now  the  Universal  Cyclopedia) 
from  1802  to  1895.  Among  his  publications 
are  Democracy  and  Monarchy  in  France  ( 1872) ; 
a  Taluable  Manual  of  Hiatorical  lAterature 
(1882);  Britiah  Orationa  (1884),  and  Chriaio- 
pher  Columhua,  Hia  Life  and  Work  (1892). 


I,  Ghables  R.  (1848-1900).  An  Amer- 
ican dramatic  tenor.  He  was  born  at  Charles- 
town,  Mass.  He  studied  in  Vienna,  and  sang 
for  three  years  at  the  Royal  Opera,  Berlin,  and 
for  nine  years  at  the  Imperial  Opera,  Vienna. 
Tbouffh  he  was  an  American,  his  reputation, 
especially  as  a  Wagnerian  singer,  was  earned 
chiefly  abroad.  In  1879  he  took  up  his  residence 
in  Boston,  where  he  was  highly  esteemed  as  a 
teacher. 

ADAKS,  EDwnr  (1834-77).  An  American 
actor.  He  was  bom  in  Massachusetts,  and  first 
appeared  at  the  Boston  National  Theatre,  August 
29,  1853,  as  Stephen  in  The  Hunchback.  He 
played  Hamlet  with  Kate  Bateman  and  J.  W. 
Wallack  at  the  New  York  Winter  Garden  in 
1860,  and  then  starred  in  all  the  principal  cities; 
reappeared  in  New  York  in  1866,  as  Robert 
Landry  in  The  Dead  Heart;  was  in  the  company 
wbm  Booth's  Theatre  opened,  February  3,  1867, 
and  played  Mercutio,  lago,  and  Enoch  Arden  in 
that  house.  It  was  in  the  latter  character  that 
he  attracted  the  most  attention.  He  visited  Aus- 
tralia, where  his  health  failed. 


,y  Fbedcriok  W.  (1787-1859).  An 
American  physician  and  violin-maker.  He  was 
bom  at  Pawlet,  Vt.,  studied  at  Dartmouth  Col- 
Icfte,  and  practiced  with  much  success  as  a 
physician.  He  made  a  number  of  excellent 
violinfl  of  wood  selected  by  himself  from  the 
foresta  of  Vermont  and  Canada.  He  published 
Tkeoloffioal  OHticiam  (1843). 


ADAMS,  Hannah  (1755-1832).  One  of  the 
earliest  American  women  writers.  She  was  the 
author  of  Vieu)a  of  Religioua  Opiniona  (1784) ; 
Hiatory  of  New  England  (1799) ;  Evidencea  of 
Christianity  (1801)  and  a  Hiatory  of  the  Jewa 
(1812),  all  of  which  brought  fame,  but  little 
money.    Her  home  was  in  Srookline,  Mass. 

ADAHS,  Henbt  (1838—).  An  American 
historian,  third  son  of  Charles  Francis  Adams 
(q.v.).  He  was  born  in  Boston  and  graduated  at 
Harvard  in  1858.  He  was  private  secretary  to 
his  father  when  the  latter  was  Minister  to  Eng- 
land, assistant  professor  of  history  at  Har- 
vard from  1870  to  1877,  and  editor  of  the 
North  American  Review  in  1875  and  1876.  One 
of  the  fruits  of  his  original  methods  of  instruc- 
tion was  a  volume  of  Eaaaya  on  Anglo-Saxon 
Law  (1876),  of  which  he  wrote  the  first,  on 
Anglo-Saxon  Court  a  of  Law,  The  others  were 
by  H.  C.  Lodge,  £.  Young,  and  J.  L.  McLaugh- 
lin. He  subsequently  made  his  home  in  Wash- 
ington, and  devoted  himself  to  a  stud^  of  the 
administrations  of  Jefferson  and  Madison,  the 
results  of  which  appeared  in  nine  volumes  as  a 
History  of  the  United  Statea  from  1801  to  1817 
(1889-90),  a  work  of  original  research.  He 
previously  edited  the  writings  of  Albert  Gal- 
latin (3  volumes,  1879),  and  wrote  a  life  of  John 
Randolph  (1882;  second  edition,  1898)  for  the 
American  Statesmen  Series. 

ADAICS,  Henbt  Cabteb  (1852 — ).  An 
American  economist.  He  was  born  in  Davenport^ 
la.,  and  was  educated  at  Iowa  College  and  Johns 
Hopkins  University.  He  was  statistician  to  the 
Interstate  Commerce  Commission  and  special 
agent  of  the  eleventh  census,  in  charge  of  the 
department  of  transportation,  and  is  professor 
of  political  economy  and  finance  at  the  Univer- 
sity of  Michigan.  His  publications,  besides  re- 
ports, include:  Taxation  in  the  United  Statea, 
1789-1816  (1884);  Public  Debta  (1887);  Rela- 
tion of  the  Statea  to  Induatrial  Action  ( 1887 ) ; 
Relation  of  American  Municipalitiea  to  Quasi" 
Public  Worka  (1888). 

ADAMS,  Hebbebt  Baxtbb  (1850-1901).  An 
American  educator  and  historian.  He  was  bom 
at  Amherst,  Mass.,  and  educated  at  Amherst 
College.  He  took  his  doctor's  degree  at  Heidel- 
berg and  then  became  connected  with  the  Johns 
Hopkins  University  at  its  inception  in  1876. 
He  was  made  associate  professor  of  history  in 

1883  and  professor  in  1891.  Owing  to  ili  healthy 
he  resigned  in  1901.  He  edited  the  valuable 
Johna  Hopkina  Studiea  in  Hiatory  and  Po- 
litical  Science  from  the  beginning,  and  an  im- 
portant series  of  monographs  on  American  edu- 
cational history  published  by  the  United  States 
Bureau  of  Education.  Among  his  many  mono- 
graphs may  be  cited:  The  Oermanic  Origin  of 
the  New  England  Towna,  baryland'a  Influence 
Upon  Land  Ceaaiona  to  the  United  States,  and 
Thomaa  Jefferaon  and  the  Univeraity  of  Vir- 
ginia. His  most  important  work  is  The  Life  and 
Writinga  of  Jared  Sparka  (2  volumes,  1893). 
Dr.  Adams's  influence  upon  historical  studies  in 
America,  especially  through  the  numerous  pupils 
whom  he  trained,  was  very  beneficial.  He 
took  great  interest  in  university  extension,  and  in 
the  work  of  the  American  Historical  Association, 
of  which  he  was  secretary  from  its  founding  in 

1884  until  1900,  when  he  resigned  and  was  made 
first  vice-president. 


ADAK& 


104 


ADAKS,  Isaac  (1803-8S).  An  American 
inventor.  He  was  bom  at  Rochester,  K  H.  He 
was  at  first  an  operative  in  a  cotton  factory  and 
afterward  a  cabinet  maker,  and  in  1824  began 
work  in  a  Boston  machine  shop.  In  1828  he  in- 
vented the  printing  press  now  known  by  his 
name,  and  in  1834  greatly  improved  it.  The 
original  feature  of  the  press  was  the  elevation 
of  a  flat  bed  against  a  stationary  platen.  Mr. 
Adams  was  a  member  of  the  senate  of  Massachu- 

^  setts  in  1840. 

ADAMS,  John  (1735-1826).  The  second 
President  of  the  United  States.     He  was  born 

.  at  Quincy,  Mass.,  October  30,  1735,  of  a  family 
descended  from  Henry  Adams,  a  Puritan  emi- 
grant who  settled  in  Massachusetts  about  1640. 
He  f[raduated  from  Harvard  in  1755,  and,  after 
an  interval  of  teaching,  studied  law,  and  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1758.    In  1764  he  married 
Abigail  Smith,  daughter  of  the  minister  at  Wey- 
mouth,   a    woman    who    herself    became    con- 
spicuous,  and   whose   influence   and   assistance 
were   important   factors   throughout  the  entire 
career  of  her  husband.     (See  ^ams,  Abigail.) 
Soon  after  he  went  into  politics,  and,  although 
not  a  resident  of  Boston,  was  selected  to  act  as 
counsel  with  Gridley  and  Otis  in  presenting  to 
the  governor  a  memorial  against  the  Stamp  Act 
(q.v.) .    Adams  then  took  the  bold  stand  that  the 
act  was  void  because  Parliament  had  no  right  to 
tax  the  colonists,  and  that  such  statutes  could 
have  no  possible  force  over  persons  who  had  not 
consented  to  the  passage  thereof.     In  1768  he 
moved  to  Boston,  and  soon  after  was  offered,  and 
declined,  the  position  of  advocate-general  in  the 
Court  of  Admiralty,  an  office  which  would  have 
^eatly  increased  his  professional  opportunities, 
though  it  would  have  placed  him  under  embar- 
rassing obligations  to  the  Royalist  politicians. 
Two  years  afterward  he  was  able,  without  prej- 
udicing himself  among  the  patriot  party,  to  ren- 
der   the   unique   service   of    defending   Captain 
Preston  in  the  Boston  Massacre  case  and  secur- 
ing his  acquittal.     He  had  already  written  on 
taxation  for  the  Boston  Oazetie,  and  he  again 
published  articles  at  the  time  of  the  controversy 
over  the  independence  of  the  Judiciary,  collabo- 
rated in  the  authorship  of  the  reply  to  Hutchin- 
son in  1773,  and  later  produced  the  "Novanglus" 
articles  in  reply  to  the  Tory,  Leonard.    He  was 
closely  associated  with   Samuel   Adams  in  the 
political  leadership  of  Massachusetts,  especially 
m  the  legislative  crisis  of  June,  1774,  and  then 
was  chosen  by  the  House  of  Representatives  as 
one  of  their  five  delegates  to  the  Continental 
Congress.     In  that  body   his   energy  was   de- 
vot^  to  the  adoption  of  a  comprehensive  pro- 
gramme having  three  distinct  elements — the  or- 
ganization of  commonwealth  governments  on  an 
independent  basis,  the  formation  of  a  national 
confederate  government,   and  the  establishment 
of    diplomatic    relations    with    foreign    powers. 
The  first  victory  was  gained  when  the  Congress 
passed  the  resolutions  of  May  10  and  15,  1776, 
recommending  to  all  colonies  the  formation  of 
State  governments  on  a  basis  such  as  to  serve 
them  if  permanently  independent.     This  made 
natural,  if  not  inevitable,  the  formal  Declaration 
of  Independence  (q.v.),  the  original  motion  for 
which   was  seconded  by  Adams,  who  now  was 

S laced   on   the   committee   which    drafted    that 
ocument. 

For  three  years  he  was  a  most  arduous  worker 
in  advancing  the  plans  of  Confess  and  in  per- 


fecting the  details  of  the  new  national  govern- 
ment, serving  on  numberless  committees,  and 
being  placed  at  the  head  of  several  important 
ones  at  a  time  when  the  congressional 
committees  were  the  heads  of  the  undeveloped 
executive  departments.  Especially  in  the  War 
Department,  and  to  a  considerable  extent  in  the 
Navy  Department,  was  his  influence  great  and 
his  work  attended  with  quite  permanent  results, 
while  his  membership  of  the  committee  on  for- 
eign relations  enabled  him  to  become  equipped 
for  the  service  by  which  later  he  attained  dis- 
tinction. In  1778  he  was  sent  to  France  to  super- 
sede Silas  Deane;  but  his  stay  was  brief,  the 
treaty  between  that  country  and  the  United 
States  having  been  concluded  just  before  his  de- 
parture from  Boston.  During  his  attendance 
upon  the  Continental  Congress  he  continued  to  be 
an  active  counselor  of  the  leaders  in  Massachu- 
setts, although  he  declined  the  office  of  chief  jus- 
tice of  the  State.  He  was  an  active  member 
of  the  committee  of  three  which  drafted  the  first 
constitution  of  Massachusetts.  To  that  work  he 
came  almost  directly  from  his  first  mission  to 
France,  and  from  it  he  proceeded  at  once  to  un- 
dertake his  further  duties  of  securing  from  Hol- 
land support  for  the  national  finances,  and  of 
negotiating,  with  the  other  commissioners,  terms 
of  peace  with  England. 

His  success  in  effecting  a  loan  in  Holland  was 
preceded  by  several  months  of  difficult  diplo- 
macy, the  result  of  which  was  that  in  April, 
1782,  the  Dutch  Government  formally  recognized 
Adams  as  the  minister  of  an  independent  na- 
tion. Stimulated  by  this  notable  accomplish- 
ment and  by  the  realization  that  upon  his  ex- 
ertions depended  the  New  Englanders'  rights  in 
the  Newfoundland  fisheries,  Adams  entered  upon 
the  negotiations  at  Paris  with  a  spirit  of  inde- 
pendence and  of  determination  which,  although 
seeming  to  occasion  rather  than  to  allay  em- 
barrassments, contributed  much  to  the  success- 
ful issue. 

The  post  of  minister  to  Great  Britain  waa 
next  occupied  by  Adams,  but  the  relations  be- 
tween the  countries  were  still  such  as  to  make 
the  life  irksome  to  one  of  Adams's  temperament, 
especially  as  his  desire  to  be  recalled  was 
strengthened  by  his  belief  that  the  service  he 
was  rendering  was  bringing  no  particular  bene- 
fit to  his  country.  Accordingly,  in  tiie  spring 
of  1788,  he  returned,  having  already  shown  in 
detail  his  views  on  American  affairs  in  his  elabo- 
rate Defence  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States  (3  volumes,  London,  1787).  He  was 
elected  vice-president  at  the  first  election  under 
the  new  constitution  and  served  for  two  terms, 
exercising,  in  the  formative  years  of  political 
parties  and  in  the  time  of  nearly  equal  division 
of  the  Senate  between  them,  a  power  seldom 
possessed  by  a  vice-president.  Where  matters 
of  foreign  policy  raised  the  questions  at  issue, 
Adams  sympathized  with  England,  and  thus  was 
thrown  into  opposition  to  the  friends  of  France, 
led  by  Jefferson.  In  matters  of  internal  policy, 
also,  he  supported  the  programme  of  Hamilton, 
and  where  party  lines  were  finally  drawn  he  was 
recognized  as  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  Federal- 
ists. By  them  he  was  advanced  to  the  presi- 
dency at  the  same  time  that,  under  the  system 
then  prevailing,  the  leader  of  the  opposing  party 
became  vice-president.  Jefferson's  success  in 
1800,  was  made  possible,  however,  largely  by  the 
developments  of  Federalist  policy  and  of  factional 


105 


ADAMS. 


eoniroveny  within  tbe  party.  Upon  Adams's 
aeoesBion  to  office,  relations  with  France  had 
been  complicated  by  the  Directory's  refusal  to 
reoehre  Pinckney,  and  when  finally  the  joint  mis- 
sion of  Pinckney,  Marshall,  and  Gerry  met  with 
highly  questionable  treatment,  the  prospect 
«eemed  dubious.  (See  X  Y  Z  Correspond- 
BifCB.)  War  seemed  imminent,  and  indeed  there 
were  hostile  encounters  on  the  water.  Prepara- 
tions for  the  struggle  were  coupled  with  the  ef- 
fort to  repress  the  violent  opposition  to  the  policy 
of  the  administration  through  the  harsh  means 
of  the  Alien  and  Sedition  Acts  (q.T.) . 

War  having  been  averted,  it  was  at  once  recog- 
nised that  the  Federalists  in  these  statutes  had 
gone  too  far  in  restraining  the  rights  of  the  in- 
Sividual  and  in  encroaching  upon  the  jurisdic- 
tion of  the  States.  Certain  it  was  that  in  his 
thoroughness  Adams  had  given  his  opponents  a 
Tery  welcome  and  a  very  powerful  means  of  at- 
tack, of  which  they  promptly  and  vigorously  took 
advantage,  and  at  once  began,  by  such  steps  as 
the  Virginia  and  Kentuclqr  resolutions  (q.v.), 
the  campaign  which  finally  established  the  party 
of  the  opposite  doctrine.  This  establishment 
was  made  easy  also  by  the  internal  weakening 
of  the  Federalist  party  in  the  bitter  fight  for 
leadership  between  Adams  and  Hamilton.  The 
retirement  of  Adams  thus  occurred  amid  the 
hostility  of  his  enemies  and  the  hatred  of  those 
who  were  his  party  associates.  Nor  was  it  pos- 
sible to  expect  any  relief  from  the  painfulness 
of  such  a  situation  when  the  defeated  one  pos- 
aesaed  a  manner  and  a  temperament  such  as  were 
Adams's.  Consequently,  aside  from  intermittent 
criticism  and  counter  critieiam,  and  aside  from 
service  in  the  Massachusetts  Constitutional 
Convention  of  1820,  this  retirement  continued 
unbroken.  He  died  July  4,  1826,  on  the  same 
4iay  as  Jefferson.  President  John  Quincy  Adams 
was  his  son. 

Consult:  His  Works,  with  a  biography,  edited 
by  C.  F.  Adams,  10  volumes  (Boston,  1850-56) ; 
also  his  biography,  J.  T.  Morse  (Boston,  1884) ; 
TPte  Letters  of  Abigail  and  John  Adams  (Boston, 
1840-41),  and  Familiar  Letters  of  John  Adams 
and  His  Wife  During  the  Revolution;  With  a 
Memoir  of  Mrs.  Adams,  edited  by  C.  F.  Adams 
<New  York,  1876). 


John  (1760-1820).  The  assumed 
name  of  Alexander  Smith,  one  of  the  mutine<Ts 
of  the  English  ship  Bounty,  With  eight  sailors 
and  some  men  and  women  from  Tahiti  he  landed 
on  Pitcaim  Island  and  formed  a  government,  of 
which  he  was  the  head.  In  1800  he  was  the  only 
surviving  Englishman.  He  established  worship 
and  such  a  school  as  was  possible.  In  1808*  Cap- 
tain Folffer,  an  American,  landed  there  and 
brought  the  world  the  first  news  of  this  strange 
settlement.  Adams  had  not  heard  a  word  from 
civilized  countries  for  twenty  years.  England 
never  sought  to  punish  him,  and  he  died  in  peace, 
leaving  a  prosperous  and  religious  people.  See 
PrrcAiRN  Island. 


(,  John  (1772-1863).  An  American 
teacher.  He  was  bom  in  Connecticut,  gradu- 
ated at  Yale,  1705,  and  after  teaching  for  fifteen 
▼ears  in  secondary  schools  in  New  Jersey  and 
his  native  State,  became  principal  of  Phillips 
Academy,  Andover,  Mass.  That  place  he  filled 
for  twenty-three  years,  resigning  in  1833.  Beside 
having  built  up  one  of  the  historic  schools  of 
England,  Dr.  Adams  is  remembered  as  the 


schoolmaster   of   Oliver   Wendell   Holmes,   and 
the  subject  of  the  lines: 

**  Uneuj  lie  the  heads  of  all  that  rale— 
His  most  of  HI  whose  kingdom  la  a  school.'* 

Consult:  M.  E.  B.  and  H.  G.  B.,  The  Story  of 
John    Adams,    a    New    England    Sohoolmaster 
(1900). 

ADAMS,  John  Cough  (1810-92).  An  Eng- 
lish astronomer.  He  was  born  near  Launceston, 
in  (ZIornwall,  and  early  manifested  an  aptitude 
for  mathematics.  After  the  usual  amount  of 
school  training  he  was  sent  to  St.  John's  College, 
Cambridge,  where  he  attained  the  honor  of  senior 
wrangler,  and  became  a  mathematical  tutor.  In 
1843  ne  attempted  to  ascertain  by  mathematical 
calculation  whether  certain  observed  irregulari- 
ties in  the  motion  of  Uranus  could  be  explained 
on  the  hypothesis  of  perturbation  (q.v.)  exer- 
cised by  an  exterior  planet.  The  problem  at 
issue  was  the  inverse  of  the  usual  perturbation 
problem.  Instead  of  computing  the  effect 
brought  about  by  a  planet  of  known  mass  pur- 
suing a  known  orbit,  it  was  required  to  deter- 
mine the  imknown  cause  of  a  known  effect.  By 
1845  Adams  had  solved  this  new  problem,  and 
was  able  to  assign  to  the  hypothetical  planet, 
the  now  well  known  Neptune,  a  position  differing 
less  than  two  degrees  from  its  actual  place  in 
the  sky.  But  a  careful  telescopic  search  was  at 
the  time  postponed  or  neglected,  so  that  the  honor 
of  the  great  discovery  completing  Adams's  math- 
ematical researches  by  an  observational  verifi- 
cation was  lost  to  6reat  Britain.  Leverrier, 
of  Paris,  had  been  making  an  independent  inves- 
tigation, and  by  August  31,  1846,  he  too  had 
determined  Neptune's  place  in  the  sky.  He 
wrote  to  Galle  at  Berlin,  and  the  latter  found 
the  planet  on  September  23  of  the  same  year. 
This  mathematical  discovery  of  Neptune  is  justly 
counted  among  the  greatest  triumphs  of  science. 

ADAMS,  John  Quincy  (1767-1848).  The 
sixth  President  of  the  United  States  and  son 
of  the  second  President,  John  Adams.  He  was 
born  in  Quincy,  Mass.,  July  11,  1707.  In  1778 
he  was  taken  abroad  by  his  father  when  the 
latter  visited  Paris  on  a  diplomatic  mission,  and 
only  three  years  later,  after  studying  for  brief 
periods  at  Paris,  Leyden,  and  Amsterdam,  the 
youth  was  appointed  private  secretary  to  Francis 
Dana,  the  American  minister  to  Russia.  After 
some  service  at  St.  Petersbur^j,  Adams  again 
joined  his  father,  then  negotiating  the  final 
peace  at  Paris;  but  when,  after  the  conclusion 
of  that  important  work,  the  elder  Adams  was 
rewarded  with  the  English  mission,  the  younger 
Adams  adopted  the  significant  and  even  remark- 
able course  of  returning  home  and  entering  Har- 
vard College. 

Upon  his  graduation  there  in  1787  he  began 
the  study  of  law  with  Theophilus  Parsons  (q.v.), 
and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1790.  He  con- 
tributed to  the  political  literature  of  the  time, 
discussing  the  theories  of  Tom  Paine,  and  es- 
pecially the  Genet  incident  (see  Genet,  E.  C), 
and  our  relations  with  France.  His  unusual 
opportunities  and  training  were  readily  recog- 
nized, and  in  1794  Washington  sent  him  as 
minister  to  The  Hague.  Later  he  was  appointed 
to  the  Portuguese  mission,  but  before  he  had 
entered  upon  the  duties  of  that  office  his  father 
had  become  President,  and  the  son,  upon  the 
recommendation  .of  Washington  himself,  was 
transferred  to  the  more  responsible  post  of  min- 


106 


ADAMS. 


iflter  to  Prussia.  His  father  recalled  him  in 
1801,  in  order  that  his  successor  in  the  presidency 
might  be  under  no  embarrassment.  In  the  year 
following  his  return  Adams  was  sent  to  the 
State  Senate,  and  in  1803  the  Massachusetts 
legislature  sent  him  to  the  United  States  Senate 
in  preference  to  Timothy  Pickering  (q.v.)* 

While  in  the  Senate  he  gave  his  support  to  the 
purchase  of  Louisiana  (q.y.)>  although  he  dis- 
agreed with  the  administration  upon  some  of  the 
ensuing  problems,  and  also  approved  the  policy 
of  the  embargo  and  the  non-importation  acts. 
The  result  was  that  the  former  Federalist  and 
the  representative  of  a  strongly  Federalist  State 
became  a  hearty  advocate  of  the  Republican 
administration,  and  in  consequence  the  atti- 
tude of  his  constituents  became  so  critical  that 
in  1808  Adams  resigned  his  seat.  He  was,  how- 
ever, so  identified  with  the  party  in  power  that 
in  1809  President  Madison  appointed  him  Min- 
ister to  Russia.  While  there  he  was  named  as 
one  of  the  commissioners  who  were  to  act  in  con- 
nection with  the  mediation  proposed  by  Russia, 
but  which  was  made  impossible  by  the  declina- 
tion of  England.  He  was  soon  appointed,  how- 
ever, one  of  the  five  negotiators  who  concluded 
the  Treaty  of  Ghent  (q.v.)  at  the  close  of  the 
War  of  1812. 

From  that  work  Adams  proceeded  to  London, 
where  he  served  as  Minister  to  England  until  his 
varied  and  remarkable  diplomatic  career  was 
ended  in  1817  by  his  appointment  by  President 
Monroe  to  the  post  of  Secretary  of  State.  His 
work  as  secretary  was  concerned  with  the  diffi- 
cult negotiations  which  in  1819  ended  in  the  pur- 
chase of  Florida,  the  more  delicate  relations 
with  England  with  reference  to  the  fisheries 
convention  of  1818  and  the  conflicting  claims 
in  the  Columbia  River  basin,  and  the  more  far- 
reaching  steps  taken  to  counteract  the  encroach- 
ments of  the  Holy  Alliance,  in  connection  with 
which  was  announced  the  Monroe  Doctrine  (q.v.), 
8o  that  some  credited  the  latter  to  Adams.  As 
a  member  of  the  cabinet,  aside  from  matters  of 
diplomacy,  he  took  a  unique  position  in  uphold- 
ing General  Jackson  for  his  conduct  in  the 
Florida  War,  and  in  rendering  a  highly  valuable 
service  to  his  later  antagonist. 

By  virtue  of  his  position,  the  friends  of  Adams 
expected  that  in  1824  he  would  be  advanced  in 
the  same  manner  as  Madison  and  Monroe,  who 
had  each  in  turn  passed  from  the  state  de- 
partment to  the  presidency.  The  nominations, 
however,  were  still  made  by  the  congressional 
caucus,  which  at  this  time  was  controlled  by 
Crawford.  Moreover,  the  newly  formed  trans- 
Alleghany  States  were  pressing  their  claims 
for  recognition,  so  that  the  revolt  against  the 
old  nominating  system  and  the  crystallizing 
of  the  various  factions  within  the  one  great 
party  alone  remaining  active  led  te  the  candi- 
dacy of  four  Republicans  in  1824.  Of  these, 
Jackson  received  99  electoral  votes,  Adams  84, 
Crawford  41,  and  Clay  37.  When  the  vote, 
according  to  the  Constitution,  was  thus  given  to 
the  House  of  Representatives,  choosing  from 
among  the  three  highest,  the  Clay  interests 
joined  with  those  of  Adams  and  effected  the 
defeat  of  Jackson.  Adams,  upon  his  accession, 
made  Clay  his  Secretary  of  State,  and  not  only 
brought  upon  himself  charges  of  corruption,  but 
also  secured  the  vigorous  enmity  of  the  rapidly 
increasing  Jackson  wing  of  the  Republican 
party.    To  offset  this,  Adams  was  not  qualified 


to  exert  the  influence  usually  attaching  to  a 
political  leader,  nor  was  he  able  so  to  make  use 
of  his  office  as  to  build  up  an  Adams  faction 
that  could  hope  to  wage  a  successful  warfare 
with  the  embittered  Jacksonians.  It  was  nat- 
ural, therefore,  that  after  four  troublous  and  not 
particularly  profitable  years,  Adams  should  be 
overwhelmed  in  the  election  of  1828.  Instead 
of  going  into  retirement,  he  adopted  the  unpre- 
cedented course  of  returning  to  Washington 
as  a  member  of  the  House  of  Representatives, 
and  in  that  capacity  rendered  still  further 
and  conspicuous  service  te  the  nation  from 
1830  until  his  death.  Being  practically  above 
party  restraints,  he  was  free  to  do  a  work 
which  made  notable  the  later  ^ears  of  "the 
old  man  eloquent."  The  slavery  issue  appeared 
in  Congress  in  two  forms,  involving  the  question 
of  the  right  of  the  government  or  of  its  officials  to 
exclude  abolitionist  literature  from  the  mails, 
and  involving  the  question  whether  petitioners 
to  the  House  of  Representatives  might  demand 
that  their  petitions  should  be  read,  even  if  not 
considered.  The  former  problem  provoked  a  long 
and  severe  dispute,  while  the  second  controversy 
was  made  acute  by  the  introduction  of  the  ''Gag 
Rules"  (q.v.),  which,  Adams  contended,  substen- 
tially  destroyed  the  right  of  petition,  and  against 
which  he  labored  vigorously,  and  in  the  end 
successfully.  Late  in  1846  he  was  stricken  with 
paralysis,  and  early  in  1848  he  was  again  strick- 
en, while  in  his  seat  in  the  House,  and  died  two 
days  later,  on  ]<'ebruary  23,  1848. 

Adams  followed  the  example  of  his  father  in 
keeping  an  extensive  diary,  which  is  included  in 
his  Memoirs,  edited  by  C.  F.  Adams  ( 12  volumes, 
Philadelphia,  1874-77).  For  his  biography  con- 
sult: W.  H.  Seward,  Life  of  Adams  (Auburn, 
1849),  and  Quincy,  Memoir  (Bosten,  1858)  ;  or, 
for  the  most  recent  work,  Morse,  John  Quincjf 
Adams  (Bosten,  1882). 

ADAMS,  John  Quincy,  2d  (1833-94).  An 
American  politician.  He -was  born  in  Bosten, 
the  grandson  of  President  J.  Q.  Adams  and  son 
of  Charles  Francis  Adams.  He  graduated  at 
Harvard,  1853,  and  became  a  lawyer.  He  served 
three  terms  in  the  Massachusetts  Legislature, 
and  was  an  unsuccessful  candidate  for  governor 
on  the  Democratic  ticket  in  18(57  and  1871.  In 
1872  he  was  nominated  for  the  vice-presidency  on 
the  ticket  with  Charles  O'Conor  by  those  Demo- 
crate  who  would  not  support  Horace  Greeley. 

ADAMS,  Julius  Walkeb  (1812-99).  An 
American  civil  engineer.  He  was  born  at  Bos- 
ten, Mass.,  studied  for  two  years  at  the  United 
States  Military  Academy,  and  from  1833  to  1869 
was  connected  as  engineer  with  various  railways 
and  public  works.  From  1869  to  1878  he  was 
chief  engineer  of  the  Brooklyn  board  of  city 
works,  and  from  1878  te  1889  consulting  engi- 
neer of  the  board  of  public  works  of  New  York 
City.  A  suggestion  of  his  led  to  the  formation 
of  a  company  which  eventually  had  charge  of 
building  the  first  bridge  over  the  East  River  at 
New  York.  During  the  Civil  War  he  for  a  time 
commanded  the  First  Long  Island  Volunteers, 
and  during  the  New  York  draft  riots  of  1863 
commanded  the  troops  at  Printing  House  Square. 

ADAMS,  Maude  Kiskaoden  (1872 — ).  A 
popular  American  actress.  She  was  bom  at 
Salt  Lake  City,  November  11,  1872,  and  is  the 
daughter  of  an  actress.  She  first  appeared  on 
the  stage  in  the  West,  in  children's  parte,  when 


ADAMa 


lor 


ADAHa 


very  young.  At  sixteen  she  joined  E.  H. 
Sothem'a  company  in  New  York,  and  played  in 
The  Midnight  Belh  Afterward  she  was  a  mem- 
ber of  Charles  Frohman's  stock  company.  With 
John  Drew  in  The  Masked  Ball  (1892)  she  made 
an  extraordinary  advance  in  public  favor. 
She  became  a  star  as  Lady  Baobie  in  The 
Little  Minister,  produced  in  New  York 
(1898),  where  in  1899  she  played  Juliet  to  the 
Romeo  of  William  Faversnam.  In  1900  and 
1901  she  won  another  popular  success  as  the 
Due  de  Reichstadt  in  Rostand's  L'AigUm,  which 
was  also  played  in  New  York  the  same  season  by 
Sarah  Bernhardt.  The  next  season  she  appeared 
in  a  more  characteristic  part,  as  Miss  Phoebe  in 
Barriers  new  comedy  of  Quality  Street,  Consult: 
Clapp  and  Edgett,  Players  of  tfie  Present,  in 
Dunlap  Society  Publications  (New  York,  1899). 

ADAMS,  Nehemiah  (1806-78).  An  Ameri- 
can Congregational  clergyman.  He  was  born 
in  Salem,  Mass.,  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1826, 
and  three  years  later  at  Andover  Theological 
Seminary.  He  then  became  pastor  in  Cambridge, 
Mass.,  and  from  1834  was  pastor  of  the  Essex 
Street  Church,  Boston.  After  a  winter  spent  in 
Georgia  for  his  health,  he  published  A  South  Side 
View  of  Slavery  (1854).  His  praise  of  the  effect 
of  slavery  on  the  religious  character  of  the  ne- 
groes provoked  much  hostile  criticism.  He  pub- 
lished several  controversial  works  and  a  Life  of 
John  Eliot. 

ADAMS,  Oscar  Fat.  (1855  — ).  An  Amer- 
ican editor  and  author.  He  was  bom  at  Wor- 
cester, Mass.,  was  educated  in  secondary  schools, 
taught  classes  in  English  literature,  and  since 
ISSO  has  lArittenmuoh  for  periodicals.  He  has 
edited  Through  the  Year  With  the  Poets  (12 
volumes,  1886),  and  published  The  Story  of  Jane 
Austen's  Life  (1891;  second  edition,  1896),  The 
Archbishop's  Unguarded  Moment,  and  Other  Sto- 
riee  (1899),  a  Dictionary  of  American  Authors 
(revised  edition,  1901),  and  several  other  com- 
pilations. 

ADAMS,  Parson  Abraham.  A  leading  char- 
acter in  Fielding's  novel,  Joseph  Andrews,  He 
is  a  country  curate,  a  very  learned  scholar, 
skilled  in  dead  and  living  languages  but  excess- 
ively simple-minded  and  unfamiliar  with  the 
ways  of  the  world.  In  spite  of  his  poverty,  his 
generosity  and  native  dignity  command  respect; 
his  oddities,  however,  and  his  absence  of  mind 
bring  him  into  many  quaint  adventures. 

ADAMS,  Samuel  (1722-1803).  One  of  the 
leading  men  in  the  promotion  of  the  American 
Revolution.  He  was  born  in  Boston,  Mass.,  Sep- 
tember 27«  1722,  of  an  aristocratic  family,  and, 
like  John  Adams,  the  second  President  of  the 
United  States,  was  descended  from  Henry 
Adams,  a  Puritan  emigrant.  He  fitted  for  col- 
lege at  the  Boston  Latin  School,  and  entered 
Harvard  in  1736.  On  leaving  college  in  1740,  he 
entered  a  law  office;  but  the  law  proving  dis- 
tasteful, he  next  entered  a  counting-house,  and 
soon  became  a  merchant  himself,  but  failed. 
Subsequently  he  became  a  partner  with  his 
father  in  a  brewery,  and  failea  after  the  latter's 
death.  As  a  business  man,  he  seems  throughout 
to  have  been  a  complete  failure ;  and  the  burden 
thus  thrown  on  the  other  members  of  the  family 
was  increased  later  by  the  complete  absorption 
with  which  he  devoted  his  time  and  energy  exclu- 
sively to  political  affairs  and  public  service. 
When  A  candidate  for  the  degree  of  A.M.  at 


Harvard  College,  he  had  maintained  in  his  thesis 
the  affirmative  of  the  question:  Whether  it  be 
lawful  to  resist  the  supreme  magistrate,  if  the 
commonwealth  cannot  be  otherwise  preserved. 

He  was  early  engaged  in  the  activities  of  town 
politics  in  Boston;  and  the  overthrow  of  the 
Land  Bank,  with  the  incidental  destruction  of 
his  father's  estate,  brought  him  into  contact 
with  provincial  affairs  and  decisively  influenced 
his  general  attitude  toward  the  home  government. 
His  formal  entry  into  politics  was  in  his  election 
as  a  tax  collector  of  Boston  in  1763,  an  office 
which  he  held  for  two  years.  His  careless,  or  at 
all  events  unsuccessful,  performance  of  the  duties 
of  that  office  soon  afforded  his  opponents  the 
basis  for  a  vigorous  though  ineffectual  attack, 
but  both  his  personal  integrity  and  political 
uprightness  remained  above  suspicion.  By  him 
were  drafted  the  important  instructions  given 
by  the  town  of  Boston  to  its  representatives  in 
the  assembly  in  1764,  and  in  these  was  put  forth 
one  of  the  earliest  protests  against  the  minis- 
terial plan  of  colonial  taxation. 

Likewise  in  1765  Adams  drafted  the  Boston 
instructions  to  representatives,  and  in  the  same 
year   he   himself  was   sent   to  the  Legislature. 
Being  elected  clerk  of  the  House  in  1766,  and 
also  serving  on  many  committees,  it  was  natural 
that  he  should  be  the  author  of  many  of  the  most 
important   State  documents  of  the  pre-revolu- 
tionary   period.      Instructions   to   the    political 
agent    in   London,   addresses   to   the  governor, 
appeals  to  the  ministry,  and  proposals  or  exhor- 
tations addressed  to  fellow  colonists,   in  great 
number  issued  from  the  Massachusetts  House  of 
Representatives,  and   in   many   instances   came 
from  the  pen  of  Adams.    Thus  the  very  influen- 
tial circular  letter  of  February,  1768,  as  well 
as  the  True  Sentiments  of  America,  issued  in 
the  same  year,  and  the  widely  read  Appeal  to 
the  World  of    1769,  have  been   traced   to   the 
authorship  of  Adams.     Later,  in  1772,  he  pre- 
pared for  the  town  of  Boston  the  very  telling 
pamphlet  on  The  Rights  of  the  Colonists  as  Men, 
as  Christians,  and  as  Subjects,    Very  important 
as  were  all  these  contributions  to  the  movement 
toward    revolution,    the   most   effective    literary 
work  of  Adams  was,  undoubtedly,  the  great  num- 
ber of  newspaper  articles,  under  various  pseudo- 
nyms, in  the  patriotic  Boston  Gazette,    In  these 
he  made  plain  the  cause  of  the  colonists,  exposed 
the  impracticability  of  any  reconciliation,  con- 
verted the  hesitating  and  inspired  the  Radicals, 
and   exerted    a    very   far-reaching   influence    in 
preparing  the  popular  mind  for  revolution  and 
m   hastening   the   approach   of   the   crisis.     In 
practical  politics  as  well,  he  was  recognized  as 
a  leader  not  only  in  Massachusetts  but  in  the 
other  colonies.     He  bore  the  burden  of  the  long 
series   of   controversies   with   the  governors   of 
Massachusetts  over  the  presence  of  troops,  the 
salaries  of  judges,  and  the  place  of  meeting  of 
the  leglHlaturo:  and  at  the  time  of  the  BoHton 
Massacre  of  March,  1770,  headed  the  committee 
which  demanded  from  Hutchinson  the  immediate 
withdrawal  of  the  troops.     He  was  conspicuous 
in  planning  the  local  "committees  of  correspon- 
dence;"  and   when    Anally,   in   June,    1774,    the 
Massachusetts  legislature  bade  defiance  to  Gage 
and  issued  the  call  for  the  Continental  Congress, 
it  was  Adams  who  directed  the  movement. 

He  was  naturally  sent  to  the  Continental  Con- 
gress, and  when  that  body  finally  declared  for 
independence,  it  may  be  said  that  the  real  life 


ADAMS. 


108 


ADAMa 


work  of  Adams  had  been  completed.  He  had  been 
the  ideal  representative  of  the  town-meeting  sys- 
tem, the  extreme  defender  of  the  '^natural"  rights 
of  man,  and  the  irrepressible  advocate  of  inde- 
pendence. His  work  during  the  Revolution  was 
less  noteworthy,  and  was  at  times  open  to  crit- 
icism. Thus,  he  was  one  of  the  strongest  sup- 
porters of  the  committee  system  of  national 
administration,  and  one  of  those  who  delayed 
unnecessarily  and  unfortunately  the  organiza- 
tion of  executive  departments  under  single  heads. 
In  the  politics  of  his  native  State  he  always  took 
an  active  and  effective  interest.  He  was  one  of* 
the  committee  which  prepared  the  present  con- 
stitution of  the  State,  the  only  constitution  of 
the  revolutionary  period  still  in  force.  He 
served  on  the  executive  council  of  the  State,  was 
for  several  years  lieutenant-governor,  and  three 
times  was  elected  governor.  He  was  considered 
an  opponent  of  the  federal  constitution  in  17S8, 
but  on  his  finally  giving  his  voice  in  favor  of 
adoption,  with  the  proposal  of  amendments,  its 
ratification  was  assured.  He  died  in  Boston,  Oc- 
tober 2,  1803.  For  his  biography  consult:  W.  V. 
Wells  (3  volumes,  Boston,  1865) ;  J.  K.  Hosmer 
(Boston,  1885). 

ADAMS,  Sarah  Fuller  Flower  (1805-48). 
An  English  poetess.  She  was  born  at  Great  Har- 
low, Essex,  and  married  William  Bridges  Adams 
in  1834.  Her  longest  work  is  Vivia  Perpetua, 
A  Dramatic  Poem  (1841)^  having  as  its  subject 
the  earlv  life  of  the  Christians.  It  is  a  noble 
lyrical  drama.  Vivia's  monologue  on  forswear- 
ing Jupiter  is  especially  impressive.  Mrs.  Adams 
was  the  author  of  several  beautiful  hymns, 
among  which  are  "Nearer,  my  God,  to  Thee"  and 
''He  sendeth  sun.  He  sendeth  shower."  She  was  a 
Unitarian. 

ADAMS,  Suzanne  (1873 — ).  An  American 
.  lyric  soprano.  She  was  born  in  Cambridge,  Mass., 
November  28, 1873.  She  studied  with  Marchesi  in 
Paris,  and  made  her  d6but  at  the  Paris  Opera  in 
1894  as  Juliette  in  Gounod's  Rom^o  et  Juliette, 
She  remained  at  the  Opera  three  years,  then 
went  to  Nice.  In  the  summer  of  1898  she  ap- 
peared at  Covent  Garden,  London,  and  during 
the  season  of  1898-99  at  the  Metropolitan  Opera 
House,  New  York.  In  1898  she  was  mar- 
ried to  Leo  Stern,  the  violoncellist.  She  has 
sung  Juliette,  Marguerite,  Gilda,  Queen  in  Les 
Huguenots,  Queen  of  the  Night  in  the  Magic 
Flute,  Mimi,  Micaela,  and  other  soprano  rOles. 
Her  voice  is  of  beautiful  quality  and  great  com- 
pass, but  is  rather  slender. 

ADAMS,  Thomas.  An  English  preacher  in 
the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth  century,  called 
by  Southey  "the  prose  Shakespeare  of  Puritan 
theologians  .  .  .  scarcely  inferior  to  Fuller 
in  wit  or  to  Taylor  in  fancy."  He  was  minister 
at  Willington,  Wingrave,  and  London,  and  "ob- 
servant chaplain"  to  Sir  Henry  Montague,  the 
lord  chief  justice.  Adams  was  a  Puritan  within 
the  Church  of  England,  as  distinguished  from 
the  nonconformist  Puritans  who  left  the  church. 
He  published  a  large  number  of  sermons,  the 
quaint  titles  of  two  of  which  are:  Heaven  and 
Earth  Reconciled,  and  The  DeviVa  Banquet.  It 
is  likely  that  John  Bunyan  read  and  was  influ- 
enced by  these  writings.  They  have  been  repub- 
lished in  Nicholas  Puritan  Divines  (3  volumes, 
1862). 

ADAMS,  William  (  71576- T1  620).  The  first 
Englishman  in  Japan,  whose  romantic  story  is 


closely  connected  with  the  opening  of  that  em- 
pire. He  was  bom  in  Kent,  near  the  mouth  of 
the  Thames.  Having  entered  the  service  of  some 
Dutch  merchants,  he  sailed,  in  1598,  for  the 
east,  from  the  Texel,  as  the  chief  pilot  of  a  fleet 
of  five  small  ships.  After  a  severe  voyage,  the 
Charity,  in  which  Adams  was  sailing,  anchored 
off  the  coast  of  Bungo  (Kiushiu).  ly^yasu  had 
recently  come  to  power,  and  Adams,  after  a 
brief  imprisonment,  was  taken  into  his  favor 
and  employed  in  the  government  service,  to  its 
great  advantage.  He  built  vessels  and  gave  help- 
ful information  in  respect  to  the  intrigues  of 
the  Spanish  and  Portuguese.  At  a  later  day  he 
received  the  revenues  of  the  village  H6mi,  near 
Yokosuka,  the  modern  imperial  dockyard  in 
Yeddo  Bay.  In  1613,  the  Clove,  an  English  ship, 
brought  other  Englishmen  to  Firando,  and,  with 
Adams,  they  proceeded  to  establish  a  factory, 
of  which  Richard  Cocks  was  chief.  In  1616 
ly^yasu  died  and  foreigners  soon  fell  into  dis- 
favor. Not  being  allowed  to  return  to  his  wife 
and  children  in  England,  Adams  married  a  Japa- 
nese wife,  and  their  descendants  are  still  living. 
He  died  May  16,  1620,  and  was  buried  on  a  hill 
above  H^mi-Mura,  where  his  tomb  and  that  of 
his  Japanese  wife  were  discovered  in  1872  by 
James  Walter,  an  American.  A  street  in  Yedo 
was  named  after  him,  and  a  celebration  is  still 
held  in  his  honor.  Letters  of  Adams  may  be 
found  in  Purchas  his  Pilgrimes,  and  in  the  pub- 
lications of  the  Hakluyt  Society.  Consult:  The 
Diary  of  Richard  Cocks,  1615-22  (London,  1883) ; 
Hildreth,  Japan  as  It  Was  and  Is  (Boston, 
1855) ;  and  Griffis,  The  Mikado's  Empire  (New 
York,  1876). 

ADAMS,  William  (1814-48).  An  English 
allegorist.  He  was  educated  at  Eton  and  at  Mer- 
ton  College,  Oxford,  where  he  became  tutor  and 
fellow  in  1837.  Appointed  vicar  of  St.  Peter *s-in- 
the-East,  Oxford,  in  1840,  he  resigned  because  of 
his  ill  health,  and  passed  the  last  four  years  of 
his  life  at  Bonchurch,  Isle  of  Wight.  Adams 
was  the  author  of  several  popular  religious  alle- 
gories, most  of  which  were  written  during  the 
years  when  he  was  slowly  dying.  They  com- 
prise Bilvio,  The  Shadow  of  the  Cross,  Fall  of 
Uraesus,  The  Old  Man's  Home,  and  the  Kin^s 
Messengers.  They  are  all  of  interest,  and  the 
Old  Man's  Home  is  likely  long  to  survive,  be- 
cause of  its  natural  grace  and  charm.  Adams  is 
also  the  author  of  a  boy's  story  entitled  Cherry 
Stones,  reprints  of  which  are  still  frequent. 

ADAMS,  William  (1807-80).  An  American 
Presbyterian  clergyman.  He  was  born  at  Col- 
chester, Conn.,  graduated  at  Yale  in  1827,  and 
at  Andover  Theological  Seminary  in  1830.  He 
became  pastor  of  the  Congregational  church, 
Brighton,  Mass.,  in  1831,  and  of  the  Broome 
Street  Presbyterian  church  in  New  York  City 
in  1834  (out  of  which  the  Madison  Square  Pres- 
bjrterian  church  was  formed  in  1853),  and  there 
he  ministered  till  in  1873  he  became  president 
of  Union  Theological  Seminary  (New  York)  and 
professor  of  sacred  rhetoric.  He  died  at  Orange 
Mountain,  N.  J.,  August  31,  1880.  He  was  mod- 
erator of  the  New  School  Presbyterian  General 
Assembly  in  1852.  He  published  several  vol- 
umes of  discourses. 

ADAMS,  William  Dayenpobt  (1851-1964). 
An  English  journalist  and  author,  the  son  of 
W.  H.  Davenport  Adams.  He  was  educated  at 
Edinburgh    University    and    began    newspaper 


109 


ADAVA. 


work  in  1870.  He  became  literary  editor  of  the 
London  Olobe  in  1885,  and  is  also  well  known  as 
a  dramatic  critic.  He  has  published  many  col- 
lections of  poetry,  several  books  about  books,  and 
edited  a  Dictionary  of  English  Literature  ( 1877) 
and  a  Dictionary  of  the  Drama  (1899). 

ADAMSy  WiuuAM  Gbtixs  (1836 — ).  An 
English  physicist.  He  ¥ra8  born  at  Laneast,  Corn- 
wall, and  was  educated  at  Cambridge  University, 
where  he  was  made  a  fellow  of  St.  John's  Col- 
lege. In  1863  he  was  appointed  professor  of 
natural  philosophy  and  astronomy  in  King's 
College,  London,  and  has  carried  on  many  in- 
vestigations in  addition  to  giving  instruction. 
Professor  Adams  has  served  as  vice-president 
and  president  of  the  Physical  Society  of  London, 
as  president  of  the  Society  of  Electrical  Engi- 
neers, as  president  of  the  mathematical  and 
physical  section  of  the  British  Association,  and 
is  a  member  of  the  Royal  Society.  He  devised  a 
new  form  of  polar iscope  which  could  be  used  to 
measure  the  optical  axes  of  crystals.  Among  his 
more  important  investigations  which  have  been 
published  are  those'  on  Simultaneoua  Magnetic 
Disturbances,  Action  of  Light  on  Selenium,  Alter- 
nate Current  Machines,  and  the  Testing  of  Dy- 
namo Machines. 


(,  WiLUAM  Tatlob  (1822-97).  An 
American  educator  and  writer  of  juvenile 
fiction,  popularly  known  as  "Oliver  Optic." 
He  was  bom  at  Medway,  Mass.  For  twenty 
years  he  taught  in  Boston  public  schools;  for 
fourteen  years  he  was  a  member  of  the  Dor- 
chester School  Committee,  and  he  was  once 
elected  to  the  Legislature.  His  first  book,  Hatchie, 
the  Ouardian  Slave  (1853),  was  followed  by 
more  than  a  hundred  volumes  of  juvenile  fic- 
tion, contributed  in  large  part  to  Oliver  Optufs 
Magazine,  of  which  he  was  the  editor.  These 
stories  appeared  in  series,  of  which  the  most 
popular  were:  The  Boat  Club,  Young  America 
Abroad^  The  Starry  Flag,  Onward  and  Upward, 
and  The  Yacht  Club.  He  published  also  two 
novels.  The  Way  of  the  World,  and  Living  Too 
Fast, 


[.SALOMON, .  &MaN^-sA'16'm6N^  An- 
tony SAMVfx  (1818-81).  A  French  sculptor 
of  Jewish  extraction.  He  was  born  at  La  Fert^ 
sousnJouarre  (Seine-et-Mame).  After  a  short 
mercantile  career  he  became  a  modeler,  and  made 
»uch  progress  that  he  was  provided  with  a 
scholarship  by  the  authorities  of  his  department 
and  sent  to  Paris.  His  bust  of  B^ranger,  which 
he  completed  in  his  twentieth  year,  and  which  is 
said  to  have  been  largely  executed  from  memory, 
established  his  reputation.  Among  his  other 
works  were  busts  of  Lamartine,  Rossini,  Hal^vy, 
Littr^,  George  Sand,  Marie  Antoinette,  Delphine 
Gay,  and  others;  medallions  of  Amyot,  Coper- 
nicus, and  Marchand  Ennery;  a  bas-relief  of 
Charlotte  Clorday;  and  the  tomb  of  the  Duke  of 
Padua. 

AIXAM'S  APPOiE  (Lat.  Pomum  Adami). 
The  projection  seen  on  the  front  of  the  neck 
nearly  midway  between  the  summit  of  the  breast- 
bone and  the  bone  of  the  chin.  It  is  particularly 
visible  in  males,  but  rarely  noticeable  in  females, 
and  then  only  at  a  late  period  of  life.  Its  name 
originated  from  the  superstition  that  a  portion 
of  the  apple  given  to  our  first  parent  stuck  in 
his  throat,  and  that  the  enlargement  thus  caused 
has  been  transmitted  to  the  race.     It  is  pro- 


duced by  the  convergence  of  the  two  quadrilateral 
plates  of  the  thyroid  cartilage  of  the  larynx. 

ADAM'S  BBIDGE.  A  chain  of  shoals  ex- 
tending across  the  Gulf  of  Manaar,  between 
Ceylon  and  the  peninsula  of  Hindustan  (Map: 
India,  C  7).  It  is  cut  by  several  channels 
through  which  small  boats  can  pass. 

AD'AMSON,  Patrick  (1537-92).  A  famous 
Scotch  prelate  and  writer,  originally  known  as 
Conston,  Constant,  Consteane,  or  Constantine. 
He  was  born  at  Perth.  He  studied  law  at  the 
University  of  St.  Andrews  and  in  1666  went  to 
France  as  a  tutor,  where  he  underwent  six 
months'  imprisonment  for  referring  to  the  son  of 
Mary,  (^een  of  Scots,  as  King  of  France  and 
England,  in  a  Latin  poem  he  wrote  on  the  occa- 
sion of  the  prince's  birth.  He  narrowly  escaped 
death  during  the  Paris  massacre,  and,  obliged 
to  live  in  concealment  for  seven  months,  he  em- 
ployed his  time  in  writing  Latin  poetical  ver- 
sions of  the  Book  of  Job  and  of  the  tragedy  of 
Herod.  In  1573  he  returned  to  Scotland,  took 
orders,  and  became  minister  at  Paisley.  In 
1576  he  received  the  appointment  of  Archbishop 
of  St.  Andrews  from  his  patron,  the  Earl  of 
Morton,  Resent  of  Scotland,  and  entered  into 
frequent  polemics  with  the  Presbyterians  con- 
cerning episcopacy.  In  1588  he  was  excommu- 
nicated on  various  charges,  and  died  in  great  pov- 
erty and  affliction  at  St.  Andrews,  February  19, 
1592.  Consult:  P.  Adamson,  Poemata  Sacra 
(London,  1619)  ;  Baillie,  The  Recantation  of 
Patrick  Adamson  (Glasgow,  1646). 

ADAMSON,  Robert  (1852-1902).  An  Eng- 
lish educator  and  philosophical  writer.  He  was 
at  one  time  professor  of  logic  and  mental  philos- 
ophy at  Owens  College  (Victoria  University), 
and  in  1895  was  appointed  professor  of  logic 
and  rhetoric  at  the  University  of  Glasgow.  He 
is  regarded  as  an  important  representative  of  the 
so-called  Neo-Hegelian  movement  in  English  phi- 
losophy. Among  his  writings  may  be  mentioned : 
The  Philosophy  of  Science  in  the  Middle  Ages 
(1876);  On  the  Philosophy  of  Kant  (1879); 
the  article  on  Kant  in  the  Encyclopaedia  Britan- 
nica,  and  Fichte  (1881). 

ADAM'S  PEAK  (native,  Samanhela),  A 
mountain  in  the  south  of  Cleylon,  7420  feet  high, 
terminating  in  a  narrow  platform,  in  the  middle 
of  which  is  a  hollow  five  feet  long,  having  a  rude 
resemblance  to  a  human  footprint  (Map:  India, 
D  7).  Mohammedan  tradition  makes  this  the 
scene  of  Adam's  penance,  after  his  expulsion 
from  Paradise;  he  stood  1000  years  on  one  foot, 
and  hence  the  mark.  To  the  Buddhists,  the  im- 
pression is  the  sripada,  or  sacred  footmark,  left 
by  Buddha  on  his  departure  from  Ceylon;  while 
the  Hindus  claim  it  as  the  footprint  of  their  god 
Siva.  Over  the  sacred  spot  stands  a  wooden  can- 
opy, and  multitudes  of  devotees,  Buddhist, 
Hindu,  and  Mohammedan,  frequent  it. 

ADANA,  &-dtt^n&.  The  capital  of  the  Turkish 
vilayet  of  Adana  (14,359  square  miles;  pop.  403,- 
400)  (Map:  Turkey  in  Asia,  F  4).  It  is  situated 
in  the  southeast  of  Asia  Minor  on  the  Seihun 
(ancient  Sarua)  about  42  miles  northeast  of  the 
seaport  of  Mersina,  with  which  it  is  connected 
by  rail.  Its  position  near  the  passes  of  the 
Taurus  gives  it  strategical  importance.  The 
river  is  very  deep,  and  Adana  is  the  seat  of  con- 
siderable trade  in  cotton,  wool,  grain,  and  wood. 
The  town  has  a  large  steam  spinning-mill.    Its 


ADAVA. 


110 


population  is  about  45,000,  including  a  large 
number  of  Armenians  and  Greeks.  Adana  was 
an  important  place  in  the  time  of  the  Romans. 
After  a  period  of  decline  its  prosperity  revived 
under  the  caliph  Harun-el-Bashid. 

ADANQf  &-d&ng^.  A  Malay-Negrito  people 
in  Ilocos  Norte  province,  Luzon.  See  Philip- 
pines. 

ADANSON,  A'dUN 'SON',  Michel  (1727-1806). 
A  French  naturalist  and  physicist.  He  was 
born  at  Aix,  in  Provence.  He  studied  the  natu- 
ral and  physical  sciences  under  Reaumur  and 
Jussieu  in  Paris,  and  journeyed  to  Senegal  in 
1749,  where,  during  a  period  of  five  years,  he 
engaged  in  researches  in  botany,  electro- physics, 
and  meteorology,  and  made  collections  of  plants 
and  animals.  He  was  one  of  the  first  to  recog- 
nize the  electrical  nature  of  the  lightning  stroke, 
and  he  demonstrated  also  the  similarity  of  the 
shock  from  the  electric  eel  (Oymnotus  electri- 
cus)  to  the  discharge  from  the  Leyden  jar.  He 
was  also  one  of  the  earliest  to  describe  the  mode 
of  transportation  and  deposit  of  beach  sands 
along  oceanic  coasts.  On  his  return  to  Paris  from 
Senegal  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Academy 
of  Sciences.  His  most  important  work,  however, 
was  in  botany,  and  he  published  many  important 
monographs  on  various  groups  of  plants  and  de- 
vised several  schemes  of  classification,  none  of 
which  latter  has,  however,  received  any  considera- 
ble amount  of  recognition.  Among  his  more  im- 
portant works  are :  Histoire  naturelle  du  84n^gql 
(Paris,  1857;  German  edition,  Leipzig,  1773); 
Ifamilles  dea  plantea  (2  volumes,  Paris,  1763)  ; 
Biatoire  de  la  hotaniqite  et  plan  des  families 
naturelles  dea  plantea,  a  posthumous  work 
edited  by  his  son,  A.  Adanson,  and  by  Payer  (2 
volumes)  Paris,  1864).  For  further  particulars 
concerning  his  life  and  works  consult  Cuvier, 
Eloge  hiatorique  (Paris,  1819). 

AD'AVSO^NIA.  A  genus  of  the  natural  or- 
der Malvaceae,  named  by  Linnseus  in  honor  of  the 
botanist  Adanson  (q.v.).  The  best  known  spe- 
cies, Adansonia  digitata,  the  Baobab,  also  called 
the  Monkey-bread  tree,  is  a  native  of  the  tropi- 
cal parts  of  western  Africa,  but  now  introduced 
into  the  East  and  West  Indies.  It  is  one  of  the 
largest  known  trees — not,  indeed,  rising  to  a 
very  great  height,  but  exceeding  most  other  trees 
in  the  thickness  of  its  trunk  (20  to  30  feet). 
Even  its  branches  (60  to  70  feet  long)  are  often 
as  thick  as  the  stems  of  large  trees,  and  they 
form  a  hemispherical  head  of  120  to  150  feet  in 
diameter,  their  outermost  boughs  drooping  to 
the  ground.  The  leaves  are  5-  to  7-parted;  the 
flowers  are  white  and  extremely  large,  on  droop- 
ing peduncles  of  a  yard  in  length.  The  fruit, 
Monkey-bread,  is  of  the  size  of  citron.  The 
bruised  leaves  (Lalo)  are  mixed  with  the  food 
of  the  inhabitants  of  tropical  Africa,  and  Euro- 
peans in  that  country  employ  them  as  a  remedy 
for  diarrhcea,  fevers,  and  diseases  of  the  urinary 
organs.  The  pulp  of  the  fruit,  which  is  slightly 
acid  and  pleasant  to  the  taste,  is  eaten  with  or 
without  sugar;  and  the  expressed  juice  mixed 
with  sugar  is  much  esteemed  as  a  beverage, 
being  very  refreshing,  effectual  in  quenching 
thirst,  and  regarded  as  a  specific  in  putrid  and 
pestilential  fevers.  The  bark  is  said  to  be  power- 
fully febrifugal.  A  second,  Australian,  species, 
Adansonia  Gregorii,  is  recognized  by  some  bota- 
nists as  distinct  from  Adansonia  digitata.     A 


third   species   is   found   in   Madagascar  and   a 
fourth  in  East  Africa. 

AJyAPTATION  (Lat.  od,  to  -f  aptare,  to  fit ) . 
In  plants,  the  adjustment  of  an  organ  or  an 
organism  to  its  environment  or  surroundings, 
as  shown  in  its  structural  form,  e.g.,  a  thick- 
skinned  leaf  is  an  adaptation  to  a  dry  environ- 
ment. The  state  of  a  perfectly  adapted  plant 
is  sometimes  called  '*epharmony,"  but  this  con- 
dition is  rarely  found,  and  the  adaptations  of 
most  plants  may  be  regarded  as  more  or  less 
imperfect.     See  Ecoloot;  Natural  Selection. 

A'DAB.  The  twelfth  month  of  the  ecclesias- 
tical, and  the  sixth  month  of  the  civil,  Jewish 
year,  coinciding  with  February-March  of  the 
common  year.  The  7th  of  Adar  became  a  fast 
for  the  death  of  Moses;  the  9th  another  on 
account  of  the  dissension  of  Hillel  and  Shammai ; 
but  more  important  is  the  13th,  which  is  called 
the  fast  of  Esther,  in  memory  of  the  fasting  of 
Mordecai,  Esther,  and  the  Jews,  whose  destruc- 
tion was  threatened  by  Haman  (Esther  iv  :  15- 
16).  The  fast  is  followed  by  the  feast  of  Purim, 
celebrated  on  the  14th  and  15th,  in  commemora- 
tion of  the  escape  of  the  Jews  of  Persia  from  the 
fate  designed  for  them  by  Haman,  the  cruel 
counselor  of  Ahasuerus.     See  Esther. 

ADDA,  ^6fdk  (Lat  Adua).  A  tributary  of 
the  Po  (q.v.),  rising  in  the  Rhsetian  Alps,  on 
the  northern  borders  of  Italy  above  Bormio 
(Map:  Italy,  D  2).'  After  traversing  the  Val- 
tellina,  it  fiows,  or  rather  expands,  into  the  Lake 
of  Como.  Below  Lecco  it  traverses  the  plain  of 
Lombardy  in  a  direction  south-southeast,  passing 
Lodi  and  Pizzighetone,  and  falls  into  the  Po 
about  8  miles  above  Cremona.  Total  length, 
about  180  miles ;  navigable  for  75  miles. 

AD^AJSBy  Jane  (1860 — ).  A  social  settle- 
ment worker.  She  was  bom  at  Cedarville,  111., 
September  6,  1860.  She  graduated  at  Rockford 
Female  Seminary  in  1881,  and,  together  with 
Miss  Ellen  G.  Starr,  esUblished  (in  1889,  at 
Chicago)  the  Hull  House,  the  leading  social  set- 
tlement in  the  United  States,  of  which  she  became 
the  head  worker  and  Riding  spirit.  Miss  Addams 
has  less  sympathy  with  theoretical  studies  of  the 
social  problem  than  with  everyday  experience 
with  all  sorts  and  conditions  of  people.  Her 
practical  common  sense,  great  executive  ability, 
and  fine,  unselfish  spirit  have  made  her  the 
natural  leader  of  the  settlement  movement  in 
this  country.  She  has  been  a  frequent  contribu- 
tor to  ciu-rent  periodical  literature  on  the  na- 
ture of  the  social  settlements,  their  relation  to 
the  labor  movement,  and  to  philanthropy,  and 
various  other  topics  suggested  by  her  work  in 
this  field.  See  Hull  House;  Social  Settle- 
ments. 

ADa>AXy  or  AJyDAS  (Lat.,  of  African 
origin).  A  hippotragine  antelope  {Addax  naso- 
maculatua)  of  northeastern  African  deserts,  re- 
lated to  the  oryx.  It  is  about  three  feet  in 
height  at  the  shoulders,  robust  in  form,  nearly 
white  in  color,  tinged  with  reddish  brown  for- 
ward, and  having  a  white  blaze  upon  the  nose, 
and  black  hoofs,  large  and  rounded  for  treading 
upon  the  desert  sands.  It  has  long  ears,  a  long, 
tufted  tail,  shaggy  forehead  and  throat,  and  both 
sexes  have  high,  spirally  twisted  horns,  alluded 
to  by  Pliny  when  he  described  the  antelope  under 
the  name  strepsiccros.  Its  habits  afe  similar  to 
those  of  the  or}^,  and  it  is  hunted  by  the  Arabs 


Ill 


ADDISON. 


with  gr^hoimcU.  Consult:  A.  £.  Pease,  Pro- 
otf^inga  Zoological  Society  of  London  (1896, 
jMige  810),  who  says  that  it  is  called  by  the 
French  of  Algeria  "antilope  du  sud;"  by  the 
Arabs,  "begra  el  Oouash"  or  "meha,"  and  by  the 
Tuaregs,  **tameeta."  See  plate  of  Labgb  Ante- 
LornSj  in  Volume  1. 


{an  adder  by  mistake  for  a  nadder, 
A.  S.  n€tddre,  Goth.  n<idro,  Ger.  Natter,  a  snake) . 
A  common  name  applied  both  to  certain  poison- 
ouB  snakes,  mostly  of  the  family  Viperidae,  and 
to  certain  harmless  snakes  of  the  family  Colu- 
brids.  In  the  former  case  it  is  practically  a 
2»3monym  of  Viper  (q.v.)*  Several  venomous  ser- 
pents are  known  as  puff-adders  and  death- 
adders,  under  which  names  they  will  be  found 
described  and  illustrated  elsewhere.  Various 
harmless  snakes  of  the  genus  Tropidonotus  are 
known  as  adders  both  in  Europe  and  America, 
AS  well  as  the  American  Copperhead  (q.v.),  the 
water  ''adder"  (see  Moccasin  Snake),  and  the 
Hpreading  or  blowing  '*adder"  (see  Hoonose), 
which,  under  provocation,  assumes  somewhat  the 
appearance  of  a  viper..  Specifically,  in  English 
literature,  the  word  usually  means  the  common 
viper  {Vipera  herus)  of  Europe,  the  only  veno- 
mous snake  of  Great  Britain. 

AD^ICKS,  John  Edwabd  (1841 — ).  An 
American  capitalist.  He  was  born  in  Philadel- 
phia, Pa.,  November  21,  1841.  He  acquired 
large  interests  in  the  flour  trade  of  that  city, 
and  subsequently  became  prominent  in  the  pro- 
motion of  the  manufacture  of  illuminating  gas. 
In  1884  he  organized,  and  was  made  president  of 
the  Bay  State  Gas  Company  of  Boston,  Mass., 
and  in  1892  obtained  the  control  and  the  presi- 
dency of  the  Brookljm  (N.  Y.)  Gas  Company. 
He  was  a  candidate  in  1895  for  the  United  States 
«enatorship  for  Delaware,  and,  although  he  him- 
self failed  of  election,  was  able  to  prevent  that 
of  his  rival,  H.  A.  du  Pont.  The  ex-speaker  of 
the  State  House,  having  become  governor 
through  the  death  of  (lovemor  Marvel,  was 
permitted  to  cast  a  ballot  in  the  legislative  con- 
vention, and  opportunity  was  thus  obtained  for 
contesting  the  election  of  Du  Pont,  whom  the 
Democrats  and  Populists  refused  to  seat.  In  1896 
a  quarrel  arose  in  the  Republican  State  Conven- 
tion, assembled  to  elect  delegates  to  the  national 
convention  of  that  year,  and  two  sets  of  dele- 
gates, representing  respectively  the  Du  Pont  and 
Addicka  factions,  were  thereupon  sent  to  St. 
Louis.  The  committee  on  credentials  having  de- 
cided in  fsvor  of  the  Dii  Pont  delegates,  the  fae- 
tion  represented  by  these  became  Known  as  the 
''regular '*  Kepublican  party,  while  the  Addicks 
iaetion  asnumcd  the  name  of  Union  Republican. 
Wlien,  in  1899,  a  new  senator  from  Delaware  was 
to  be  elected  upon  the  expiration  of  the  term  of 
George  Gray,  Democrat,  a  deadlock  ensued,  and 
the  senatorship  remained  vacant..  Again,  in 
1900,  two  sets  of  delegates  from  Delaware  were 
sent  to  the  Republican  National  Convention,  and 
on  this  occasion  the  committee  on  credentials 
ultimately  decided  in  favor  of  the  Addicks  rep- 
resentatives. Despite  the  fact  that  he  was  thus 
placed  in  charge  of  the  party  organization  in 
that  State,  Addicks  was  in  1901  once  more  de- 
feated in  the  senatorial  election.  But  at  this 
time  there  were  two  senators  to  elect,  so  that 
the  adjournment  of  the  Legislature  in  March 
left  Delawllre  totally  unrepresented  in  the  Sen- 
ate of  the  United  SUtes. 


AD^INQTON,  Hbnby,  fibst  VisoouifT  Sid- 
mouth  (1757-1844).  An  English  Tory  states- 
man. He  was  born  at  Reading.  He  graduated 
at  Brasenose,  Oxford,  in  1778,  studied  law,  and 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1784.  Persuaded  by 
his  college  mate  and  friend,  the  younger  Pitt, 
he  entered  Parliament  in  1783.  Subsequently  he 
filled  the  positions  of  speaker  of  the  House  of 
Commons,  1789-1801,  and  premier  and  chancellor 
of  the  exchequer,  1801-4.  Owing  to  the  opposi- 
tion to  his  war  policy,  he  resigned  in  1804,  but 
the  King  raised  him  to  the  peerage  as  first  Vis- 
count Sidmouth,  and  made  him  president  of  the 
Council  (1805).  He  was  lord  privy  seal  in 
1806,  and  again  president  of  the  Council  in 
1806  and  1807.  He  was  home  secretary  from 
1812  to  1822,  and  member  of  the  cabinet  from 
1822  to  1824.  Although  a  man  of  benevolent  dis- 
position, he  became  very  unpopular  through  his 
coercive  measures  and  retired  into  private  life 
in  1824.  He  died  -at  Richmond  Park,  February 
15,  1844.  Consult  G.  Pellew,  Life  and  Corre- 
spondence of  the  Right  Hon.  H,  Addington,  first 
Viscount  Sidmouth  (London,  1847). 

ADDIB,  William  E.  (1844—).  An  English 
clergyman.  He  was  born  at  Edinburgh  and  was 
educated  at  Merchiston  Castle  School,  Glasgow 
College,  and  Balliol  College,  Oxford.  He  became  a 
Roman  Catholic  in  1866,  and  was  parish  priest  of 
Sydenham,  1878  to  1888,  an  assistant  clergjrman 
at  Melbourne,  1888  to  1892,  and  Minister  of  the 
High  Pavement  Chapel  (Unitarian),  Nottingham, 
from  1893  to  1898.  In  1898  he  became  professor 
of  Old  Testament  criticism  in  Manchester  College, 
Oxford.  He  is  the  author  of  the  following  works : 
Catholic  Dictionary,  written  in  conjunction  with 
Thomas  Arnold  (fourth  edition,  1884)  ;  Docu- 
ments of  the  Hcxateuch  (2  volumes,  1893-98)  ; 
Christianity  and  the  Roman  Empire  (1893). 

ADDIS  ABEBA,  ftdMte  i-bftOiA.  The  capital 
of  Abyssinia,  situated  in  the  province  of  Shoa, 
in  about  lat.  9''  K.  and  long.  39*"  E.  (Map: 
Africa,  H  4).  It  occupies  an  extensive  area 
and  is  picturesquely  situated  at  an  altitude  of 
over  8000  feet.  In  its  general  appearance 
it  resembles  more  a  camp  than  a  capital  city. 
The  town  is  absolutely  without  any  streets 
and  is  intersected  in  several  parts  by  deep 
ravines.  The  royal  palace  is  situated  on  an  emi- 
nence and  consists  of  a  number  of  buildings  of 
cheap  and  flimsy  architecture  surrounded  by  sev- 
eral walls.  The  permanent  population  is  esti- 
mated at  50,000,  and  the  floating  population  at 
30,000.  Addis  Abeba  was  the  scene  of  the  signing 
of  the  treaty  of  peace  between  Italy  and  Abys- 
sinia on  October  20,  1896,  in  which  Italy  resigned 
her  claim  to  a  protectorate  over  Abyssinia. 

ADDISON,  Joseph  (1672-1719).  An  Eng- 
lish poet  and  essayist.  He  was  the  son  of  Lance- 
lot Addison,  a  clergyman  of  the  Church  of  Eng- 
land, and  was  bom  at  Milston,  near  Amesbury, 
in  Wiltshire,  May  1,  1672.  After  attending  the 
Charterhouse  and  other  schools,  he  entered 
Queen's  College,  Oxford,  in  1687.  Two  years 
later  he  passed  to  Magdalen  College.  At  Oxford 
he  was  distinguished  for  the  ease  with  which  he 
wrote  Latin  verse.  By  1697  he  was  receiving 
high  compliments  from  Dry^en.  He  won  the 
favor  of  Montagu  (afterward  Lord  Halifax), 
and  Lord  Somers,  through  whom  he  obtained, 
in  1699,  a  pension  of  £300  a  year.  The 
pension  was  probably  intended  to  enable  him  to 
prepare  himself  for  diplomacy  by  foreign  travel. 


ADDISON. 


112 


ADDITION. 


At  any  rate^  he  left  England  toward  the  close  of 
1699  for  a  Continental  tour.  While  in  France  he 
became  familiar  with  the  language  of  the  coun- 
try. On  the  outbreak  of  the  Spanish  War  of  the 
Succession  he  went  to  Italy,  where  he  wrote  the 
most  successful  of  his  poems,  the  Letter,  ad- 
dressed to  Lord  Halifax.  In  the  autumn  of  1703 
he  returned  home  by  way  of  Switzerland  and 
German^;  but  in  his  expectations  of  place  he  was 
disappointed,  for  the  Whigs  were  out  of  office. 
The  battle  of  Blenheim,  however,  which  occurred 
the  next  year,  presented  a  brilliant  opportunity, 
which  he  did  not  fail  to  make  the  most  of.  The 
ministry  wished  the  victory  commemorated  in 
verse,  and  Addison  was  appointed  to  do  it.  Lord 
Oodolphin,  the  treasurer,  was  so  pleased  with  the 
first  half  of  the  poem  that  before  The  Campaign 
was  finished  he  made  Addison  a  commissioner  of 
appeals. 

The  poet  was  now  fairly  involved  in  politics. 
He  became  under-secretary  of  state  in  1706,  ac- 
companied Halifax  to  Hanover  the  next  year,  and 
in  1709  went  to  Ireland  as  secretary  to  the  lord- 
lieutenant,  where  he  also  obtained  the  office  of 
keeper  of  the  records,  worth  £300  a  year.  In  the 
same  year  Sir  Richard  Steele  began  the  Tatler, 
to  which  Addison  soon  became  a  frequent  con- 
tributor. He  also  wTote  a  number  of  political 
articles  in  the  Whig  Examiner,  On  March  1, 
1711,  appeared  the  first  number  of  the  Spectator, 
which  continued  as  a  daily  till  December  0,  1712. 
In  1714  it  was  revived  as  a  tri- weekly.  In  1713 
appeared  the  Tragedy  of  Cato,  the  popularity  of 
which,  considering  its  total  want  of  dramatic 
power,  is  amazing.  It  was  generally  understood 
to  have  a  political  as  well  as  a  poetical  inspira- 
tion; but  so  skillfully  had  Addison  expressed 
himself,  that  both  parties,  Whig  and  Tory,  re- 
ceived its  cold  declamations  with  rapture.  It 
was  translated  into  several  European  languages; 
and  even  the  prince  of  French  criticism,  Vol- 
taire, held  Shakespeare  a  barbarian  in  tragedy 
compared  with  Addison.  In  1716  Addison  mar- 
ried the  Dowager  Countess  of  Warwick.  The 
marriage  was  "uncomfortable."  He  reached  his 
highest  political  position  when  he  was  appointed 
Secretary  of  State  in  1717.  For  this  place  he  was 
not  at  all  suited,  and  he  resigned  the  next  year. 
Addison's  health  had  been  poor  for  some  time, 
and,  after  an  illness  of  a  few  months,  he  died 
at  Holland  House,  Kensington,  on  June  17,  1719, 
three  years  after  what  Thackeray  calls  "his 
splendid  but  dismal  union." 

Thomas  Tickell,  whom  Addison  had  appointed 
his  literary  executor,  published  his  works  two 
years  later  in  four  volumes,  including,  besides 
those  already  mentioned,  papers  Addison  had 
written  for  the  Guardian  and  the  Freeholder,  a 
play  entitled  The  Drummer,  Dialogues  on  Medals, 
and  several  poems.  Tlie  most  delightful  and 
original  of  Addison's  productions  is  that  series 
of  sketches  in  the  Spectator,  of  which  Sir  Roger 
de  Coverley  is  the  central  figure  and  Sir  Andrew 
Freeport  and  Will  Honeycomb  the  lesser  ones.  Sir 
Roger  himself  is  an  absolute  creation ;  the  gentle, 
yet  vivid  imagination,  the  gay  and  cheerful  spirit 
of  humor,  the  keen,  shrewd  observation,  and  fine 
raillery  of  foibles  which  Addison  has  displayed 
in  this  character  make  it  a  work  of  pure  genius. 
In  prose,  Addison  is  always  excellent.  He  gave 
a  delicacy  to  English  sentiment  and  a  modesty 
to  English  wit  which  it  had  never  known  before. 
Elegance,  which  in  his  predecessors  had  been  the 
companion  of  immorality,  now  appeared  as  the 


advocate  of  virtue.  His  style,  too,  is  admirable. 
There  are  many  nobler  and  grander  forms  of 
expression  in  English  literature  than  Addison's^ 
but  there  are  none  comparable  to  his  in  propriety 
and  natural  dignity.  "Whoever  wishes,"  says 
Dr.  Johnson,  "to  attain  an  English  style,  fa- 
miliar but  not  coarse,  and  elegant  but  not  os- 
tentatious, must  give  his  days  and  nights  to 
the  volumes  of  Addison."  His  various  writings, 
but  especiallv  his  essays,  fully  realized  the  pur- 
pose which  he  constantly  had  in  view,  "to  en- 
liven morality  with  wit,  and  to  temper  wit  with 
morality."  He  also  did  more  than  any  other  man 
of  his  time  toward  creating  a  wide  public  for 
literature.  Consult:  Johnson,  Lives  of  the  Poets 
(many  editions) ;  Macaulay, "Essay  on  Addison,'' 
Edinburgh  Review  (1843)  ;  Aiken,  Life  of  Addi- 
mm  (London,  1843) ;  Ootirthope,  Addison  (New 
York,  1884)  ;  and  Beljame,  Le  public  et  les  horn- 
mes  des  leitres  en  Angleterre  (second  edition^ 
Paris,  1897). 

ADa>ISON'S  DISEASE.  A  disease  char- 
acterized pathologically  by  pi^entation  of  the 
skin  and  by  certain  changes  in  the  suprarenal 

?:lands.  The  pigmentation  of  the  skin  varies 
rom  a  light  yellowish  brown  to  a  dark  brown 
or  blackish  color.  Various  changes  have  been 
described  in  the  suprarenals,  the  most  common 
being  tuberculous  inflammation.  Fatty  and  waxy 
degenerations  and  carcinoma  have  also  been 
described.  The  suprarenal  glands,  or  adrenal 
bodies,  were  little  understood  till  1856,  when  Dr. 
Thomas  Addison,  of  Guy's  Hospital,  London^ 
published  his  work  on  their  diseases.  The  most 
important  of  these  is  the  one  called  after  Dr. 
Addison.  Its  leading  symptoms  are  ansmia, 
general  languor  and  debility,  remarkable  feeble- 
ness of  the  heart's  action,  irritability  of  the 
stomach,  and  the  peculiar  bronzing  (melasma) 
to  which  reference  has  been  made.  It  is  a  rare 
disease,  more  common  among  the  poor,  far  more 
frequent  in  males  than  in  females,  and  generally 
occurs  between  the  ages  of  thirty  and  fifty  years. 
There  may  be  profuse  diarrhoea,  also  rheumatoid 
pains  in  the  loins  and  abdomen,  and  the  tempera- 
ture is  subnormal,  except  in  those  rare  cases  in 
which  delirium,  loss  of  consciousness,  and  con- 
vulsions occur.  The  bronzing  is  more  pro- 
nounced on  the  face,  neck,  and  backs  of  the 
hands,  and  upon  points  of  pressure.  The  dis- 
ease lasts  from  eighteen  months  to  a  few  years. 
No  curative  treatment  is  known.  Tonics,  gen- 
erous diet,  proper  climate,  and  the  internal 
administration  of  suprarenal  extract  are  bene- 
ficial.   See  Suprarenal  Capsules. 

ADDISON'S  WALK,  In  the  grounds  of 
Magdalen  College,  Oxford,  a  tree-bordered  walk 
to  which  Joseph  Addison  is  said  to  have  fre- 
quently resorted  when  he  was  a  "demy"  in  that 
college. 

ADDICTION.  The  process  of  uniting  two  or 
more  number  groups  into  a  single  group.  In 
elementary  arithmetic,  which  deals  with  natural 
numbers,  the  process  of  addition  is  simply  count- 
ing all  the  units  of  two  or  more  collections  into 
a  single  collection.  The  different  groups  added 
are  called  the  addends  and  the  result  is  called  the 
sum.  Since  there  is  one  and  only  one  unit  in 
the  sum  for  every  unit  in  the  addends  taken  to- 
gether, there  is  said  to  be  a  1  to  1  correspondence 
between  the  sum  and  the  addends.  From  this 
it  appears  that  the  sum  is  the  same  in  whatever 
order   the   addends   are   taken   or   in    whatever 


ADDITION. 


113 


ADELFHI  COLLEGE. 


in^oups  they  may  be  placed.  The  former  fact 
is  expressed  by  saying  that  addition  is  commu- 
tative, and  the  latter  by  saying  that  addition  is 
associative.  For  a  further  discussion  see  article 
AsaodATTVE  Law. 

AIXDLED  FABOUAHEKTy  The.  A  name 
«ven  to  the  second  parliament  of  James  I.  of 
Chigland,  1614,  because  it  did  not  produce  a 
single  statute.  It  holds,  nevertheless,  a  note- 
woHhy  place  in  the  history  of  constitutional 
liberty.  Its  members  were  chosen  at  a  contested 
election,  the  first  which  had  occurred  for  many 
years.  The  principle  at  issue  was  the  right  of 
parliament  to  grant  all  supplies.  The  patri- 
otic party  was  victorious.  It  is  significant  that 
three  hundred  members,  or  about  two- thirds  of 
the  entire  number,  were  then  elected  for  the  first 
time.  Among  these  new  men  were  John  Pym 
and  Sir  Thomas  Wentworth,  each  destined  to 
take  a  leading  part  in  the  coming  struggle. 
After  a  two-months'  session  the  parliament  was 
dissolved  by  the  King,  because  it  declined  to  grant 
him  a  supply  of  money  without  a  proper  settle- 
ment of  the  question  of  the  imposts. 

ADDBESS%  FoBMB  of.    See  Fobms  of  AD- 


AGES, Alvet  Augustus  (1842 — ).  An 
American  official.  He  was  born  at  Astoria,  N.  Y. 
In  1870  he  was  ap^inted  secretary  of  lega- 
tion at  Madrid,  and  m  1878  chief  of  the  diplo- 
matic bureau  at  Washington.  He  served  from 
1882  to  1886  as  third  assistant  secretary  of 
state,  and  in  the  latter  year  was  promoted  to 
be  second  assistant.  He  was  acting  Secretary 
of  State  during  a  portion  of  the  Chinese  trouble 
in  1900. 

AjyELAAR  (Norw.  The  Eagle).  An  appel- 
lation of  Curt  Sivertsen  (1622-75),  one  of  the 
greatest  naval  commanders  of  the  seventeenth 
century.  He  ¥ra8  born  at  Brevig,  in  Norway, 
and  in  his  twentieth  year  was  employed  in  the 
naval  service  of  Venice  against  the  Turks.  On 
one  occasion  he  broke  through  a  line  of  sixty- 
seven  Turkish  galleys  which  surrounded  his  ship, 
sank  fifteen,  and  burned  several  others.  Fred- 
eric III.  engaged  him  as  admiral  of  the  Danish 
fleet;  and  in  1675,  under  Christian  V.,  he  took 
the  command  of  the  whole  of  the  Danish  naval 
force  against  Sweden,  but  died  suddenly  at 
Copenhagen  before  the  expedition  set  out.  Con- 
sult Brunn,  Curt  Sivertaei^  Adelaar  ( Copenhagen, 
1875). 

AIKELAIDE.  The  capital  of  South  Aus- 
tralia, on  the  Torrena,  7  miles  by  rail  from  its 
harbor.  Port  Adelaide,  on  the  Gulf  of  St.  Vin- 
cent, and  508  miles  northwest  of  Melbourne 
(Map:  Australia,  F  6).  It  has  a  large  trade 
in  agricultural  produce  and  wool;  lead  and  cop- 
per are  mined  in  the  vicinity,  and  its  industries 
include  iron  foundries,  potteries,  tanneries,  brew- 
eries, woolen,  ^starch,  and  soap  factories.  The 
Torrens,  artificially  converted  into  a  fine  river, 
spanned  by  several  bridges,  divides  the  town 
into  north  and  south  Adelaide.  The  streets  are 
broad  and  regularly  laid  out.  The  chief  public 
Iraildings  are  the  government  buildingB,  parlia- 
ment houses,  tovm  hall,  post  office,  the  South 
Australian  Institute,  and  governor's  residence. 
It  is  the  seat  of  a  United  States  consular  agent, 
the  see  of  Anglican  and  Catholic  bishops,  con- 
tains numerous  churches,  a  university  with 
three  colleges,  a  meteorological  observatory,  and 
extensive  Mtanical  gardens,  including  a  museum 


of  economic  botany.  The  town  is  encircled  by 
the  reserved  park  lands  half  a  mile  wide.  Large 
waterworks  and  reservoirs,  from  six  to  seven 
miles  distant,  which  abundantly  supply  the  city, 
are  the  property  of  the  South  Australian  gov- 
ernment, which  also  owns  the  Adelaide  ceme- 
teries. The  city  owns  abattoirs,  four  markets 
yielding  an  annual  income  of  $160,000,  main- 
tains its  parks,  which  cover  2300  acres,  and 
supports  a  fire  brigade.  Founded  in  1836^  the 
city  was  named  alter  Adelaide,  queen  of  Wil- 
liam IV.  Fop.,  1891,  37,800,  including  suburbs, 
133,000;  1901,  39,200,  including  suburbs,  162,200. 
Port  Adelaide,  its  port,  protected  by  two  forts, 
has  a  safe  and  commodious  harbor,  with  a  dock 
of  five  acres  for  ocean  steamers,  and  a  quayage 
of  12,993  feet.  It  is  a  port  of  call  for  European 
vessels.  Pop.,  5000.  Consult:  G.  T.  Ellery, 
''Greater  Adelaide,"  in  Municipal  Ewtenaion 
(Adelaide,  1899)  ;  <'City  of  Adelaide,"  in  Muni- 
cipal Journal,  IX.,  237  (London,  1900). 

AD^ULIDE,  k'dk'WM^,  EuQ^NiE  Louise 
(1777-1847).  Princess  of  Orleans,  sister  of  Louis 
Philippe.  Proscribed  in  the  Revolution  as  an  dmi- 
grie,  she  sought  refuge  in  the  Netherlands,  Swit- 
zerland, and  Germany  (1793).  Ten  years  later 
she  met  her  brother  in  Spain,  and  was  with 
him  until  the  Restoration,  using  her  infiuence 
to  induce  him  to  accept  the  crown.  From  1830 
to  1847  she  played  an  infiuential  part  in  politics. 

AIXEIiABD,  or  ATH'ELHABD,  OF 
BATH.  An  English  philosophical  writer  who 
lived  about  the  beginning  of  the  twelfth  century. 
He  is  said  to  have  studied  at  Tours  and  Laon. 
His  works  include  Perdifficiles  Qwestionea  Nat- 
uralea  (printed  toward  the  end  of  the  fifteenth 
century);  De  Eodem  et  Diverse  (before  lllU), 
an  allegory  in  which  worldliness  and  philosophy 
are  represented  as  endeavoring  to  win  the  soul 
of  man;  and  a  Latin  translation  of  Euclid 
(printed  1482),  made  at  a  time  when  that  work 
was  almost  unknown  in  western  Europe.  He 
also  translated  and  wrote  several  other  treatises 
on  mathematical  and  medical  subjects  which  are 
to  be  seen  in  MSS.  in  the  libraries  of  Corpus 
Christi  and  Trinity  Colleges,  Oxford. 

AD^ELBEBT  COI/LEGE.  See  Western 
Reserve  University. 

AD'ELOCHOB/DA,  or  HBM1CH0B/DA 
(Gk.  ^dr/Aof,  adHoa,  unclear,  invisible  +  if^i't 
hStni;  half  +  Lat.  chorda,  a  cord,  a  dorsal  nerv- 
ous cord).  A  sub-class  of  the  Chordate,  includ- 
ing Balanoglossus  and  its  allies.  See  Balano- 
GLOssus,  and  Plate  of  Ascidians. 

ADET/PHI,  The  (from  Gk.  MeXi^i,  adeU 
phoi,  brothers).  A  locality  in  London  between 
the  Strand  and  the  Thames  Embankment,  a  little 
distance  east  of  Charing  Cross.  The  name 
came  from  the  fact  that  the  Adelphi  Terrace, 
which  lies  in  it,  was  laid  out  in  17 08  by  the 
brothers  Adam,  whose  names  appear  in  Adam 
Street,  James  Street,  William  Street,  John 
Street,  and  Robert  Street. 

ADELPHI  COI/LEGE.  An  American  col- 
lege, situated  at  66  St.  James  Place,  Brooklyn, 
New  York  City.  It  was  incorporated  1896, 
grants  the  degrees  A.B.  and  B.S..  and  mainUins 
subordinate  normal,  art,  and  musical  depart- 
ments, besides  a  preparatory  academy.  It  has 
a  library  of  8000  volumes;  faculty,  1901,  34; 
students,  166  collegiate,  22  normal,  199  art,  and 
30  music. 


114 


ADEVEZ. 


ADELFHI  THE^ATBE.  A  theatre  on  the 
Strand,  London,  more  fully  designated  the  Royal 
Adelphi  Theatre.  It  dates  from  1800,  but  was 
rebuilt  on  a  larger  scale  in  1858.  It  was  known 
chiefly  for  its  melodramas  and  farces. 

ADEL^HGB,  or  ADELFHI.  The  latest  of 
the  six  extant  comedies  of  Terence  (q.v.)*  It 
was  produced  in  160  B.C.  at  the  funeral  games 
of  L.  ^milius  Paulus,  and  was  derived  chiefly 
from  the  'Ade^^oi,  Adelphoi  ("Brothers")  of 
Menander,  but  also  in  part  from  the  Iwanod. 
VfjOKWTeg,  SynapothnCskontes  ("Dyine  Togeth- 
er") of  Diphilus.  IVipli^re  is  said  to  have  owed 
to  it  the  idea  of  his  Ecole  des  maris, 

ADELSBEBG,  a^dels-bdrK  ( Sloven.  Postofna) . 
A  small  market  town  of  the  Austrian  cro¥m- 
land  of  Camiola,  about  50  miles  east-northeast 
of  Triest  by  rail.  It  is  famous  for  its  wonder- 
ful stalactite  cavern,  the  largest  in  Europe  and 
one  of  the  finest  known.  It  may  be  explored  for 
more  than  two  miles,  and  is  penetrated  for  about 
800  yards  by  the  river  Poik,  which  then  dis- 
appears in  the  bowels  of  the  earth.  The  cav- 
ern consists  of  several  different  chambers.  The 
largest  is  the  Franz  Josef  and  Elisabeth 
grotto,  223  yards  in  length  by  214  yards  in 
breadth.  The  stalactite  and  stalagmite  forma- 
tions are  particularly  notable  for  their  beauty 
and  variety. 

ADELITNG,  a'dc-lyng,  Fbiedwch  von  ( 1768- 
1843).  A  German  philologist.  He  was  born  at 
Stettin,  studied  philosophy  and  jurisprudence  at 
Leipzig,  went  later  on  to  Russia,  and  was  tutor 
to  the  grand  duke,  later  Czar  Nicholas.  In  1824 
he  was  appointed  director  of  the  Oriental  Insti- 
tute, at  St.  Petersburg,  and  in  1825  president  of 
the  Academy  of  Sciences.  He  is  chiefly  knowm 
for  his  researches  respecting  foreign  sources  for 
Russian  history,  the  most  important  results  of 
which  are  embodied  in  the  Kritisch-litterarische 
Uebersicht  der  Reisenden  in  Ruasland  his  1100 
( 1846) .  He  also  wrote  on  Sanskrit  language  and 
literature  such  volumes  as  Versuch  einer  Litter- 
atur  der  Sanskritsprache  (1830). 

ADELUNG,  JoHANN  Curistoph  (1732- 
1806).  A  distinguished  German  linguist  and 
lexicographer.  He  was  born  at  Spantekow, 
Pomerania;  was  a  journalist  and  author  at 
Leipzig  from  1761  to  1787,  and  from  1787  until 
his  death  chief  librarian  of  the  Electoral  library 
at  Dresden.  He  is  principally  known  for  his 
historico-critical  studies  of  the  German  language. 
His  chief  works  are  his  Worterhuch  der  hoch- 
dcutschen  Mundart  (Dictionary  of  High  Ger- 
man, 1774-1802),  in  which  he  took  Dr.  Johnson 
as  his  models  and  his  Veher  den  deutschen  8til 
(1785-86). 

ADEHP^ON  (Lat.  adimere,  to  take  away) . 
The  destruction  of  a  legacy  either  by  voluntary 
act  of  the  testator,  or  by  loss  or  destruction  of 
the  thing  bequeathed.  The  term  is  properly 
used  only  in  connection  with  legacies,  although 
it  is  sometimes  used  interchangeably  with  ad- 
vancement (q.v.),  and  some  courts  also  treat 
the  term  as  synonymous  with  satisfaction.  If  a 
testator  in  loco  parentis,  before  his  death,  made 
a  gift  to  his  legatee  of  the  same  kind  as  the 
legacy,  the  presumption  is  that  the  gift  was 
made  as  part  of,  or  in  place  of,  the  legacy;  and 
it  is,  therefore,  adeemed  pro  tanto.  Specific 
legacies  may  be  adeemed  by  the  sale  or  aliena- 
tion of  the  property  bequeathed,  or  by  its  loss  or 


destruction,  and  general  legacies  may  be  adeemed 
by  lack  of  sufficient  assets  to  pay  them.  See 
article  Legacy. 

ADEN,  AMen  or  ft^den.  A  peninsula  and  town 
near  the  southwestern  end  of  Arabia,  situated  in 
lat.  12°  N.,  and  long.  46*"  5'  E.,  and  connected 
with  the  mainland  by  a  narrow  sandy  isthmus 
(Map:  Asia,  O  7).  In  a  broader  sense  the 
name  of  Aden  is  applied  to  the  whole  British 
territory  in  that  part  of  Arabia,  which  includes, 
besides  the  peninsula  and  the  isthmus,  also  a 
small  strip  of  territory  on  the  mainland  with  a 
total  area  of  about  75  square  miles.  The  penin- 
sula proper  is  of  volcanic  origin  and  reaches  in 
the  peak  of  Jebel  Shan-shan  an  altitude  of  1775 
feet  above  the  sea.  The  climate  of  the  region 
is  healthful,  but  the  scarcity  of  rain  makes  the 
cultivation  of  the  soil  impossible,  so  that  all  the 
necessaries  of  life  have  to  be  imported.  Water 
is  obtained  partly  from  the  wells  within  the 
crater  in  which  the  town  of  Aden  is  situated,  and 
partly  from  the  hills,  where  it  is  collected  dur- 
ing the  rainfall  and  conducted  into  cisterns.  The 
town  of  Aden  is  strongly  fortified.  The  most 
populous  settlements  are  Steamer  Point  and 
Shaikh  Othman  on  the  mainland.  There  are  two 
harbors,  but  only  one  of  them,  Aden  Back  Bay, 
on  the  western  side  of  the  peninsula,  is  of  any 
commercial  importance.  Owing  to  its  favorable 
location,  Aden  was  of  considerable  importance 
already  in  Roman  times,  when  it  was  an  entrepot 
for  the  trade  between  the  Roman  Empire  and  the 
east.  In  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth  century 
it  was  taken  by  the  Portuguese,  who  were  suc- 
ceeded by  the  Turks  in  1535.  From  the  seven- 
teenth century  until  the  British  occupation, 
Aden  was  under  the  rule  of  the  Sultan  of  Sena 
and  some  native  chiefs.  In  1830  it  was  captured 
by  the  British  as  a  punishment  for  the  maltreat- 
ment to  which  the  crew  of  a  shipwrecked  British 
vessel  had  been  subjected  by  the  natives  in  1837. 
Together  with  the  island  of  Perim,  Aden  con- 
stitutes a  dependency  of  the  Bombay  presidency, 
and  is  now  regarded  as  a  very  important  coaling 
station.  The  population  of  Aden,  which  was  at 
one  time  reduced  by  internal  disorder  to  less  than 
1000,  is  now  over  41,000,  and  the  import  trade 
amounted  to  over  $16,000,000  in  1898-99,  while 
the  value  of  the  exports  for  the  same  year  was 
about  $13,000,000.  The  chief  articles  of  export 
are  coffee,  gums,  hides,  skins,  piece  goods,  and 
tobacco.  The  administration  of  the  territory  is 
in  the  hands  of  a  political  Resident,  who  is  also 
the  military  commander.  An  extensive  territory 
in  Arabia,  officially  reckoned  a  British  protector* 
ate,  the  ^mali  coast,  and  the  island  of  Socotra 
are  administrated  from  Aden.  Consult:  F.  M. 
Hunter,  Aden  (London,  1877). 

ADENEZ,  &'d'  nA^  or  ADANS  LE  BOI, 
&'d&N^  le  rw&^  also  written  AoENtis  and  Adenet. 
A  trouvftre  of  the  thirteenth  century.  He  is 
first  known  as  a  minstrel  at  the  court  of  Henry 
III.,  Duke  of  Brabant,  whose  reign  ended  in  1261. 
Later  he  was  for  a  time  in  the  service  of  Guy  de 
Dampierre,  Count  of  Flanders;  then  he  went  to 
France,  where  he  was  in  high  favor  with  the 
royal  family.  His  surname  of  le  Roi  is  commonly 
understood  to  have  come  from  the  authority 
which  he  exercised  as  leader  of  the  minstrels  at 
the  Brabnntine  court.  His  greatest  work  is  the 
ClH>madH  (of  which  an  edition  was  published 
in  two  volumes,  Brussels,  1863-66),  a  long  poeti- 
cal romance.    Previously  he  had  written,  on  the 


ADEHEZ. 


115 


ADHESION. 


ioLsifK  of  chansons  de  gesies  from  the  epic  cycle 
of  Charlemagne,  Les  enfancea  Ogier  (edited 
Brussels,  1874),  and  Berte  aus  grans  pi4s 
(edited  Paris,  1832),  and  also  Bu^ves  de  Com- 
marchis  (edited  Bnissels,  1874). 

ADENIS-COLOICBEAXJ,  &'d'n«nc6'lON'by, 
JuuES  (1821 — ).  A  French  dramatist.  He  was 
born  at  Paris  and  was  educated  at  the  College 
Bourbon  (Lyc4e  Condorcet).  He  has  written  a 
large  number  of  comedies  and  vaudevilles,  as 
well  as  libretti  to  comic  operas  and  operettas. 
Among  his  independent  worlcs  are :  Philantkropie 
et  repentir  (Paris,  1855)  ;  Une  crise  de  manage 
(Paris,  1857}  ;  Les  chasseurs  et  la  laiti^e 
<  comic  opera  in  one  act,  music  by  Gevaert,  Op^ra 
Comique,  Paris,  1865) ;  Les  trois  souhaits 
(comic  opera  in  one  act,  music  by  Poise,  Op^ra 
Comique,  1873).  In  collaboration  with  Plouvier, 
Decourcelle,  Toyrte,  Granvallet,  Rostaing,  and 
others,  Adeni8*(3olombeau  has  produced  works, 
of  which  the  following  are  the  more  important: 
Madame  Pygmalion  (BoufTes  Parisiens,  1863)  ; 
La  jolie  fille  de  Perth  (opera  in  four  acts, 
music  by  Bizet,  Th^fttre  Lyrique,  1867)  ;  La 
czarine  (drama  in  five  acts,  Ambigu,  1868) ; 
La  f^e  des  Bruy^es  (Brussels,  1877) ;  Les  tem- 
pliers  (opera  in  five  acts,  Brussels,  1886). 

ADENITISy  Ad'^nl^tTs,  or  LYMPHADE- 
KinSy  llm'ffid-  (Gk.  ad^v,  adSn,  gland;  Lat. 
iympha,  water).  A  term  used  in  medicine  to 
indicate  inflammation  of  the  lymphatic  glands. 
Lymphangitis  is  inflammation  of  the  lymphatic 
vessels  which  lead  into  and  bind  together 
these  glands.  In  both  structures  the  inflamma- 
tion  may  assume  an  acute  or  chronic  form. 
Acute  lymphadenitis  and  lymphangitis  usually 
have  their  origin  from  a  wound  or  from  some 
form  of  sore  on  the  skin  or  a  mucous  membrane. 
The  inflammatory  process  extends  from  the  in- 
itial lesion  along  the  chain  of  lymphatic  vessels, 
and  its  presence  is  indicated  by  bright  red  lines 
over  the  course  of  the  lymphatic  vessels  leading 
from  the  wound,  and  by  heat,  swelling,  pain,  and 
tenderness  in  the  glands  with  which  these  ves- 
sels communicate.  If  infective  micro-organisms, 
bacteria,  are  present  at  the  time  of  the  injury, 
or  subsequently  find  their  way  into  the  tissues, 
a  suppurative  inflammation  results,  and  pus  is 
formed  in  and  around  the  affected  glands.  Where 
the  inflammation  is  severe,  or  the  infection  in- 
tense, such  general  symptoms  as  fever,  headache, 
vomiting,  and  prostration  are  apt  to  be  present. 
The  chronic  forms  of  adenitis  are  usually  due 
either  to  tuberculosis  or  syphilis.  In  addition 
to  the  local  enlargement  of  the  glands,  and  the 
softening  and  suppuration  that  often  follows, 
are  usually  found  the  general  symptoms  of  the 
two  diseases  named.  The  treatment  of  the  acute 
form  of  adenitis  consists  in  putting  the  affected 
part  at  perfect  rest,  using  such  bandages  and 
supports  as  mav  be  necessary,  the  application  of 
moist  antiseptic  dressings,  the  u^e  of  an  un- 
stimulating  diet  and  of  laxatives.  If  suppura- 
tion ensues,  an  incision  must  be  made  and  the 
pus  allowed  to  escape.  The  chronic  forms  of 
adenitis  are  met  by  tonic  and  constitutional 
treatment,  and  in  some  cases  by  removal  of  the 
affected  glands. 

ADBBBAUAV,  &'d§r-bt-jan^  or  ABEBBI- 
JAH.     See  Azerbaijan. 

ABBBKb,  a'dfir-nO'.  A  city  of  Sicily,  23  miles 
northwest  of  Catania,  southwest  of  Mount  Etna, 
and  1840  feet  above  the  sea  (Map:  Italy,  J  10). 


The  quadrangular  castle  erected  by  Roger  I.  is 
now  used  as  a  prison  and  the  interior  is  very 
dilapidated.  In  the  chapel  are  renmins  of  fres- 
coes showing  his  granddaughter,  Ad^asia,  in 
the  act  of  taking  the  veil.  The  convent  of  Santa 
Lucia  was  founded  by  him  in  1157.  The  ancient 
Hadranum  was  celebrated  for  the  temple  of 
Hadranos,  guarded  by  1000  dogs,  and  the  tourist 
can  see  fragments  of  it  outside  the  town  at  Cas- 
tellemi.  In  the  valley  of  the  Simeto,  a  couple  of 
miles  west  of  AdernO,  are  the  remains  of  a  Roman 
aqueduct.  Adernd  is  the  market  town  of  a  con- 
siderable agricultural  district.  Pop.,  1001, 
25,859. 

ABEBSBACH  BOCKS,  EMers-bfto.  A  group 
of  sandstone  rocks  near  the  village  of  Aders- 
bach,  in  Bohemia.  They  are  about  four  miles 
long  and  over  one  mile  in  width,  and  rise  in 
some  parts  over  200  feet.  They  are  remarkable 
for  their  fantastic  form,  which  has  been  produced 
by  the  rain,  frost,  and  other  atmospheric 
changes.  During  the  Thirty  Years'  War  the 
miserable  people  of  Bohemia  often  found  refuge 
in  this  locality. 

ADHEB/BAL.  Eldest  son  and  one  of  the  heirs 
of  Micipsa,  King  of  Numidia,  who  died  118  B.C. 
He  was  killed  by  order  of  Jugurtha  (q.v.)  six 
years  later. 

ADHESION  (Lat.  adhcBsio,  a  sticking  to, 
from  adf  to  -|-  hcsrere,  to  stick).  The  phenome- 
non observed  when  two  bodies  are  brought  into 
close  contact,  viz.  they  become  so  attached  to 
each  other  that  it  requires  force  to  separate  them. 
Adhesion  is  seen  in  the  case  of  two  solid  bodies 
when  their  polished  surfaces  are  pressed  to- 
gether, as  in  the  case  of  the  two  lead  disks 
shown  in  the  figure  at  A ;  but  it  is  more  evident 
between  solids  and  fiuids,  owing  to  their 
intimate  contact  (see  B  and  C).  We  have 
instances    of   this    in    the   film   of   water    ad- 


ADBsnoir. 

hering  to  a  piece  of  glass  which  is  dipped 
in  water  and  then  removed.  The  adhesion 
of  gases  to  the  surface  of  solids  plays  an  im- 
portant part  in  many  processes.  A  condensed 
atmosphere  of  gases  surrounds  every  body,-  and 
every  particle  of  a  powdered  or  porous  body 
has  its  own  surface  layer  of  gases.  This  prop- 
erty of  powdered  bodies  to  retain  gaseous  atmos- 
pheres in  a  state  of  great  condensation  is  called 
adsorption. 

ADHESION,  In  Patholoot.    The  term  re- 
fers   to    the    closing    of    a    wound.      If    the 


ADHESIOH.                               116  ADISONDACKB. 

granulating    aurfaces     {see    QHARmJiTIOR)     be  the  sect,  and   the  "gurus"    ("divine  revealerB") 

kept     in     contact,     the    opposite     granulations  who   immediatelj   succeeded   him,   its   materials 

may   fuse   together    and    the   wound    unite    by  having  been  collected  by  Arjun  {1634-1006),  the 

Becondary   adhesion.      Serous    membranes,    such  fourth  of  the»e  successors.    Many  of  its  passages 

as   the   pleura,   the   pericardium,   and   the   peri-  show  a   very   elevated   conception   of   the  deity, 

toneum,  when  inflamed  often  become   adherent,  and  deal  with  such  problems  as  predeatination, 

After   operation    involving   any   of   these   mem-  the  freedom  of  the  will,  etc.     Its  ethical  teach- 

branea  similar  inflammatory  adhesions  may  oc-  ings  are  notably  such  as  combat  the  sins  of  per- 

cur.     In  inJlanimatioDS  of  the  appendix  vermi-  sonal  selfishness  and  attachment  to  the  pleasures 

forniiB  ( Ke  Vbbmiforh  AfpehdiX)  and  the  pelvis  of  the  world.     A  second  grantb    ( book ) ,  known 

organs      (see     Utebus;     OvABtEs;      Fallopiak  as  the  "Grantb  of  the  Tenth  Reign,"  was  com- 

Tlibes),   more   or   less   extensive   adhesions   are  posed   in    1696   under   the   direction   of   Oovind 

apt  to  occur,  interfering  with  the  free  motion  of  Singh,   the   last  of   the   ten   gurus.     This   more 

the    organs    or    actually    drawing   them    out    of  especiallv  exalted  the  martial  virtues  and  Eulded 

proper   position.     Such  adhesions  are  often  the  further  legends  of  the  incarnation  of  Ood.     The 

cause  of  chronic   conditions   following  acute  in-  sacred  books  are  treated  wiUi  great  veneration 

flammations  of  these  parts.  in  the  assemblies  of  the  Sikhs. 

ADHEBIOir,  Is  Plants.    The  term  is  some-  A'DrPTO   AOZD,    O.H.[COOH,).     A   dibasic 

times  applied  to  an  apparent  coalescence  of  adja-  acid  similar  to  oxalic  acid.     It  is  oft«n  obtained 

cent  cycles,  e.g.,  stamens  which  seem  to  be  borne  in  the  oxidation  of  fata  by  nitric  acid, 

upon   the   tube   of   the   corolla   are   called    "ad-  ADIPOCEBE,  fldTpfl-sSr'  ( lit.  odeps.  fat + 

herent,"     The  term   is  now  passing  into  disuse,  cera,  wax).     A  peculiar  mixture  of  fatty  acids 

JU)'XAN'T'n'M.     See  Haidexhaib.  resulting    from    the    decomposition    of    animal 

AB'IAPH'OKISTB    (Gk.  a    a,  priv.  +   (ti«#-  '»<I'"''   buried   in   moist   places.     Human   bodies 

opot.   diaphoTOt,  different).     The  name  given  to  ^^^  J-eea   found,   on   disinterment,   reduced   to 

Melanohthon  and  those  who  agreed  with  him  in  '■'"s  *««■ 

submitting,  in  "things  indifferent,"  to  an  impe-  AI>TPOSE  SUB'STANCBS  (Lat.  adeps,  fat, 

rial  edict     When,  in  1B48,  Charles  V.  issued  an  grease).    Same  aa  fats  (q.v.). 

edict  called  the   Augsburg   Interim,   relating   to  AI>TPOSE   TIS'SUE.      A    peculiar   kind   of 

disputed   religious   doctrines,   Melanchthon   drew  animal    membrane    or    tissue    consisting    of   an 

up    the    Leipzig   Interim,    in    which    he   yielded  aggregation     of    minute    spherical    vesicles    of 

several  doctrinal  and  liturgical  points  aa  adiaph-  areolar  tissue  filled  with  fat  or  oil.     The  tissue 

ora,    "things    indifferent."      This    stirred    up    a  itself  is  organic  and  vital,  the  vesicles  secreting 

vigorous  controversy,  which  lasted  till  the  adop-  the  fatty  matter  from  the  capillary  blood-vessels 

tion  of  the  Formula  of  Concord    (1577),  which  with   which   they  are  surrounded;    the   secreted 

leys  down  the  law  on  the  matter.  product — the  fat — is  unorganized  and  devoid  of 

ADI '  BUSSHA,  li'de  -  bSSd'dfl  (Skr.,  the 
primordial  Buddha ) .  A  conception  of  the  su- 
preme deity  which  arose  aa  late  in  the  history 
of  Buddhism  as  about  the  tenth  century,  and 
prevails  especially  among  the  northern  Bud- 
dhists. He  is  the  originol  spiritual  source  out 
of  whom  through  successive  emanations  of  the 
five  Dhjani  Buddhns  (q.v.)  and  their  less  perfect 
Bodhisattvas  (q.v.)  came  all  the  visible  creation. 
The  similarity  of  this  view  of  the  universe  to 
some  of  the  theories  of  the  Gnostics  has  sug- 
gested that  it  may  have  been  indirectly  affected 
by  contact  with  Astern  Christianity.    See  Bui>- 

„    .                     .                          *''*'  vitality.     The  adipose  tissue  differs  from  cellular 

Itbajtiau  Alps  of  TV^'    (Map:   Italy,  F  2).     It  or    filamentous    tissue    in    having    the    vesicles 


B  formed  by  the  union  of  numerous  streamlets  closed,  so  that  the  fat  docs  not  e.tcapp  even  when 

near  Glarua,  where  it  is  called  Etsch,  a  name  fi„id.     a  dropsical  effusion  which  infiltrates  the 

by  which  the  entire  river  is  known  in  Germany,  filBmentous   tissues   does   not   affect   the  adipose 

It   flows   in   a   general   southern   direction   past  tissue.     There  is  a  considerable  layer  of  adipose 

Mcran     and     Trent,     entering     Italy     midway  tissue  immediately  under  the  skin;  also  around 

between    Eoveredo    and    Verona.     A    few    miles  the   large   vessels  and   nerves,   in   the  omentum 

above   the   latter   town   it   turns   southeast   and  and  mesentery,  around  the  kidneys,  joints,  etc 

enters    the   Adriatic   above   the   Po.     Its    total  See  Fats 

Iragth  i,  260  mile,   (or  IBO  oj.  •Wfk  »  »  n.vl-  ABTROK-DACKS.     Tb.  um.  ot  a  group  ot 

B.Wo.  .though  not  «.thoul  d.m™lly   ow.ug  lo  „„„„„,„  ,„  „o„i,„„„„  N.»  York.    The,  If. 

lU  .mft  current.    It  i8  cohu«l«i  j.th  Ih,  Po  „„(  „,  ,j,  „,,„  ,^,,  ^,  ,,,,  Appal.ehi.nJ,  .> 

b7  .  imall  uavgahle  eaml  ealled  Ad^gMlo     Ilj  ^^         „,rf  ,„  ,i,  <;,„„  MouulaSi.  o(  Vermont, 

net  ■mportanl  Ir.bularie.  are  the  E,i«ek  and  ,„5  eon.titute   quite   .n   independent   mountain 

;  V     ,"S         '        5*,'.'  ?               '""'  "J"'™-    The  name  Adirondaok  i.  applioi  In  a 

trade  of  Germany  and  Italj.  „'i^„  ^^^  to  that  area  embracing  abiut  12.500 

ASI'GRA2nH,  a'd^-grKnth    (primal  book),  equare  mites  eontnined  between  the  valley  of  Lake 

The  Bible  of  the  Sikh  religion   (ecc  SiKlls).     ft  Chemplain,  the  St.  Lawrence,  and  the  Mobawk 

consiBta  largely  of  poems  and  legends  originating  rivers.    The  countiea  of  Essex.  Clinton,  Prank- 

with  Nanak    (1409.1633  a.d.),  the  founder  of  lin,  St.  Lawrence,  Lewis,  Herkimer,  Hamilton, 


ADIB0HDACK8. 


117 


ADIB0NDACK8. 


and  Warren  lie  partly  or  wholly  within  its  lim- 
its. The  more  mountainous  portion  is  on  the 
east,  and  the  higher  peaks  are  chiefly  within  Es- 
sex County.  From  northeast  to  southwest  the 
individual  mountains  become  less  pronounced, 
and  the  surface  grades  into  a  plateau  of  1500  to 
2000  feet  altitude.  Two  peaks,  Mount  Marcy 
and  Mount  Mclntyre,  are  above  6000  feet  in  al- 
titude, while  several  others,  Whiteface,  Dix, 
Giant,  Haystack,  Skylight,  and  the  Gothics, 
closely  approximate  this  neight.  The  mountains 
are  grouped  in.  minor  ranges,  which  run  a  little 
east  of  north,  and  which  are  separated  by  deep, 
often  narrow,  valleys,  as  the  depressions  of  Lake 
George,  of  the  Schroon-Boquet  rivers,  of  the 
Boreas-Ausable,  and  other  rivers.  The  ranges 
approach  Lake  Champlain,  en  Schelon,  and  pro- 
duce on  the  lake  shore  a  succession  of  lx>ld, 
rocky  headlands,  and  open,  receding  bays  and 
valleys.  As  a  rule,  the  mountains  are  dome-shaped 
in  their  outlines;  but  some  sharp  peaks,  like 
Whiteface,  exist.  Precipitous  escarpments  over 
500  feet  high  are  common.  Thus  picturesque 
passes  occur  which  are  a  delight  to  travelers. 
The  best  known  are  Wilmington  Notch,  Indian 
Pass,  and  Avalanche  Pass.  Deer's  Leap  and 
Roger's  Rock  on  Lake  George  are  similar. 

Drainage.  The  mountains  constitute  the 
water-shed  between  the  Hudson  and  the  St.  Law- 
rence drainage  systems  but  the  actual  divide  is 
a  very  irregular  line  that  is  due  to  the  glacial 
drift.  Thus  Lake  Champlain  and  Lake  George 
rise  far  to  the  south  and  discharge  into  the  St. 
T^wrence;  small  ridges  of  drift  alone  separate 
them  from  the  Hudson,  which  rises  a  hundred 
miles  to  the  northwest  of  the  heads  of  their 
basins,  and  flows  around  their  southern  ends. 
In  the  heart  of  the  mountains  rocky  divides  of 
older  date  separate  the  streams.  The  main  tribu- 
taries of  the  Hudson  are  the  Sacondaga,  Schroon, 
Boreas,  and  Indian  Rivers.  The  Mohawk  receives 
East  and  West  Canada  creeks.  The  Black  River 
carries  to  Lake  Ontario  the  contributions  of  the 
Mooee^  Beaver,  and  several  minor  streams.  The 
Indian,  Oswegatchie,  Grass,  Raoquette,  St.  Regis, 
Salmon,  and  Chateaugay  flow  into  the  St.  Law- 
rence. The  Chazy,  Saranac,  Ausable,  and  Boquet 
discharge  into  Lake  Champlain.  ^n  the  eastern 
portion  all  these  streams  follow  the  northeast- 
southwest  structural  lines  until  they  can  break 
across  the  ridges  to  the  great  lines  of  drainage. 

Lakes.  The  region  has  many  lakes.  The 
largest  are  lakes  Champlain  and  George,  but 
hundreds  of  smaller  ones  add  an  indescribable 
charm  to  the  scenery.  The  greater  number  are